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ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 





THE "GILDERT SCOTT" ALTAR 



St. Peter's, Lancaster 

A HISTORY 



BY 

RICHARD NEWMAN BILLINGTON 

Canon of Liverpool, V.F., and Rector of St. Pbtbs's 
AND 

JOHN BROWNBILL, M.A. 

Formerly Scholar of St. John's College, Camrrii».i 



WITH ILLUSTRATIONS, PORTRAITS, ANIJ PLAN 



SANDS & CO. 

LONDON AND EDINBURGH 
1910 



3mprimatut 

Thomas Efus Liverpo! 
23 Nov. 1909. 



TO THE READER 

St. Peter's Church was consecrated and opened in 
October 1859, and with due solemnity the jubilee wis 
celebrated on October 3, 1909. Though the building 
is comparatively new, the cause it represents is an 
ancient and venerable one, the cause of Catholic Chris- 
tianity in Lancaster ; and this short record has been 
compiled and published in order that, surveying the 
chequered story of the p.ist, the faithful may praise God 
with understanding for what has been accomplished, and 
go forward with courage through times of difficulty still 
to come. 

The attempt has been to write a local history in the 
strict sense. Such essays, when careful and trustworthy, 
are always valuable ; and that the present one may be 
so regarded, the early chapters have been fully anno- 
tated. It is hoped also that as Lancaster still awaits 
an historian who shall recount its diversified annals with 
adequate knowledge and sense of proportion, the present 
work, setting forth one aspect of its life, will be accept- 
able to many who, though not worshipping with us, take 
a keen interest in the place in which they dwell. 

A local history, however, cannot be absolutely local, 
if it is to be history at all. St. Mary's Priory affords an 
illustration ; it owed its peculiar foundation to the fact 



vi TO THE READER 

that the then lord of Lancaster belonged to a powerful 
Norman family, and its dissolution was due not to any 
demerits of its own, but to the wars between England 
and France. The connection of general with local his- 
tory comes out again in the story of the martyrs, wherein 
it has been deemed advisable to dwell somewhat on 
the means used by Elizabeth and her successors to stifle 
and destroy the ancient religion of the country and nurse 
the nascent Protestantism into vigorous maturity. 

It is obvious, on the other hand, that local events illus- 
trate the general tendency. In the apparently painless 
extinction of Catholic worship in public, in the hidden 
life of the faithful remnant, and in their quiet emergence 
into the light of the Second Spring in Lancaster, we 
seem to have a representation of the lot of Catholics 
throughout the country. There was a faithful remnant. 
The congregation of St. Peter's traces its origin, through 
the chapels in Dalton Square and Mason Street, to little 
assemblies of men who in evil days heard mass in secret 
as opportunity served, and who time after time witnessed 
the terrible penalties inflicted for this proscribed worship 
on the hill at the foot of which stands the present church. 
And those who then risked forfeiture and death for their 
religion were no colony of strangers, but the descendants 
and representatives of the priests and people who had 
for centuries worshipped in the same way in our Lady's 
Church by the Castle until Sovereign and Parliament 
established other rites. 

In some respects the Lancaster congregation is 
indigenous to an extent uncommon to Catholicism in 
England, for the influx from Ireland during the nine- 



TO THE READER vii 

tcenth century has affected it but little. In accordance 
with this is the fact that St. Peter's Church was built 
I ij local contributions. There is thus afforded a favourable 
subject for a local history. As regards the past the same 
might lie said of the county also. Till the rise of its 
mining and manufacturing industries in the seventeenth 
and eighteenth centuries, Lancashire was comparatively 
isolated from the rest of England. Before the days of 
" shires " it was on the wrong side of the mountain and 
forest belt, including Elmet, which extended north from 
the Peak to the Solway. Neither Roman legionary nor 
Roman saint affected " Lancashire " much. They went 
through by circuitous routes elsewhere. When the east 
coast was coruscating with saints the swampy north-west 
sat in darkness. 

The aloofness and barrenness of the country had 
thus a retarding effect on its religious life. Lancashire 
never bred a canonised saint, even in the days when 
canonisation was cheaper and more expeditious than 
now. When the Normans had come and the church- 
men's palmy days of Henry III., not yet had Benedict 
chosen any Lancashire mountain crest, if we except the 
Castle Hill at Lancaster; nor had' Bernard, save on the 
extreme borders of the county, found his sheltered vale ; 
while as to the bustling friar, there was scarce a town 
to give him scope. 1 And when the popular Premon- 
stratensian was busy painting Yorkshire and Lincoln- 
shire and Norfolk white, he set a tardy and timid foot on 
Lancashire soil. Only two greater abbeys could the 

, ' Bernardus valles, montes Benedictus amabat, 
Oppida Franciscus. . . . 



viii TO THE READER 

county yield up at the surrender in 1537-9: Whalley 
fell under attainder. Half-a-dozen priories and cells, 
all there were, had of course been suppressed. No 
" ghosts of blessings bide" within the walls of a Lanca- 
shire medieval cathedral. 

Hence parochial arrangements were less disturbed 
than elsewhere by the destruction of the religious 
houses. At Lancaster, although the rectory was ap- 
propriated to a distant monastery, the vicar had the 
tithes of several townships and other revenues, and 
the suppression of Syon Abbey left unchanged the 
old provision for church services and pastoral care. 
The confiscation of the chantry estates made a more 
serious difference, for it was accompanied by a change 
of doctrine, rendering it illegal for private devotion to 
repair the losses or maintain priests to say mass for 
themselves or the departed. 

After a brief revival of the old, the new system 
became permanent under Elizabeth. The isolation of 
Lancashire makes it difficult to learn what really 
happened in the first few years of her reign. She 
was determined to dictate the religion of her subjects ; 
she knew she could rely on the zealous support of 
the young and energetic Protestant party, while she 
believed that Catholics were loyal enough not to 
rebel. Lancashire, where there were scarcely any 
Protestants, was too unimportant, from her point of 
view, to require immediate notice ; and it was here 
that some sort of public and organised opposition to 
the new religious system first appears. Such as it 
was, it was largely due to the efforts of William Allen, 



TO THE READER ix 

one of the few great statesmen the county has 
produced. Locally his efforts yielded fruit in the 
large proportion which Catholics have continued to 

bear to the general population ; while in his ref 
abroad he founded greater undertakings, and by means 
of the Douay seminary, now represented by Ushaw 
.md St. Edmund's, and the English College at Rome, 
he continues to furnish England with zealous priests, 
so that some may be " faithful found among the 
faithless " to the end of all things. 

The martyrs who suffered at Lancaster were in many 
cases trained at his college of Douay. Their stories, 
here recorded, show very plainly why they suffered ; the 
pretence might be politics, but the true cause was 

;ion. Neither side had any illusions as to what 
had been the old religion of Lancaster and England 
generally ; the martyrs wished to keep it alive, their 
persecutors wished to extinguish it. Protestants who 
witnessed the butchery of that worthy son of St. Ignatius, 
Edmund Arrowsmith, owned that " it was a barbarous 
act to use men so for their religion " ; and it is pleasing 
to record that in some instances the officials charged 
with carrying the penal statutes into execution found 
difficulty in obtaining assistance in Lancaster itself. 

One thing is clear throughout our story : that any one 
who entered St. Mary's before the change of religion 
would find much ado about the celebration of mass on 
many altars, indulgences, prayers for the dead, Peter's 
Pence, the intercession of the saints, lustrations, lights, 
and papal collections ; and that any one who comes to 
the town now — say, for instance, the Abbess of Syon, 



x TO THE READER 

the lineal successor of the former patron of St. Mary's — 
will find the concern about these things not at her 
old church, but at St. Peter's ; and that concern is the 
result of no antiquarian or aesthetic revival, but the 
survival of the traditional faith held formerly at St. 
Mary's and now at St. Peter's. Times have changed 
much : not so much as men and places. 

The thanks of the authors are due to the Bishop of 
Newport for permission to reproduce his address at the 
Jubilee Celebration ; to Mr. William Farrer of Hall 
Garth, for allowing access to his extensive collection of 
Lancashire documents ; to Mr. Joseph Gillow, for his 
accounts of Dolphinlee and the " Catholic Virgins," and 
for various notes and corrections ; to the Rev. Edwin 
Bonney of Ushaw, the Rev. R. O. Bilsborrow, Mr. 
W. Hewitson, and numerous friends in Lancaster, who 
have given information and afforded facilities for re- 
search with ready courtesy. 

Lancaster, November 18, 1909. 



CONTENTS 



r\>.i 

I. CATHOLIC LANCASTER ■ 

I '..it I y Remains — Priory— Vicarage — Min< >r Religious 
Foundations — the Overthrow 



II. THE MARTYRS 23 

The Elizabethan Revolution — The first executions at 
Lancaster — The fifteen Martyrs 



55 



III. THE DARK AGE 

Convicted Recusants — The Civil War time — Recusants 
of the Restoration — James II. — The Revolution — 
The Jacobite Invasions — Aldcliffe, Dolphinlee, and 
other neighbouring places 

IV. DAWN 7 8 

Mass again said in Lancaster — Mason Street Chapel — 
Ualton Square Chapel — The priests who served them 
— Catholic Emancipation — " Papal Aggression " 

V. THE PRESENT CHURCH 103 

Its building and opening — Its gradual enrichment — 
Altar — Chancel — Organ — Chantries — Baptistery — 
Windows — Bells — Priests' I louse 

VI. THE CLERGY 153 



XII 



CONTENTS 



VII. THE JUBILEE . 

Bishop Hedlcy's Sermon 



PACE 
163 



\ III. MISCELLANEA 182 

The Schools — Convent, Nazareth House and Sisters of 
St. Catherine — The Registers — New parishes 



APPENDICES 

I. The Vicar of Lancaster's Expenses in 1440 
II. John Gardiner's Will 

III. Aldcliffe, Dolphinlee, and Park Hall 

IV. Subscribers to Dalton Square Chapel 
V. Licence for Dalton Square Chapel 

VI. Presents to Chapel and House 
VII. The First Register Book 
VIII. The Commendations, 1799 
IX. List of Communicants, 1799 
X. List of Communicants, 1845 
XL Subscribers to St. Peter's 
XII. The Tenders 

XIII. The Chantries 

XIV. A Calendar 
XV. An Inventory 

XVI. Some Statistics 
XVII. Visitation Lists, 1554 and 1562 

INDEX 



197 
199 
203 
213 
216 
217 
217 

237 
240 

243 
248 

251 
252 

=53 
=57 
261 
262 

265 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



THE "GILBERT SCOTT" ALTAR . . . frontispiece 

O. BlLSBOK 

DR. HAWARDEN To face page 68 

From an e SI. Peter's 

DOLPHINLEE „ „ 7- 

From a phot graph by the Rk.v. k. O. Bilsbork. v. 

DALTON ' ARE CHAPEL AND PRIESTS' 

HOUS1 „8 4 

From an , ■ '• . WATTS 

DR. JOHN RIGBY 90 

: mezzotint. Reproduced by the Rembrandt photo- 
■t re process 

BISHOP GEORGE BROUN „ 94 

1 lithograph. Reproduced by the Rembrandt photo- 
ire process 

ST. PETERS CHURCH, FROM THE SOUTH- 
WEST „ ,, 102 

From an original drawing by CHARLES GASCOYNE. 
Reproduced by the Rembrandt photogravure process 

ST. PETER'S CHURCH, INTERIOR . „ „ 112 

ph by the Rev. R. O. Bil.*>borR"\v 

ST. PETER'S CHURCH, FROM THE NORTH- 

Wl ........,,„ 146 

From an original drawing by Charles GASCOYNE. 
Reproduced by the Rembrandt photogravure process 

Kiii 



xiv LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

PROVOST WILLIAM WALKER . . . To face page 156 

From a photograph by Davis, Lancaster. Reproduced 
by the Rembrandt photogravure process 

CANON BILLINGTON 158 

From a photograph by MILTON, Lancaster. Reproduced 
by the Rembrandt photogravure process 



GROUND PLAN OF CHURCH, HOUSE, CONVENT 
SCHOOLS, AND CEMETERY, Showing the Changes 
since 1859 At end 






ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 

i 

CATHOLIC LANCASTER 

The evidences of the existence and influence of Chris- 
tianity in this island during the Roman occupation, 
though decisive, are disappointingly scanty in general ; 
in Lancaster they do not exist at all. The remains 
which have been discovered here bear witness to pagan- 
ism ; but no Christian emblems and inscriptions are 
known. It is just possible that the teachers of our faith 
had not penetrated so far north before Lancaster was 
abandoned by the Roman soldiers. 

Nor is there any clear light on the period following 
that abandonment up to the English conquest, that is, 
during the two centuries, roughly from a.d. 400 to 600, 
during which the British were their own masters. Even 
conjecture has nothing on which to base conclusions, 
except that the various memorials of St. Patrick in this 
district lead naturally to a supposition that Irish mission- 
aries at least, if not the saint himself, carried on the 
work of evangelisation during that period. They might 
come from Ireland directly, or from south-western Scot- 
land. The curious fragment of St. Patrick's Chapel at 

A 



2 ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 

Heysham is one of these tokens, with its tradition of his 
shipwreck there. 1 His well at Hest Bank is also con- 
nected by local traditions with the saint himself. " In 
his travels," one tale runs, "St. Patrick was passing 
through Slyne and asked a woman for a cup of water, 
and was refused ; whereupon the saint told her that 
wherever he struck the ground with his staff a spring 
of water would come out." 5 In Lancaster itself, at 
Bowerham, was another St. Patrick's Well, 3 but no 
leeend is recorded about it. In the fifteenth and sixteenth 
centuries are notices of St. Patrick's lane 4 in the town, 
of his lands, and of his chapel in the parish church. 5 
St. Kentigern, though he has been adopted as a patron 
of the diocese, is not certainly known to have laboured 
in England south of the Carlisle district, but some think 
that he passed through Lancaster on his way to North 
Wales. 6 

Another period of four hundred years, from the 
English to the Norman conquest, went by in silence 
so far as written history is concerned ; but the fragments 
of sculptured crosses found around the parish church, 
and the existence of that church itself, show that the 
Christian religion was professed by the people for at 
least a large part of the time. That a church existed 
before 1066 is implied by the name of Kirk Lancaster, 
one of the manors or hamlets appertaining to the lord- 
ship of Halton ; somewhat later, probably then also, it 
was called St. Mary's. One of the earliest pre-Norman 
crosses 7 bears part of an inscription thus : ►£■ Orate 
i'RO anima Hard. . . . ; while another in runic letters 
invites us to " pray for Cunibalth Cuthbert's son." Thus 



CATHOLIC LANCAS1 ER » 3 

among the earliest evidences of our forefathers' religion 
are proofs of that devotion to Our Lady and can: for 
the souls of the departed which continue to be leading 
characteristics of Catholicism. 



The Priory 

After William the Conqueror had obtained the 
English crown he granted to Roger of Poitou, one of 

his Norman comrades, wide lands in England, Lancaster 
being included. The site must have attracted its new 
lord, for he built his castle there, and in 1094 bestowed 
the church of St. Mary on the LU'eat Abbey of Sees in 
Normandy. 8 Roger, turbulent as he appears to have 
been, had due care for religion in this gift, for the abbey 
was to give as well as to receive. Thus it came about 
that a priory or dependent cell was founded at Lancaster, 
and a few monks were sent over to maintain the worship 
of God with due solemnity, and to minister to the people 
in spiritual things, as well as to take care of the lands 
and revenues of the parent house. Only in virtue of 
vows of monastic obedience is it likely that highly 
trained ecclesiastics could have been induced to settle 
in so wild and distant a country as Lonsdale must have 
appeared to Normans. 

At that time there was no county called Lancashire, 
and the northern part of our present county was only 
an outlying part of Yorkshire. After the county had 
been separately organised in civil respects, the ecclesi- 
astical limits preserved the old arrangements, and thus 
Lancaster remained in the great diocese of York until 



4 ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 

the changes made by Henry VIII. It was in the arch- 
deaconry of Richmond, which had in several important 
respects a peculiar jurisdiction encroaching on the rights 
of the archbishop ; for example, the archdeacon instituted 
rectors and vicars to their benefices, and regulated or 
ordained the provision of a vicarage when a rectory was 
appropriated to a monastic house, as actually happened 
at Lancaster. In 1541 Henry VIII. created a new 
diocese with Chester as the bishop's see, and the whole 
archdeaconry of Richmond was included in it, the arch- 
deacon's office being assigned to the bishop, so that for 
the future there could be no conflict between bishop and 
archdeacon. 

Little is known of the religious influence of the old 
priory. Professor Tait remarks that its external history 
"is little more than a record of disputes and litigation, 
which were not infrequently carried up to the pope." 9 
The monks served the church themselves, and therefore 
secured a discharge from the necessity of appointing a 
vicar. 10 The discharge was confirmed in 1282, because 
of the abundant hospitality they exercised in a somewhat 
barren country. 11 Church building went on, and it is 
probable that the school was due to them ; for boys 
would be required for chanting, and the old school- 
house, just under the church tower, was on the edge 
of the church land. 12 

In 1324-25 the parish was served by a prior, five 
monks, and two chaplains ; half a quarter of peas and 
barley was distributed weekly among the poor people 
under the name of " ancient alms." 13 After 1 294, on the 
outbreak of any war with France, the priory, by one of 



CATHOLIC LANCASTER 5 

those acts of royal usurpation to which churchmen had 
perforce to submit, was very frequently in the king's 
hands on account of its being "alien" and contributing 
to the revenues of a Norman abbey liable to the exac- 
tions of the French king. The royal officers who were 
placed in charge at those times would be obliged to allow 
what was sufficient for the maintenance of the church and 
its dependent chapels — Overton, Caton, Gressingham, 
Stalmine, and possibly Wyresdale ; but the procedure 
must have been so irksome and injurious that the final 
confiscation of this and other "alien" priories in 14 14 
was probably the smaller of two evils. The Lancastrian 
kings were not church robbers, and this priory and all 
its possessions were granted to the Bridgettine house at 
Islcworth, founded by Henry V. in 14 15 under the title 
of St. Saviour and SS. Mary the Virgin and Bridget of 
Syon, more usually called Syon Abbey." 

The Vicarage 

The donation did not take full effect until the death 
of the last prior, Giles Lovel, about 1429. Then a 
vicarage was ordained by the Archdeacon of Richmond, 
so that the parish might not suffer through the grant of 
the rectory to Syon. Each vicar was to be appointed by 
the Abbess of Syon, but the tithes of certain townships, 
the offerings made at the three principal feasts — viz. 
Christmas, Easter, and the Assumption — with some 
other revenues, were appropriated to his maintenance. 
He was to be responsible for the church and its services, 
and to occupy and keep in repair the manse, formerly 



6 ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 

the priory, being bound to reside himself and provide 
six chaplains, three of them for Lancaster and one each 
for the outlying chapels of Gressingham, Caton, and Stal- 
mine. A sacrist or clerk would also be required. A 
suitable chamber and stable were to be reserved for the 
officers of the abbess, in case they might find it necessary 
to visit the town. 15 

At that time, by ancient custom, there were sung daily 
at the parish church matins and two masses — one of 
St. Mary and one of the day ; there was also an early 
mass said between five and six o'clock. On Sundays 
and other feasts high mass was sung. A lamp was kept 
burning without intermission. Six candles were lighted 
at matins, mass, and vespers, and six torches also at the 
elevation of the Body of Christ at the high altar. 16 The 
church books included a missal, two antiphonaries, and a 
gradual. 

One of the earliest results of the transfer to Syon 
Abbey seems to have been the rebuilding of the church, 
for the style of its architecture points to the middle of 
the fifteenth century. 

Not many years after the vicarage was ordained, 
viz. in 1440, a further glimpse of the conditions existing 
is afforded by a complaint from the vicar that his income 
of some £70 or ,£So was utterly inadequate to dis- 
charge the necessary expenses. In judging of the 
matter it must be borne in mind that the purchasing 
value of money was then much greater than it is now, 
so that it is usual to multiply by twelve to obtain the 
present-day equivalents. The vicar's income was there- 
fore worth .£900 in modern money ; and of course the 



CATHOLIC LANCASTER 7 

same multiplier mu it b I in the case of his expenses. 

The chaplains and sacrist, he said, required /50 a 

year; 17 the repairs of chancel, house, and books, / 
and hospitality when lie resided, about ^60. Three 
horses had to be kept ready in the stable, so that the 
chaplains might ride off at any time to minister the 
sacraments in different parts of the wide parish ; it often 
happened that all three were needed on the same day. 
The vicar paid 26s. for Peter's pence, and 7s. 2d. to the 
collector for the Apostolic S< e 

Perhaps in consequence of this representation the 
vicars were excused from residence. Their names, so 
far as they are known, 19 were : — 

Richard Chester, D.D., 143 1 to 1440 or later. 

Richard Burton, occurs 1466 to 1484. 

William Green, D.D., occurs 1525 to 1540. " a 

Francis Mallet, D.D., occurs 1554 to 1562. 

After the suppression of Syon Abbey 21 by Henry 
VIII. in 1539, the right of presenting the vicars was 
assumed by the crown and then sold. Mary restored 
the abbey, but does not appear to have given Lancaster 
church back to it. 22 When the abbey was again sup- 
pressed by Elizabeth at her accession, the nuns went 
abroad, and have maintained their conventual life from 
that time to the present, the house being now established 
at Chudleiidi in Devon. 



■& 



Orni'R Religious Foundations 

In addition to the vicar, resident or non-resident, 
and the chaplains, probably three in number, serving 



S ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 

the parish church, the endowed staff included some 
chantry priests. 23 Other priests would be paid by 
private persons as their chaplains, or live by casual 
offerings for occasional masses, &c. In 1546 it was 
found that the Corporation maintained two chaplains, 
one out of Gardiner's grammar-school endowment, and 
another out of an estate called St. Patrick's lands, 
which had been left for charitable uses. John Gardiner, 
a wealthy townsman, bearing a name which has always 
been common in the district, had in 1469 obtained a 
lease of the Abbess of Syon's mill in Bulk at a small 
rent, intending to give the profits to a chaplain who 
should also teach school. Apparently he had no very 
near relatives, and his will of 1472 is interesting as 
showing how a charitable Catholic of that time dis- 
posed of his fortune — to provide a chaplain to celebrate 
for his own soul and those of others, to endow a 
school and an almshouse. 24 He desired to be buried 
" near the altar of St. Thomas of Canterbury in the 
south side" — perhaps the south side of the church — 
and his chaplain was to celebrate there ; but it is note- 
worthy that the altar was later called St. Mary's, and 
the chaplain was described as " the Lady Priest and 
schoolmaster." 25 

The other chaplain maintained by the Corporation 
probably officiated in St. Patrick's chapel, and said the 
Jesus Mass, 26 which would be the early morning one 
mentioned above as customary in 1430. The provision 
made for the chaplain is indicated in a deed of 1504, by 
which the mayor and Corporation granted the lands 
and meadow pertaining to Herber House in Lancaster 



CATHOLIC LANCASTER 9 

to a certain John Standish, on conditions including the 
following : — 

It is covenanted and agreed on betwixt the said parties 
lli.it the said John shrill within the said term of twenty years 
bestow one hook called a missal, a chalice of silver parcels 
pit, complete vestment and altar cloths [to the value ofj 
153s. 4cl. by the oversight and discretion of the said mayor, 
bailiffs and twelve head burgesses of the said town for the 
time being. Which book, chalice, vestments and altar cloths 
shall remain in the priest's keeping to the use of St. Patrick's 
Chapel as long as he shall serve in the said chapel, and at his 
departing from the said service he to redeliver all the said stuff 
to the mayor and officers of the said town of Lancaster to the 
use of the said service for ever. And the said John granteth 
and promitteth by this writing that he shall find all such 
tilings necessary as to the said chapel and priest belongeth as 
is above rehearsed upon his own proper costs unto sucli time 
as he shall bestow the said 153s. 4d. in form aforesaid. 27 

Gardiner's other benefaction was an almshouse near 
the east end of the church, in the place still called 
Gardyner's Chantry. There was a dwelling-house with a 
chapel of St. Mary; its priest was to celebrate daily, and 
its four bedesmen to pray for the souls of the founder 
and his kin. The chapel was provided with chalice, two 
sets of vestments, missal, and bell. The endowment 
consisted of the manor of Bailrigg, 2S an estate largely or 
altogether belonging to the Abbey of Cockersand. After 
the destruction of the abbey and the charity by Henry 
VIII. and Edward VI., Bailrigg became divided among 
a number of small holders, and ceases to be of any 
interest until recent years, when the late Sir Thomas 
Storey made it his seat. 29 

Two lights were maintained in the church, those of 



io ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 

St. Mary and St. Nicholas. Land to keep the former 
burning was given in 1204 ; 30 the latter is mentioned in 
the will of an old chantry priest proved as late as 1564. 31 
Local devotion to St. Nicholas may have been ancient, 
for in 1292 Pope Nicholas IV. granted an indulgence 
to those who should visit the parish church on the 
Nativity, Annunciation, Purification, and Assumption of 
St. Mary, the feasts of St. Nicholas and the dedication 
feast. 32 St. Nicholas lane or street occurs in 145 i; s3 
the reason for the name is unknown. 

The record of the church goods in 1552 has not been 
preserved, though there is a list for Gressingham. 34 

Two guilds are known. One of them was the Jesus 
Guild at the parish church, to which Lord Mounteagle of 
Hornby Castle left 40s. in 1523. Another was that of 
the Holy Trinity and St. Leonard in St. Leonardgate. 
This was founded in or before 1377, to provide two 
chaplains to celebrate in the town for the welfare 
of the realm and for all the deceased brothers and 
sisters of the guild. The members met four times a 
year, and paid a subscription of 13d. ; all were expected 
to attend the requiem mass for a deceased brother or 
sister, and to say sixty Paters and sixty Aves for the 
soul. 35 

A chantry "called St. Loyes chapel" had land in 
Deep Carr, 86 but nothing further is known of it ; it may 
have been one of those already mentioned. The land 
was afterwards called Usher's Meadow, because the 
Corporation purchased it and applied the rent to pay the 
usher at the grammar-school. Dallas Road and Carr 
Lane mark its position. The well-known and formerly 



I VTHOLIC LANCASTER 11 

important " Lousie Beck" may possibly derive its 
name from the chantry. The beck took its rise in 
what is known as Wingate Saul's field, now partly 
covered by cottages; its course was to the east under 
the railway, into Usher's Meadow, where it took a 
westerly direction, passing again under the railway by 
Carr House Lane. Its course from Carr House Farm 
to the Lune is unmistakable. 87 

A house of Dominican or Black Friars stood on the 
ground of which Dalton Square is the centre. It was 
founded about 1260, but scarcely anything is recorded 
of its history or work. as There must have been some 
friars there, for the house is mentioned in wills down 
to the sixteenth century ; thus Brian Tunstallof Thurland 
Castle, who fell at Flodden in 15 13, left 40s. to the 
friars of Lancaster for a hundred masses for his soul and 
all Christian souls. 39 In addition there was a chantry 
founded in their church by one of the Lawrences of 
Ashton. 40 After the friars had been dispersed in or 
about 1539. and the place destroyed, the chantry priest 
continued "at his pleasure" to celebrate mass in other 
places. 41 

A house of Franciscan or Grey Friars is recorded 
in a list of houses of the order ; the one at Lancaster 
was, like those at Preston and Chester, included in the 
Worcester Custody. 4 - Nothing whatever is known of 
it apart from this, so that it probably failed to survive 
very long. 

The hospital of St. Leonard in Bulk, just at the end 
of St. Leonardgate, was founded about 1190 by King 
John while still Count of Mortain. It had a chaplain 



i2 ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 

and nine poor men, of whom three were to be lepers. 
In 1356 the Duke of Lancaster gave it to the nuns of 
Seaton in Cumberland, who were to maintain a chaplain 
at the priory and continue the usual alms. At an inquiry 
made in 1531 the townsmen alleged that no alms had 
been done for sixty years, and that the buildings had 
fallen into ruin. 43 

The abbeys of Furness and Cockersand and the 
priories of Cartmel and Conishead held lands and bur- 
gages in the town, as also did the knights of St. John 
of Jerusalem; but none of these societies, so far as is 
known, had any local chapel or chaplain, though there 
may have been a domestic chapel at the Furness Abbey 
grange at Beaumont in Skerton. 

Outside the town, the chapels of ease served by the 
clergy of the parish church appear to have been Overton 
and Wyresdale. The former, as shown by the existing 
building, was of ancient date. A document of 15 10 
states that the people desired to have a priest resident 
among them, for their chapelry was practically an island, 
so that their friends oftentimes died without the rites of 
the church ; they hoped that the Abbess of Syon and the 
vicar would agree to it, promising to contribute to the 
additional expenses. 44 A chaplain occurs at Wyresdale 
in the latter part of the fourteenth century, when John of 
Gaunt ordered £4. a year to be paid to him out of the 
Duchy revenues. 45 

A chapel at Middleton was served by the canons 
of Cockersand from 1337 down to the destruc- 
tion of their house two hundred years later. 46 It 
was probably secularised at that time, as nothing 



CATHOLIC LANCASTER 13 

further is known of it, though the building existed in 

A chapel of St. Cuthbert at Hcaton was the subject 
of a dispute between the lord of the manor and the prior 
of Lancaster before 1290. It may have been a hermitage, 
for Brother William the Hermit is named, 48 and may 
therefore have fallen into ruin simply for lack of a tenant ; 
nothing further is known of it. There was a domestic 
chapel at Heaton Hall in 13S7.' 19 

Although some of the religious foundations named 
may have died out or become absorbed in later ones, it 
is obvious that just before the Reformation the town, 
then of but small extent, 50 was well provided with priests, 
churches, and charities. Even after the destruction of 
the chantries, guilds, and almshouses, and the revolu- 
tionary changes in religion made by Edward VI., the list 
provided for the Bishop of Chester's visitation in 1 554 61 
shows a nominal staff of the vicar and eight others at 
Lancaster. Stalmine, Overton, and Wyresdale would 
be included, but the priests at Gressingham and Caton 
were additional. 

The Overthrow 

It is to be regretted that but little evidence is forth- 
coming to show what was the popular feeling in the town 
concerning the changes in doctrine and practice during 
the Reformation, and also how far those changes were 
effective in the parish church and its chapels. The 
townsmen in 1536 clearly sympathised with the Pilgrimage 
of Grace/* and a significant warning was given them 



i 4 ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 

early in the following year, when John Paslew, the 
venerable Abbot of Whalley, and a Sawley monk were 
executed at Lancaster for participation in that movement. 
William Trafford, Abbot of Sawley, soon afterwards 
suffered at the same place for the same cause. Two 
of the Furness monks were imprisoned in the castle. 63 
Soon afterwards, according to Foxe, there was a local 
Protestant of sufficient importance to be chosen as 
mayor. 54 

While imprisoned in the castle in the latter half of 
1554, the Protestant minister George Marsh was allowed 
great liberty, and the schoolmaster and others visited 
him ; but this may have been from curiosity rather than 
from sympathy with the teaching for which he was im- 
prisoned. 55 Marsh's narrative, which is obviously trust- 
worthy, affords evidence that Bishop Cotes, at his 
visitation in the year named, fully restored the ancient 
rites ; mass and matins were sung once more, the rood 
was again set up in the church, and the images replaced 
in their niches ; holy water was sprinkled, and solemn 
processions were made, and the children received con- 
firmation. 56 It is unlikely that Dr. Mallet, then vicar, 
ever resided in Lancaster, but his doctrinal standpoint 
is made quite clear from his nomination by Queen Mary 
to the bishopric of Salisbury in 1558 — a nomination at 
once rejected by Elizabeth on her accession. 

The new statutory services would no doubt be intro- 
duced in 1559, when mass was proscribed and the rood 
and images were taken down again. The vicar was 
one of those who conformed outwardly, 57 and though re- 
signing some of his benefices, he retained the deanery of 



CATHOLIC LANCASTER 15 

Lincoln till his death in 1570. 69 He resigned Lancaster, 
or perhaps forfeited it for non-residence, and in 1560 a 
new vicar took possession. Four years previously 1 )r. 
Mallet, who made no appearance, and five others are 
named in the Bishop of Chester's visitation list, two fresh 
names being interlined; and there were others at Caton 
and Gressingham. Not very long afterwards, however, 
the normal staff of ministers is found to be the vicar 
and the chaplains of Gressingham, Stalmine, and Over 
Wyresdale, so that under the new system the parish 
church and its dependent chapels were as poorly served 
in Lancaster as elsewhere in the county. 59 

Of Mallet's immediate successors nothing is known 
beyond their names, so that the important twenty-five 
years 1559- 1583, during which the new religion became 
established by custom as well as by law, must be passed 
over in silence. What local effect was produced by the 
papal condemnation of conformity to it is unknown ; as 
also the inlluence of the Northern Protest of 1569 and 
the excommunication of the queen in the following year. 
From such notices as have come down, it seems unlikely 
that there were many Catholics resolute enough to refuse 
an occasional conformity to the queen's majesty's pro- 
ceedings ; and equally unlikely that any great effort was 
made by the authorities to enforce regular conformity. 
The Bishop of Chester (Downham) in 1564 made a return 
that "in Lancashire out of twenty-five justices only five 
were known to be favourable to the proceedings of the 
government in matter of religion, the remaining twenty 
being not favourable thereto and as a consequence 
inclinable to the Papists. . . . The bishop found difficulty 



16 ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 

in suggesting Protestant names of standing in the county 
fit to be made justices. In the hundreds of Amounderness 
and Lonsdale he can suggest none, and in the remaining 
hundreds only ten names." 60 

Thus a new generation grew up in the town and 
district, knowing little of Catholic doctrine and practice, 
and the older generation, alike of priests and laymen, who 
remained sufficiently faithful to continue Catholic wor- 
ship in secret would be dying out. A clear field would 
therefore be left for the work of Henry Porter, the vicar 
appointed in 1582. There are indications that he was 
a Puritan, and it may have been through his twenty-six 
years' teaching that Lancaster became a Puritan town. 
This was the general result of the Elizabethan changes. 
"In her ecclesiastical policy," writes J. R. Green, 
"Elizabeth trusted mainly to time; and time, as we 
have seen, justified her trust. Her system of compromise 
both in faith and worship, of quietly replacing the old 
priesthood as it died out by Protestant ministers, of 
wearying recusants into at least outer conformity with 
the State religion and attendance on the State services 
by fines . . . was gradually bringing England round to 
a new religious front." 

Then came the seminary priests and the Jesuits to 
upset her calculations ; to confirm the fainting, reclaim 
backsliders, and convert those who had been brought up 
as Protestants. God had not forgotten the remnant who 
were faithful, but raised up that great statesman-priest 
Cardinal Allen, born at Rossall, within sight of Lancaster, 
to provide for the continuance of a priesthood to minister 
to them. His zeal found an immediate response. The 



CATHOLIC LANCASTER 17 

seminaries he established began to send labourers into 
England as early as 1 574," 1 and as many of the missionaries 
were Lancashire men, it is probable that this county 
lienefited greatly by their presence and work. The 
story of their efforts in the Lancaster district has been 
lost, but the long steadfastness of such families as Dalton 
of Thurnham and Carus of Hal ton shows that there was 
a story to tell. 

NOTES 

1 Such "traditions" are so easily manufactured that little attention 
need be paid to them. The fragment of a chapel is two or three centuries 
later than St. Patrick, yet it might be a genuine memorial of him. It is 
the conjunction of this with other tokens of the saint's presence or influ- 
ence that is important to the argument. 

' Taken from a newspaper cutting. It is said that Catholics from 
Lancaster, especially Irishmen, used to go to the Ilest Bank Well for cures. 
It was a pin well, and the water was said to be good for sore eyes. 

* The first time the name has been noticed is as late as 1746 in a 
perambulation of the bounds of the town and liberties. After passing 
Haverbreaks, the bounds went to White Well on the Greaves, to Boulram 
(Bowerham) brook, "to St. Patrick's Well by Bowlram" (otherwise 
Boldrams), and thence to Wolfall Well below Gardner's : Koper, Materials 
for History of Lancaster (Chetham Society), 337. "Gardner's" is pro- 
bably the old house on the roadside at Golgotha which has the dated stone 



17 


II G I 


2S 



over the door. "Bowrams" was a farm where the Barracks now stand, 
and St. Patrick's Well was most likely at the turning-point of the old 
boundary, where Golgotha Road runs into Coulston Road. 

Henry Garnett (? Garner) and Jennet Fox, both of Lancaster, were 
married May 4, 1708. Henry Gardner was churchwarden for Scolfonh 
in 1728, and Henry Gardner of Lancaster was buried Dec. 3, 1731. 

' Cockcrsand Ciiartulary (Chetham Society), iv. 

s See later. 

Ii 



i8 ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 

* The Cumberland church dedications to St. Kentigern point to his 
having sailed from Aspatria to Wales, but the late Chancellor Ferguson 
wrote thus : " St. Kentigern probably went south from Crosthwaite 
[Keswick] by the Roman road to Chester." There were two such roads : 
one through Kirkby Lonsdale and Ribchester, and the other through 
Lancaster and Preston. The same writer adds : " St. Kentigern included 
the district with whose ecclesiastical history we are dealing in the 
bishopric of Glasgow which he founded, and which extended from the Clyde 
to (probably) the Mersey" : Carlisle (Diocesan Histories, S.P.C.K.), 38. 

' For the crosses, see the Transactions of the Lancashire and Cheshire 
Antiquarian Society (xxi. 46, &c), since reprinted by Mr. Henry Taylor 
in his book on the subject — Ancient Crosses, 329 ; also Roper's Lancaster 
Church (Chctham Society), iii. 532-7, referring to Reliquary (new series), 
viii. 274, ix. 259. 

8 The charter is printed in Farrer's Lancashire Pipe Rolls, 289, and in 
Roper's Lancaster Church. 

9 Victoria County History of Lancashire, ii. 167-73 ; a list of the 
priors is given, from which it appears that two became abbots of the 
mother house of Sees. For examples of papal regulation, see Lancaster 
Church, i. 48, 66 ; ii. 309. 

10 Ibid., i. 145. 

11 Ibid., i. 139 ; the monks were to devote themselves to study. 

'- This assumes that the school mentioned about 1280 was on the 
site of the later grammar-school down to 1850. 

13 Victoria History of Lancashire, ii. 171. The two chaplains may 
have served the outlying chapelries of Stalmine and Gressingham, leaving 
the prior and his monastic brethren to look after the main part of the 
very extensive parish. The limits extended over the Lune to Poulton 
and Overton, Heysham being excepted, and south to Ashton ; the moor- 
land and forest districts of Quernmore, Over Wyresdale, and Bleasdale 
were also in the parish, as was Caton. More distant parts of the forest 
of Lancaster were also nominally included — Fulwood, Simonswood, and 
Toxteth Park. 

" An account of the abbey is given in the Ushaw Magazine for July 
1907. 

14 The document is printed in Roper's Lancaster Church, iii. 576. 
" Duchy of Lancaster Rentals and Surveys. 

17 Each chaplain had about ,£80 a year, modern value. 

19 Exchequer K.R. Eccl. 3/13 [4/47]. A full abstract of the document 
is printed in Appendix I. 

19 The evidences and further details will be found in a forthcoming 
volume of the Victoria History of Lancashire. 



CATHOLIC LANCASTER 19 

" Dr. Green was a residentiary canon of St. Paul , rector of Ketter- 
ing anil Northchurcli, and vicar of Lancaster. His will, dated Sept 29, 
1540, and proved the following February, is now at Somerset House 
(P.C.C., Alcnger fol. 24). He desired to be buried in the high chancel 
Paul's, " directly before the holy Sacrament, between tbe choir and 
the high altar." To Lancaster he left ,£100 — equivalent to a bequest 
of ,£800 or ,£1000 in our time— of which £40 was to be given "to the 
high altar in ornaments about the Sacrament," ^20 was to be spent on 
his obit there, £20 on the bridge, &c. He left ,£20 each to his other 
churches, and similar sums to his mother, Elizabeth Cowke, to Francis 
Everatd ami Anne his wife, to Anne Sayere, his sister's daughter, &c. 

*' One of the priests of the abbey was a martyr, viz. Richard Reynolds, 
I'D., executed with the Carthusians on May 4, 1535. Another was 
Richard Whitford, author of the Jesus Psalter and various devotional 
works; though he was against the king's supremacy, he must have com- 
plied at last, for he received a pension, and died, it is believed, in 1542. 

" The crown presented to the vacancy expected in 1558 on Mallet's 
nomination to Salisbury. 

•> For further details, see Raines' Lancashire Chantries (Chetham 
Society), 22S, &c. ; also the Endowed Charities Report for Lancaster 
issued in 1903. 

! * The will is in the Duchy of Lancaster Miscellaneous Books, vol. xxv. 
fol. 19. In Appendix II. will be found the translation given in the 
Lancaster Charter Hook as printed by Roper, Materials, 277. See also 
Endowed Charities Report, p. 28. 

" See Lancaster Church, iii. 583. There were perhaps two altars on 
the south side of the church. 

* Selby, Lancashire and Cheshire Records (Record Society L. and C), 
i. 88. 

r Roper, Materials, 1 50. 

88 Raines, op. cit. The chaplain was to celebrate daily at St. Mary's 
altar at the south side of the church (or, in the almshouse) — of the Trinity 
on Sundays (except double feasts), of the Dead on Mondays and Fridays, 
and of St. Mary on Saturdays ; each day also he was to recite the office 
for the Dead, viz. I'laccbo and Dirigc, except only on double feasts : 
F'oundation charter, 1485. 

** Various documents are printed in Cross Flcurys Journal, 1904-5. 
,0 Lancaster Church, ii. 311. The land was half an acre near the 
king's castle. 

" Richmond Wills (Surtees Society), 171. The testator showed his 
contempt for the changes made on Elizabeth's accession ; he may have 
known thai nothing had actually been altered at Lancaster, but was more 



20 ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 

probably an old man who preferred to remain in ignorance, or looked 
for another reversal. 

'* Lancaster Church, i. 105. A somewhat similar indulgence, omitting 
the reference to St. Nicholas, had been granted by Pope Alexander IV. 
in 1259-60. 

53 It is named in a rental printed in the Cockcrsaml Chartulary, iv. 

34 Chctham Miscellanies (Chetham Society, new series), i. 17. 

" Roper, Materials, 125. 

" Patent Roll No. 1366 (33 Eliz., part 5, mem. 1) ; the date is March 4, 
1590-91. This records that as Walter Coppinger and Thomas Butler of 
London had surrendered various lands to the queen, she had granted to 
the said Thomas Butler tenements in various counties, including parcels 
of meadow and pasture called the Deep Carrs, lying near the town of 
Lancaster, formerly belonging to the late chantry or chapel called 
" Saynt Loyes Chappell," in the town of Lancaster. A quit-rent of 3s. 4d. 
was to be paid for the Deep Carrs. 

n It is now called Lucy Brook. 

38 Victoria History of Lancashire, ii. 161. 

39 Inq. post mortem. It is desirable to add that Sir Walter Scott's 
epithet, " stainless knight," in Marmion, is wrongly applied to Brian, who 
was not a knight. It belonged to his predecessor, Sir Richard Tunstall, a 
faithful Lancastrian. 

40 It may be of use to give an outline of the descent of this family; 
the details and proofs will be found in a forthcoming volume of the 
Victoria History. One Thomas de Lancaster had a son Lawrence, living 
in 1317, whose descendants took Lawrence as a surname. His son John 
Lawrence (1331) had a son Edmund (d. 1381), whose son Sir Robert 
(1404) had a son Robert (d. 1450), who married Agnes Croft of Dalton 
in Kendal. They had a son James (d. 1490) and four daughters, Elizabeth 
(married John Butler of Rawcliffe), Margaret (married Nicholas Rigmaiden 
of Wedacre), Agnes (married William Skillicorn of Prees), and Alice 
(married James Clifton of Clifton). James Lawrence had two sons, Sir 
Thomas (d. 1504) and John (d. 15 14), who died childless, when their 
aunts' issue became heirs — ten different families. The chief representatives 
were the Radcliffes of Winmarleigh, who had a moiety of Ashton, and 
this descended to the Dukes of Hamilton. 

" Raines, Chantries. The house seems to have been standing in 
1550 ; Letters and Papers Henry VIII., xiv. (1), p. 135, 167. 

" Brewer, Monument,/ Franciscana (Rolls Series), i. 581 ; no source 
given. Tanner in his Notitia (p. 235) adds a significant qucere to the 
notice of a Franciscan house in Collectanea Anglo-Minoritica (1726), 
ii. 37. This passage reads : " Lancaster. The Franciscan Convent 



CATHOLIC LANCASTER 2. 

here stood nc.ir the river and not far from the bridge : the founder and 
tit!.- are nol now known; but the site of the hoi; , ,| i,, M r . 

Dalton of 1 b umh a m in the yen 1714, and was lei to < 

a miller and gardener, who had U;< D tenant there for many years at the 
rent of / ; per annum with a house. The old wall of this enclosure is 
yet standing and good, but little else remains, nor could I then on enquiry 
learn that the friars 1 house here ever had any lands or revenues belonging 
to it." It is obvious that the writer is describing the remains of the 
Mack Friars 1 house, but he may have had some independent reason for 
supposing that the Franciscans once had a house in the town. 

I: Victoria History of Lancashire, ii. 165. 

" Baines, Lancashire (ed. 1870), ii. 569. Sec also Commonwealth 
Church .Survey (Record Society L. and C), 12S. 

'■ Note by Rev. U. Schofield. 

" Cockersand Chartulary, iii. 1076-7; Victoiia J/isloty of Lancashire, 
ii. 157. 

" Duchy of Lancaster Special Commissions, No. 36. 

'' Lancaster Church, ii. 278. 

: I 'eeds of Mr. Fitzherbert-Brockholes of Claughton. 

" Its extent may be estimated by Speed's plan of 1610. A few years 
earlier Camden had described it as "not very well peopled nor much 
frequented." 

11 Diocesan registry at Chester. 

M Letters and Papers Henry VIII., xii. (1), p. 416. 

" Ibid., 368, 373. The current statement that Abbot Paslcw was 
executed at Whalley is erroneous : Victoria History of Lancashire, ii. 138. 

14 . lets ami Monuments (ed. Cattley), vi. 565. 

11 Ibid., vii. 46-7. Another Protestant named Warburton was im- 
prisoned with Marsh, but nothing further is known of his opinions or 
history. 

" Ibid., vii. 47. 

" It is easy to imagine the excuses which such men made at the time 
for their treason to conscience and Catholic faith, and the words of Camden, 
the Elizabethan antiquary, who had a local connexion, may be quoted 
again : " It seemed good to many of the popish priests, both for their own 
sakes and the cause of religion, to swear obedience to the sovereign, 
rejecting the authority of the pope, with this very purpose of excluding 
Protestants from their churches and of helping those who had resigned. 
They looked upon this as pious prudence and somewhat meritorious, and 
hoped that the Roman pontiff would by his authority dispense them from 
their oath." 

' There is a notice of him in the Dictionary of National Biography. 



22 ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 

He was compliant under Henry VIII., but imprisoned in the Tower in 
the time of Edward VI. for saying mass as the Princess Mary's chaplain. 

" A comparison of the Visitation lists, 1548-65, leads to the conclusion 
that in Lancashire the staff of working clergy was reduced by from sixty 
to seventy percent. ; in other words, where there were ten priests employed 
more or less regularly before the Reformation, there were but three or 
four ministers afterwards. This can only be accounted for by the indif- 
ference or hostility of the people, no voluntary offerings being forthcoming. 
The abolition of masses for the dead made a serious difference. 

00 Victoria History of Lancashire, ii. 52. In the hundred of Lonsdale, 
Bishop Downham reported that Thomas Carus, serjeant-at-law, was a 
justice favourable to the queen's proceedings, while Francis Tunstall of 
Thurland was unfavourable ; there was no one fit to be made a justice. 
Carus was one of the " new men," a lawyer making a fortune ; his 
successor, Christopher Carus of Halton, was hostile, and he and his wife 
had to be prosecuted before (outward) conformity was secured: English 
Martyrs (Cath. Record Society), i. 70. In Amounderness hundred, Thomas 
Calvert of Cockerham was a justice favourable, while John Rigmaiden 
of Garstang, Sir Richard Shireburne of Stonyhurst, and George Browne 
of Ribchester were not favourable. Here also Downham knew no one 
fit to be a justice. A little later the Calverts of Cockerham were Catholics. 
The Rigmaidens were ruined by fines, &c, for their fidelity to religion, 
and their estates were sold about 1600. The same bishop in 156S would 
report only one of the squires as really obstinate, viz. John Westby of 
Mowbreck, and at his visitation found the people everywhere " very 
tractable and obedient": Birt, Elizabethan Settlement, 318. This was 
not the judgment of other observers, but Downham had a family to set 
forward in the world, and probably kept his eyes closed if possible, so 
long as his revenues were not interfered with. 

01 Of the first four to be sent, two were Yorkshiremen, one came from 
Sussex, and the other (Henry Shaw), to judge by his name and diocese, 
belonged to Lancashire. 



II 

THE MARTYRS 

As has been remarked, at the beginning of her reign 
Elizabeth proceeded gently in establishing Protestant- 
ism. 1 Her first Act of Parliament declared her to be 
supreme in all matters of doctrine and discipline, and 
repudiated the authority of the Pope as "foreign"; 3 
so that Catholicism was at once proscribed, and a 
national state-controlled system was substituted for it. 
Every one in office was obliged to take an oath accept- 
ing the religious authority of the Crown ; refusal meant 
the loss of office or benefice, with danger of greater 
penalties. Her second Act, that for enforcing the new 
service book, 3 imposed a fine of is. a week for not 
attending the worship so decreed, and ioo marks and 
more for any who should induce priests to use any 
other service ;* so that, as the scoffing Jewell remarked, 
the mass had never been more highly prized (in majori 
prctid) within his memory, each being valued to every in- 
dividual spectator at not less than 200 crowns. 5 By these 
Acts the new system was "established by law," 6 and 
Catholic doctrine and worship were prohibited, England 
being cut off from the centre of unity as far as statute 
law could do it. The refusal to attend church according 

to law caused Catholics to be named "recusants." 7 

23 



24 ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 

The only penalty of general application was the 
weekly is. fine for absence from service, and it is doubt- 
ful how far it was enforced, especially in Lancashire, 
for some time. In 1563 a second refusal to take the 
oath of supremacy was made high treason, as was the 
maintaining or defending of " the authority, jurisdiction, 
or power of the bishop of Rome or of his see, hereto- 
fore claimed, used, or usurped within this realm." 8 So 
resolved was the queen that no authority but her own 
should be recognised in religion, that she decisively 
rejected the emperor's request that Catholics might be 
allowed a place of worship in each considerable town. 
The queen trusted to the loyalty of her Catholic sub- 
jects even while she was engaged in destroying their 
religion; but after ten years, in 1569, the Catholics of 
the extreme north rose up in the armed protest known 
as the Northern Rebellion. 9 It was a feeble and half- 
hearted affair, but for a time mass was said once more 
in Durham Cathedral and in other churches. The 
Catholics, who merely desired the queen to mend her 
ways, put no one to death, but the demonstration showed 
their strength, and Elizabeth in alarm punished the 
rising with savage ferocity ; 700 were executed, and 
many others imprisoned or banished. After the issue 
of the Pope's bull of excommunication, an Act was in 
1 57 1 passed declaring it to be high treason to obtain 
any bull from Rome, to be reconciled to Rome, or to 
declare the queen a heretic. 10 The definition of treason 
was thus very considerably extended owing to the 
queen's resolve to stamp Catholicism out of existence 
in England; and in 15S1, when the seminary priests 



THE MARTYRS 25 

and Jesuits had begun tin ir task of active opposition 
at bome, and after Hdmund Campion with his com- 
panions and others had been martyred," it was made 
high treason both to become reconciled to the Roman 
Church and to persuade any one to be so reconciled. 
To say or sing mass was, for the priest, to incur a fine 
of -oo marks, while to hear it willingly involved one 
of 100 marks. All this was to prevent the queen's 
subjects withdrawing " from the religion now by her 
Highness' authority established within her Highness' 
dominions, to the Romish religion." 

It is at this point that the story of the martyrdoms 
at Lancaster begins. This was then sole assize town 
for the whole county; it had the chief prison and the 
place of execution, so that here the martyrs were brought 
for trial, and here they fought and conquered in the last 
battle. There must have been others who were tried 
and fell away, but of these, naturally, there is no record. 
The gallows stood on the hill to the east of the town, 
in a moorland tract through which the road to Wyres- 
dale passed. The place was known as Gallows Hill. 12 
The position may have been changed from time to time, 
but the map of Billinge and Yates in 17S6 represents 
the gallows as erected on the piece of ground still left 
open between the workhouse and Williamson Park, 
about the southern edge of the grammar-school cricket 
ground. On the other hand, there is a local tradition 
that it stood to the west of the workhouse, in the corner 
between Wyresdale Road and Quernmore Road. The 
two sites are but 200 yards apart, so that the spot is 
approximately fixed on which fifteen priests and laymen, 



26 ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 

between 15S4 and 1646, gave their lives as their final 
offering to God for the preservation and restoration of 
the Catholic religion in their native country. 

All but three of them were Lancashire men, though 
none belonged either to Lancaster itself or to Lonsdale. 
The cause of their beatification was allowed to be intro- 
duced by Leo XIII. in 18S6, so that each of them is 
entitled Venerable. Outside London the place most 
illustrious by these martyrdoms is York, with six already 
numbered among the Blessed, and forty-three among 
the Venerable. This prominence is due in some degree 
to Henry Hastings, Earl of Huntingdon, a thorough- 
going Puritan and most bitter persecutor, who was 
President of the North from 1572 to 1595, and occu- 
pied himself busily with the extirpation of the Catholic 
religion in Yorkshire and the North. 

Lancaster stands next to York with its fifteen, and 
it is of interest to Catholics to observe that the graceful 
dome erected by Lord Ashton on the highest point of 
the park, to commemorate his family, stands just above 
the old place of execution. Thus it serves also as a 
Martyrs' Memorial, pointing out the spot round which 
centre the most heroic episodes in the history of the 
town. 

The first to suffer there the penalties of high treason 
for religion were the Abbots of Whalley and Sawley, 
and another in the time of Henry VIII., as already 
stated. 13 Nearly fifty years elapsed before the Eliza- 
bethan statutes claimed a victim. This was James 
Leyburne, the squire of Cunswick in Westmorland, who 
was executed in 1583. He is not officially reckoned 



THE MARTYRS 27 

among the martyrs, because he denied Elizabeth to be 
his lawful sovereign, "even in temporals," on account 
of her illegitimate birth and her excommunication ; yet 
many of his own day and since have called him a 
martyr. He suffered March 22, 1582-3, "with mar- 
vellous cheerfulness and gentleness, declaring on the 
scaffold that he died for the profession of the Catholic 
faith." 14 



Ven. James Bell 

James Bell and John Finch suffered together on 
April 20, 15S4. The former was a Marian priest who 
conformed under Elizabeth, and acted as a minister 
on the new terms in order to gain a living, though his 
r.'iiscience reproved him. He continued in his apostasy 
for more than twenty years. In 15S1, being over sixty 
years of age, he returned to Lancashire and endeavoured 
to obtain a certain chapel which was without cure of 
souls, though the incumbent would have to read the 
English service. It was in the gift of a gentleman whose 
wife was a Catholic. She " having pity and compassion 
of [Bell's] miserable estate in sin, began very earnestly 
and religiously to dehort the old man from that vile and 
wicked kind of service, which contrary to his own sacred 
function he had so long used. She put him in mind 
that he was made priest to say mass and to minister 
the sacraments after the Catholic use and manner in 
the unity of the Catholic Church." He fell sick soon 
afterwards, and her words, joined with the reproaches 
of his own conscience, brought him to repentance and 



28 ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 

reconciliation. Thus he came within the Act of 1581, 
and was liable to the penalties of high treason. After 
probation he was allowed to resume his priestly office, 
but about two years later was captured, and was con- 
demned in the first instance for having said mass at 
Golborne on December 27, 15S3. 15 

After imprisonment and trial at Manchester, he was 
sent to the assizes at Lancaster, having often been 
" examined touching the reconciliation of himself and 
others, of the pope's supremacy and authority in Eng- 
land, of the queen's usurpation of spiritual superiority, 
of Pius V.'s bull of her excommunication, and such like." 
He was therefore arraigned for affirming the Pope to be 
head of the Catholic Church, part of which Church was 
in England. " The whole country knoweth," says the 
contemporary account, " how this poor old and impotent 
man was examined and threatened, standing at the bar 
among thieves and murderers, and what terrible words 
and captious questions they used and proposed unto 
him, exaggerating their cruelty which they meant to 
use against him by declaring at large the manner of 
execution of traitors." 1U Bell's " treason " by the statute 
was admitted, and he was accordingly condemned. On 
hearing his sentence he thanked God very cheerfully, 
and said to the judge : " I beseech you, my lord, for the 
love of God add also to your former sentence that my 
lips may be pared and my fingers' ends cut off, wherewith 
I have heretofore sworn and subscribed to heretical 
articles and injunctions, both against my conscience and 
the truth." He spent the ensuing night in prayer and 
meditation, and next morning went to his execution with 



THE MARTYRS 

joy. lie desired a minister" present not to trouble 

him, "for 1 will not believe thee," he said, "nor hear 
thee but against my will." Like others in the same 
condemnation, he was dragged on a hurdle from the 
lc to the gallows, probably by way of Market 
Street and Moor Lane, ;i distance of nearly a mile, 
down and up hill. " When lie was taken off the hurdle 
they caused him to look upon his companion that was 
a-quartering. When he saw the hangman pull out his 
bowels, 'Oh, why,' saith he, 'do I tarry so long behind 
my sweet brother? Let me make haste after him. This 
is a most happy day.' This being spoken, he fell to his 
rations, praying expressly for all Catholics and for the 
conversion <<( all heretics, and so ended this miserable 
life most gloriously, committing his soul to Almighty 
God." u 

Vf.n. John Finch 

The companion, John Finch, was a layman of 
Fccleston in Leyland. He was brought up as a con- 
formist ; but when he was about the age of twenty, 19 
a visit to London to seek his fortune led him to mark 
" the diversities of opinions in matters of faith and 
religion, the daily troubles and losses which many men 
sustained constantly for the ancient and Catholic religion, 
the continual mutations and changings from Protestancy 
to Puritanism, and from that again to infinite other 
sects and heresies," and so forth. He returned home 
resolved to act consistently as a Catholic, particularly in 
the observance of days of fasting and abstinence. He 
married, obtained reconciliation to the Catholic Roman 



30 ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 

Church, went often to confession and received the blessed 
Sacrament, and made it his special business " for many 
years together to guide and direct Catholic priests to 
Catholic men's houses." He and a priest were captured 
by the Earl of Derby, having been betrayed by a false 
companion. During his imprisonment he was bullied 
and cajoled alternately, in the hope of breaking down his 
constancy and inducing him to give information against 
Catholics, but vainly. He was called " an obstinate 
and rebellious traitor, in that he refused to go to divine 
service at her Majesty's commandment," but he replied 
that while in temporal causes he was most ready to obey 
the queen, going to church in that way was a matter of 
religion and against his conscience ; and denying the 
queen's supremacy in religion, he said, " The pope's 
holiness is head of the whole church of God throughout 
the world, and it is impossible for any woman or layman 
to be head of any part thereof in spiritual causes." 

He was then sent to prison at Manchester, being 
placed at first in the New Fleet with other Catholics, 
and then, on account of his poverty, in the common 
prison. Various attempts were made to bring him to 
church, 20 and one day, " Finch, seeing them ready to lay 
their hands upon him, chose rather to go with them 
quietly than to put them and himself to that pain and 
travail he had done before." But he afterwards thought 
he had done amiss in yielding to that extent, and fell 
into anguish of mind about it. One day, indeed, he cast 
himself in the water, some supposed for penance, but 
others for suicide. His gaolers treated him worse and 
worse. At last he was sent to the assizes, having been 



THE MARTYRS 31 

imprisoned for more than three years. 1 Ie was specially 
examined about the bull of Pius V., and being found 
guilty of affirming the Pope's authority and jurisdiction 
in England as head of the Catholic Church, was con- 
demned and executed as already stated. He "exhorted 
all the people to the Catholic faith and to good life, and 
desired a minister, who was there to persuade him, not 
to trouble him ; ' for I am not,' quoth he, ' of your 
religion, neither will I be for anything that you can 
say. God give you grace to amend.' And so used very 
few words either upon the hurdle or upon the ladder, 
but continually occupied himself in secret prayers and 
meditation until, by glorious martyrdom, his blessed 
soul forsook the body and was made partaker of the 
everlasting and unspeakable joys." 21 

These first cases have been recorded at some leneth. 
because they show clearly that the martyrs suffered not 
for treason properly so called, but for affirming the Pope's 
supremacy in the Church against the queen's usurpation 
of it in England ; refusal to attend the religious services 
ordered by the queen was the outward sign. 

Two other priests were tried and condemned with 
the martyrs ; they were named Thomas Williamson and 
Richard Hatton, but their lives were spared because, so 
it was believed, the judges had been ordered to execute 
no more than two. Hatton, who was a Marian priest, 
died in prison in 15S6. 22 The choice was made through 
a difference of opinion which the judges elicited. Many 
Catholics thought it quite lawful to take arms to restore 
the ancient faith and worship if there was a suitable 
opportunity, but others were doubtful or opposed. When 



32 ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 

Bell was asked, " Whose part wouldst thou take if the 
Pope, or any other 23 by his authority, should make wars 
against the queen ? " he replied, " We ought to take part 
with the Church of God for the Catholic religion." Finch 
made a similar reply very resolutely ; " he was to follow 
and obey whatsoever the Pope should command or 
appoint to be done for the reforming of religion, and 
he was to take part with the Catholic Church against 
whomsoever." The other two, while maintaining the 
Pope's supremacy, were more doubtful about the taking 
of arms, or were perhaps not strictly examined upon it, 
the judge telling them : " You are rank traitors too, and 
deserve to be hanged as well as the rest ; for you deny 
the one half of her Majesty's right, but these other traitors 
[Bell and Finch] do deny her all." The question and 
the answer to it — a matter of opinion — had nothing what- 
ever to do with the sentence of the court, but were 
employed to satisfy the populace, inclined to sympathise 
with the martyrs, that it was just to execute Catholics as 
traitors ; no treason properly so called was or could be 
alleged against them, " but you see," it was suggested, 
" that they would rebel at once if they had the chance, 
and overthrow the queen." 

This was an argument for the multitude, who would 
not reflect that the difficulty arose through the queen's 
refusal of religious liberty to a large part of her subjects, 
and that there was no peaceful mode of securing redress. 
The concession of liberty of worship would probably 
have removed all danger of rebellion and rendered the 
presence of the Queen of Scots innocuous. But it would 
have had effects the queen could not bear to think of. 



II IK MARTYRS 



OJ 



I abeth clung to her claim to dictate the religion of 

her subjects, executed her rival, and went on with I 
persecution of Catholics, making England a Protestant 
country, though it may he doubted whether she desired 

this result. She had no religious zeal, and only used 
Protestantism as a means to secure her political position, 
but some of her statesmen were quite earnest in their 
religion. On the Catholic side religion was first, and 
politics, if meddled with, only a means. 

In the following year (1585) was passed an Act 
ordering all Jesuits and seminary priests to quit the 
kingdom ; those who should remain or be found in the 
country afterwards were to be executed as traitors, and 
those who lj.ivc them shelter or assistance as felons. 
Thus the priesthood itself was made high treason, for 
there were no priests but those who came from abroad, 
there being no bishop in England ; and the later martyrs 
suffered under this Act, as will be seen in the Lancaster 
cases. By it the authorities saved themselves the 
trouble of alleging any conspiracy against the State 
on the part of their victims. Before the Act was actually 
passed, Richard Shelley of Michelgrove presented an 
address to the queen praying her to spare Catholics. 
She at once put him into prison, where he died soon 
afterwards. In 15S7 a further severe Act was passed ; 
it aimed at strengthening the Act of 15S1, nullified 
dealings in property by recusants, and inflicted a fine of 
jC,20 a month for non-attendance at church. The months 
were declared to be lunar months, so that the fine came 
to ^260 a year. The money raised from these fines 
formed a considerable part of the queen's revenue. By 

c 



34 ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 

a later Act of 1593, those who could not pay this heavy 
fine were to quit the realm or be accounted felons and 
suffer punishment accordingly. Many were punished in 
various ways. Recusants were forbidden also to travel 
more than five miles from their houses. Thus as 
Catholics became fewer in number the severity of the 
laws increased. On the other hand, the weaker men had 
been by this time weeded out ; while those who remained 
faithful were aided by the zealous priests who, in spite of 
government vigilance, contrived to enter the country, and 
they earned the blessing of those who suffer persecution 
for justice' sake. 24 

For some fifteen years the death sentence was not 
carried out at Lancaster. Richard Blundell, the squire 
of Little Crosby, died in the castle in 1592, having been 
imprisoned there for some time for harbouring a seminary 
priest. His son also was imprisoned." 

In 1598 the Bishop of Chester complained that the 
recusants in Lancaster had " liberty to go when and 
whither they list to hunt, hawk, and go to horse races 
at their pleasure " M — a statement which affords an indi- 
cation of the social standing of the resolute Catholics 
of the county. 

Ven. Robert Nutter and Edward Tiiwing 

Robert Nutter and Edward Thwing, two seminary 
priests, were executed on July 26, 1600, for their priest- 
hood only, in accordance with the statute of 1585. 27 The 
former of them, a Burnley man, was brother of Ven. 
John Nutter, who suffered at Tyburn in 1584, and had 



THE MARTYRS 35 

himself been prisoner in the Tower about that time 
Being sent into banishment, he returned, - "' 1 and was then 
imprisoned at Wisbech from 1 5S7 to 1600. Escaping, 
he went to Lancashire, where he was captured a third 
time, sent to the assizes, and executed. " He was a 
man of a strong body but of a stronger soul, who rather 
despised than conquered death; and went before his 
companion to the gallows with as much cheerfulness and 
joy as if he had been going to a feast, to the astonishment 
of the spectators." Thwing was of a Yorkshire family, 
a man of admirable meekness and patience, suffering 
long with a painful infirmity. He was sent on the 
English mission in 1597, and laboured diligently till his 
arrest in 1600. He was condemned, and suffered with 
great constancy. Challoner prints two of his letters, 
written to Dr. Worth ington, the president of Douay, as 
follows : — 

Myself am now prisoner for Christ in Lancaster Castle, ex- 
pecting nothing but execution at the next assizes. I desire 
you to commend me to the devout prayers of my friends with 
you, that by their help I may consummate my course to God's 
glory and the good of my country. I pray God prosper you 
and all yours for ever. 

From my prison and paradise, this last of May, 1600. 

E. Thwing. 



This day the judges come to Lancaster, where I am in 
expectation of a happy death, if it so please God Almighty. 
I pray you commend me most dearly to all your good priests 
and scholars, whose good endeavours God always prosper 
to His own more glory. Ego autem jam dclibor & tentpus 
resolutions meet itistaf. Before this comes unto you I 
shall, if God makes me worthy, conclude an unhappy life 



o 



6 ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 



with a most happy death. Omnia possum in eo qui me 
confortat. 

From Lancaster castle, the 21st of July this holy year 1600. 

All yours in Christ, Edw. Thwing. 



Ven. Thurstan Hunt and Robert Middleton 

The story of Thurstan Hunt and Robert Middleton, 
two Yorkshire priests, who suffered on March 31, 1601, 
has something of the romantic. Middleton, who had 
been brought up a Protestant, being converted when 
eighteen years of age, had been labouring near Preston, 
when he was in October 1600 captured by Sir Richard 
Hoghton. He was examined 30 and sent to Lancaster, 
but on the way a rescue was attempted, the escort being 
attacked near Garstang. The attacking party, consisting 
of four horsemen and a footman, was driven off, and one 
member of it was taken and found to be another priest, 
Thurstan Hunt, 31 who had lately escaped from Wisbech 
Castle. The two priests were then sent to London to be 
examined, 32 and being returned to Lancaster five months 
afterwards, were tried and condemned for their priesthood. 
"In all Lancaster there could not be found any that 
would either lend horse or car or hurdle or any such- 
like thing for their death ; so the sheriff w r as fain to 
take one of his own horses to draw the sledge." ^ 

There was a touching scene at the gallows, where 
Middleton's sister offered ^100 for a reprieve for him, 
and desired a minister to confer with him. Her brother 
reproved her, as bystanders might think he was waver- 
ing, but the distressed woman cried out, " Good brother, 



["HE MARTYRS 37 

1 am mo hen tic, but I do this to have occasion to see 
JTOU and to talk with you.'' The account continues: 
" They being brought to the place of execution, professed 
their faith very constantly, and died very resolutely. 
1 hey asked benediction one of another, and embraced 
each other before they went up the gallows. Mr. Hunt 
was first executed, and having the cord about his neck 
he gave his blessing to all Catholics there present, which 
were a great number. Both (were) executed in their 
cassocks. Mr. Hunt hanged till he was dead. Mr. 
Middleton seemed to have down up the gallows, he 
went so nimbly up, and was cut alive — by error as some 
think ; for as soon as the rope was cut and he began to 
stir in the butcher's hands, the sheriff bid straightways 
cut off his head, and so it was ; and thus he being last 
hanged was first quartered. Every one lamented their 
death, for all the world perceived their innocency ; and 
not only Catholics but schismatics 31 and of all sorts 
strove to have something of theirs for relics." 30 
Contemporary verses celebrate — 

Nutter's bold constancy, with his sweet fellow Thwing, 
Of whose most meek modesty angels and saints may sing ; 
Hunt's haughty courage, stout with godly zeal so true; 
Mild Middleton, oh what tongue can half thy virtue show! 
At Lancaster lovingly these martyrs took their end, 
In glorious victory, true faith for to defend. 36 

Although after the accession of James I. in 1603 
the political loyalty of Catholics ceased to be open to 
reasonable suspicion, the persecution continued, becom- 
ing a purely religious persecution. In 1604 an Act was 
passed by which two-thirds of a recusant's estate might 



38 ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 

be taken into the king's hand in place of the ^"20 
monthly fine, and the Patent Rolls contain numerous 
grants of these sequestered two-thirds, made by the 
Crown to various persons. The same Act forbade send- 
ing children abroad to be educated as Catholics, and 
also forbade any school in a recusant's house ; and as 
ordinary schoolmasters had to be licensed by the Pro- 
testant bishop, a religious education was prevented as 
far as law could go. 

Ven. Lawrence Baily 

In the same year, on 16th September, Lawrence 
Baily, a yeoman who had assisted a priest to escape 
from the pursuivants, was hanged at Lancaster as a 
felon on that account. 37 

Gunpowder Plot, in 1605, was one of the results of 
the new severities. It was the act of a few desperate 
men, and unjustly charged on Catholics as a body, 
though they had long to endure the consequences of it. 
The king in 1606 made an attempt to relieve them by 
devising a new oath of allegiance, but it was condemned 
at Rome, partly because it called on Catholics to re- 
nounce as "heretical" the doctrine that kings excom- 
municated by the Pope might be deposed or murdered 
by their subjects : Catholics could not allow that the 
State might define heresy. It was the Puritan party 
which then began to fall under the suspicion of those in 
authority, with what reason the events of the Civil War 
and later times reveal. 



THE MARTYRS 39 



Ven. John Tiiewlis 

The next Catholics, after twelve years' interval, l>> 
suffer the final penalty at Lancaster were John Thewlis, 
a seminary priest, and Roger Wrennall, on March 18, 
16 1 5-6. Thewlis was born at Upholland about 156s, and 
alter being trained abroad, was sent to England in 1592. 38 
Being arrested soon afterwards, he was imprisoned at 
Wisbech, and on his escape, or release, ministered in 
Lancashire till his arrest. At his trial William Leigh, 
the famous Puritan rector of Standish, was brought in to 
dispute with him, but without avail. 39 A godson, Mr. 
Asshcton of Lever, offered him .£20 a year if he would 
renounce his religion, but in vain. So he was for his 
priesthood condemned as a traitor. 

Then smilingly he said, with sweet and pleasant glee, 
" No treason have I wrought nor wicked treachery ; 
No treason have I done against king nor country, 
Christ Jesus, God's own Son, a witness take for me. 
It is for His dear sake, His Church both meek and free, 
That I do undertake a true Catholic to die; 
It is for His dear sake that gave His life for me 
My cross I undertake His spouse to glorify." 40 

At the gallows he was invited to save his life by 
taking the oath above described. " Why should you 
boggle at it?" it was asked; "it requires nothing 
more of you than a civil allegiance to the king." He 
answered, " Write me then a form of an oath which 
contains nothing but civil allegiance, and I will take it." 
But to his challenge they could not reply ; the statutory 



40 ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 

form was binding, and that he could not take. He 
was executed accordingly ; his head was set up on the 
castle walls, and his quarters at Lancaster, Preston, 
Wigan, and Warrington. 41 The ballad says that 
many present dipped their handkerchiefs in his blood 
at the quartering. 

Ven. Roger Wrennai.l 

Before his trial, Thewlis had made his escape from 
the castle by the aid of another Catholic prisoner, 
the above-named Roger Wrennall, a weaver from the 
Kirkham district. After wandering about all night, they 
found themselves in the morning close to Lancaster, 
and so were recaptured. Wrennall was condemned for 
assisting the priest, being hanged as a felon. At first 
the rope broke and he fell to the ground, whereupon the 
ministers present urged him again to take the oath 
and save his life. He answered, " I am the same man 
I was, and in the same mind ; use your pleasure with 
me " ; running up the ladder, as having had a vision of 
" the good things of the Lord." A new rope was found, 
and he was executed. 42 

The names of two priests confined in the castle 
in 1627 are known — John Southworth, afterwards a 
martyr ; a and Thomas Metcalfe, who complained that 
he had then been imprisoned for two years without any 
trial. 44 There were probably others, for at the Lent 
assizes in 1629 one named Middleton was condemned, 45 
but must have been released. 



THE MARTYRS 41 



\'i n. Edmund Akrowsmitii 

Meantime one of the most famous Jesuit mission- 
aries had been captured and executed. This was 
Edmund Arrowsmith," born in 1585 at Haydock, of 
Catholic parents who had suffered for their religion, 
the father having been in prison at Lancaster. He 
u.is educated at Douay, and sent on the English mis- 
sion in 1613. He became a Jesuit in 1624. A fellow- 
labourer relates of him that "though his presence was 
very mean, yet he was both zealous, witty, and fervent, 
and so forward (in disputing with heretics) that I often 
wished him merrily to carry salt in his pocket to season 
his actions, lest too much zeal without discretion might 
bring him too soon in danger, considering the vehement 
sudden storms of persecution that often assailed us." 
Arrowsmith was arrested (about 1620, it is supposed) 
;uul brought before Bishop Bridgeman, and at that time 
remarked on the ministers eating flesh, it beinsjf Lent. 
He was released, but captured again in 162S, through 
the malice of one of the Holdens of Holden on account 
of a marriage dispensation. At his trial at Lancaster 
the above-named Rector Leigh showed himself very 
anxious for Arrowsmith's condemnation, declaring " what 
a seducer he was, and that if some order were not taken 
with him he would make half Lancashire papists." The 
judge, Sir Henry Yelverton, a Puritan, appears to have 
been very bitter against him, and he was condemned. 17 
Leigh came to argue with him while in his cell, " a 
little dark hole where he could not well lie down," 



42 ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 

but at the gallows appears to have been seized with 
remorse, calling out, " Sir, I pray you accept the king's 
mercy ! Conform yourself and take the oath and you 
shall live. Good sir, you shall live ! I would fain have 
you live! Here is one come now from the judge to 
offer you mercy ; you shall live if you conform yourself 
to our religion." The last words show that it was re- 
ligion, not treason, that was the crime, even in the 
judgment of the persecutors. 

As Arrowsmith was being led through the castle 
yard his fellow-prisoner, the above-named Fr. South- 
worth, gave him absolution from a window above, in 
response to a sign made by the martyr as previously 
agreed. A Catholic gentleman "clasped (him) in his 
arms and kissed him tenderly, till the sheriff ordered 
him to be separated by force." The people of Lancaster 
are said to have regarded the execution as a judicial 
murder. " No man could be prevailed upon to undertake 
the execution, except a butcher, who, though ashamed 
to become hangman himself, engaged for five pounds 
that his servant should despatch the martyr. This the 
servant, out of a feeling of humanity and respect for 
that good man, refused, and when informed of his 
master's shameful contract he fled from his service, and 
was never seen after by him again." A deserter, whom 
the martyr had relieved, then promised to act the 
butcher in return for his liberty, the priest's clothes, 
and 40s. ; and then no one in the town would lend him 
an axe. At the time of execution, which was fixed for 
noon, the dinner time, Lancaster was emptied, all crowd- 
ing to the place of execution, Protestants hoping to see 



THE MARTYRS 43 

him waver, and Catholics confident in his virtue and 
constancy. 

Arrowsmith was pestered with the exhortations of 
various ministers all the way from the castle to the 
gallows, having been dragged on the hurdle with his 
head towards the horse's tail, for greater ignominy ; 
meantime he was making acts of contrition and of the 
love of God. Mounting the ladder, he asked for the 
prayers of all the Catholics present, and made a short 
speech, exhorting all to have a care of their souls, and add- 
ing, " Nothing doth so much grieve me as this England, 
which I pray God soon convert." The last words heard 
from his mouth were Bone Jcsu ! He was allowed to 
hang till he was dead, and his head and members were 
afterwards fixed upon the castle. " Divers Protestants, 
beholders of this bloody spectacle, wished their souls with 
his. Others wished they had never come there. Others 
said it was a barbarous act to use men so for their religion." 

The martyr's head is stated to have been fixed on 
a pole over the castle gateway, and his quarters on the 
four corners of the castle. Particular care seems to 
have been taken that Catholics should not have any of 
his blood even, yet one of his hands was secured, and 
is kept as a relic at St. Oswald's, Ashton in Maker- 
field ; many miracles are attributed to the martyr 
through its application. 18 

Ven. Richard Hurst 

1 ither Arrowsmith suffered on August 28, 1628, 
and on the following day was followed by Richard 



44 ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 

Hurst, a farmer of the Preston district. Hurst's arrest 
had been ordered as a convicted recusant, and one of 
the pursuivants in attempting it received a blow on the 
head, and also broke his leg ; he died, and Hurst was 
charged with murder, convicted contrary to justice, and 
executed. His real offence was his religion, and his 
life was promised him if he would take the oath. On 
the way to execution Hurst gave alms, according to his 
ability, and being met by Mr. King, the vicar of the 
town, replied thus to a question as to his faith, " I 
believe according to the faith of the holy Catholic 
Church " ; a few further words were exchanged. He 
carried a picture of Christ crucified, on which he had 
his eyes fixed, and frequently repeated short ejaculatory 
prayers. He kissed the gallows on reaching the place 
of execution, and disregarding the ministers present, 
recommended himself to God, and begged the prayers 
of the Blessed Virgin, his angel guardian, and all the 
saints, especially St. John Baptist, it being the day of 
his decollation. Ascending the ladder, he repeated the 
names of Jesus and Mary, and so was put to death. 49 

Ven. Ambrose Barlow 

After thirteen years another priest was put to death 
at Lancaster for exercising his sacred office in the 
county. This was the Benedictine Ambrose Barlow, 60 
venerated for his saintly life and apostolic labours as 
well as for his glorious death. He was a son of Sir 
Alexander Barlow of Barlow near Manchester ; born 
in 1585, he was at twelve years of age sent to be a 



THE MARTYRS 45 

page in the house of Sir Uri.m Legh of Adlington 
ill Cheshire. Then or a little later he was a Prol 
tant; but he was converted, and desiring to labour for 
his countrymen, went abroad for his priestly training, 
joined the Benedictines in 1016, and was sent to the 
English mission about a year afterwards. His work 
lay chielly in the south-east part of the county. " Night 
and day he was ever ready to lay hold of all occasions 
of reclaiming any one from error ; and whatever time 
he could spare from his devotions he employed in seek- 
ing after the lost sheep and in exhorting, instructing, 
and correcting sinners, and omitted no opportunity of 
preaching the word of God. But then he never 
neglected the care of his own sanctification ; he cele- 
brated mass and recited the office with great reverence 
and devotion ; had his fixed hours for mental prayer, 
which he never omitted," and in all respects led a devout 
and mortified life. 

He was several times imprisoned for religion. On 
one such occasion he had ministered to Father Arrow- 
smith, and it is related that this martyr, on the day he 
suffered, appeared to Barlow, then in South Lancashire, 
and gave the warning or prophecy : " I have already 
suffered. You also shall suffer ; speak but little, for they 
will be upon the watch to catch you in your words." 

On Easter Day 1641, after celebrating mass at 
Morleys Hall near Leigh, he addressed his little con- 
gregation of some hundred Catholics ; and while doing 
so the house was attacked by a number of Protestants, 
led by the neighbouring minister, supposed to be the 
vicar of Leigh or of Eccles. Barlow was captured, 



46 ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 

taken before a magistrate, and sent off to Lancaster. 
It is reported that once, when pressed to go into 
Cheshire, he had refused to leave his native county, 
saying that " Priests did always much good in Lancaster 
Castle, but in Chester gaol he never heard of any good 
that they did." He was a prisoner in the castle for 
several months ; at his trial he acknowledged he was 
a priest. In reply to the judge's questions, he asserted 
that "all laws made against Catholics on account of 
their religion were unjust and impious ; for what law, 
said he, can be more unjust than this, by which priests 
are condemned to suffer as traitors, merely because 
they are Roman, that is, true priests ? For there are 
no other true priests but the Roman, and if these be 
destroyed, what must become of the divine law, when 
none remain to preach God's word and administer His 
sacraments?" He was sentenced in the usual form, 
and said aloud, " Thanks be to God," and prayed that 
God would forgive those who had been accessory to 
his death. The judge appears to have been impressed 
by his conduct, and ordered that he should have a 
private room for the night, where he might prepare for 
his departure. 

"On Friday, September 10, he was brought out to 
suffer according to sentence and laid upon the hurdle, 
on which he was drawn to the place of execution, 
carrying all the way in his hand a cross of wood which 
he had made. When he was come to the place, being 
taken off the hurdle, he went three times round the 
gallows carrying the cross before his breast, and reciting 
the penitent psalm Miserere. Some ministers were for 



THE MARTYRS ., - 

<li puting with him about religion, but he told them it 
was an unfair and an unreasonable challenge, and that 
he had something else to do at present than to hearken 
to their fooleries." He suffered with great constancy. 51 
It has been supposed that the skull preserved at Ward- 
ley Hall, Worsley, is his; this is quite possible, but 
there is no direct evidence, and the probabilities are 
only slight. ' 

Ven. Edward Bamber, Thomas Wiiitaker, ami 
John Woodcock 

A few years later, when the Civil War had spent 
itself for the time and the Puritans were victorious not 
only in Lancashire but throughout the country, three 
priests were led to the gallows together, the last to suffer 
at Lancaster as traitors on account of their religion. 
They were Edward Bamber and Thomas Whitaker, 
seculars, and John Woodcock, a Franciscan. Bamber 
was of the Fylde, and lay three years in prison before his 
trial, the wars preventing the regular holding of the assizes. 
Two fallen Catholics swore that they had seen him 
baptize and marry, which was considered sufficient proof 
of his priesthood." Whitaker came from Burnley, where 
he was born in 1611, and where his father had been 
master of the school and must therefore have been a 
conformist. He was educated at Valladolid, and after 
ordination laboured on the mission from 1638 to 1643, 
when he was arrested, and lay in Lancaster Castle till 
his trial. 14 His time there was spent in prayer and in 
acts of charity to other prisoners. Woodcock, in religion 



4 8 ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 

Father Martin of St. Felix, was born at Leyland in 
1603, the offspring of a mixed marriage ; he was brought 
up as a schismatic or heretic, but after his conversion at 
the age of twenty, was educated at St. Omers and Rome. 55 
He was received into the English Franciscans in 1631. 
About 1640 he was sent on the English mission, but 
returned to his convent, to die there as he supposed. 
In 1643 or 1644 he obtained leave to return to Eng- 
land, but was captured immediately after his arrival 
in Lancashire, and kept for two years in prison in the 
castle. 50 Another priest, then prisoner, has left an 
account of these three martyrs. All were condemned 
for their priesthood, and Woodcock was specially 
distinguished by the expressions of thanksgiving with 
which he heard his sentence. 

The three were drawn together to the place of execu- 
tion on August 7, 1646, "the Catholics being much 
comforted and edified, and the Protestants astonished 
and confounded to see that cheerfulness and courage 
with which these servants of God went to meet that 
barbarous and ignominious death to which they were 
condemned." The execution was peculiarly barbarous. 
Bamber, the first to suffer, absolved a condemned 
felon at the place of execution ; he was "turned off" 
while encouraging one of his fellow-victims, and cut 
down at once and disembowelled while quite conscious. 
As a ballad of the time relates : — 

Few words he spoke — they stopped his mouth 

And choked him with a cord ; 
And lest he should be dead too soon 

No mercy they afford, 



THE MARTYRS 

And quick and live they cut him down 

And butcher him lull SOOE ; 
Behead, t<-ar, and dismember straight, 

And laugh when all was done. 

Woodcock came next, and he too was interrupted in 
ail address to the people; the rope broke and he was 
hanged a second time, but for a short time only, being 
butchered alive. Whitakerwas a timid man, and greatly 
afraid of death, and so the Protestants tempted him with 
hopes of life if he would renounce his religion, and took 
care that he should see his comrades cruelly slaughtered. 
But though his fears were heightened thereby, "the 
Almighty, whom he earnestly invoked, supported him 
by His powerful grace ; and when it came to the upshot 
he Lrenerouslv told the sheriff his resolution was fixed to 
die in the profession of the Catholic faith. ' Use your 
pleasure with me,' said he ; 'a reprieve or even a pardon 
upon your conditions, I utterly refuse.' " And then com- 
mending his departing soul into the hands of his Saviour, 
he was despatched. 

A small carved wooden box preserved at Claughton 
on Brock church is traditionally said to have belonged 
to Fr. Whitaker, who used it for the reservation of the 
Blessed Sacrament. 

Though these were the last to suffer death, others 
were imprisoned then and later, as will be seen by the 
ensuing narrative. In particular the parish registers 
notice the burial of Henry Ash, "a person charged to be 
a Romish priest," on April 11, 1648. John Smith, 
another priest, was executed in 1650, but the charge 
against him was felony. He was at Rixton near 

D 



50 ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 

Warrington when some young Catholic gentlemen, 
apparently by way of reprisal, made an attack on 
Winwick Hall, which had been token from its Catholic 
owners and was occupied by the rector. On a search 
being made, the rector's cap was found in Father Smith's 
room, and he was tried and found guilty as an accom- 
plice. It is supposed that he knew of the matter through 
the sacrament of penance, and therefore was unable to 
vindicate himself. 57 

In the country generally, though a number of priests 
were executed during the first part of the Puritan ascend- 
ency, from 164 1 to 1647, an d though Catholics every- 
where were despoiled of their possessions for religion, 58 
a " recusant " being as obnoxious as a " delinquent " even 
when both characters were not combined, the executions 
of priests practically ceased under Cromwell's rule, and 
did not revive till the next outburst of Protestant fana- 
ticism under Titus Oates. 59 In a letter to Mazarin in 
1656, while acknowledging that he dared not make any 
declaration for the toleration of Catholics, Cromwell 
urged that they had less to complain of under his rule 
than under that of the Parliament. 60 Cromwell could 
scarcely have interfered with the Duke of Savoy on 
behalf of the Waldenses in 1655, if he had himself 
been engaged in an active persecution of Catholics 
at home. The Civil War had so broken them 
that Catholics were little danger to him, and he could 
well afford to be tolerant. But toleration was not 
liberty. 



THE MARTYRS 51 



NOTES 

1 Jewell wrote thus to Petal Martyr on March 20, 1558 9 : "The queen 
meanwhile, though she openly favours our cause, yet is wonderfully afrai<l 
of allowing any innovations. . . . She is, however, prudently and firmly 
and piously following up her purpose, though somewhat more slowly than 
we could wish" : Zurich Letter* (Parker Society), i. 10. See also p. 18. 

* The words of the Act are: "That no foreign prince,' person, prelate, 
state or potentate, spiritual or temporal, shall at any time after the last 
day of this session of parliament use, enjoy, or exercise any manner 
of power, jurisdiction, superiority, authority, pre-eminence or priv, 
spiritual or ecclesiastical, within this realm," etc. The pope is not named, 
but he was intended. 

' This was the second Prayer Book of Edward VI., which had no 
authority except such as the State could give. The Act did not authorise 
the Ordinal, an omission which led to trouble afterwards. 

' The words of the Act are : " If any person or persons . . . compel 
or cause or otherwise procure or maintain any parson, vicar, or other 
minister in any cathedral or parish church, or in chapel, or in any other 
place, to sing or say any common and open prayer, or to minister any 
sacrament otherwise or in any other manner and form than is mentioned 
in the said book," etc. 

* Zurich Litters, i. 71. 

' The phrase has from that time been applied regularly to the 
Elizabethan "religion" or "church." After the Acts had passed Jewell 
wrote to Bullinger : " Religion is again placed on the same footing on 
which it stood in King Edward's time": Zurich letters, i. 33. Richard 
Hills, writing to Bullinger in 1570, speaks of the Northern Rebellion as 
a conspiracy "against the religion and doctrine . . . established by the 
authority of our most serene queen at least ten years since" : ibid., i. 213. 
" The Church of England by law established under the king's majesty " 
is a phrase in one of the Anglican canons of 1603 (No. 3, and see also 
following canons). 

' Some Nonconformists also refused to attend church and were called 
" recusants," but practically all recusants were " popish recusants." 

' The Act was styled one "for the assurance of the queen's royal 
power over all estates and subjects within her dominions." 

' It does not appear that Lancashire was much affected by it. 

10 The extreme forfeitures of a premunirc were incurred by those who 
brought an Agnus Dei, cross, picture, beads, etc., from Rome, or received 
the same. 



5 2 ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 

11 The first-fruits were Cuthbert Mayne, a seminary priest, at Launceston 
in '575 ; J°' in Nelson, priest, and Thomas Sherwood, layman, both at 
Tyburn in 157S. The use of torture seems to have been confined almost 
to the Tower ; it began in 1577. 

11 Lancaster Records, 1801-50, Introd. p. viii. 

" These victims of Henry VIII. are not regarded as martyrs, but no 
Catholic can help sympathising with the Pilgrimage of Grace, participation 
in which was alleged as the cause of their execution. 

14 Miscellanea (Catholic Record Society), iv. 87; Pollen, Acts of English 
Martyrs, 212-21 ; English Martyrs (Catholic Record Society), i. 66, 206; 
Gillow, Bibliographical Did. of English Catholics, iv. 228-31. 

15 Foley, Records of the English Province S.J., ii. 136. 

18 The sentence on one found guilty was that he should be hanged 
till he was half-dead, and then taken down ; his bowels should be taken 
out of his body, and before his face, he being alive, should be thrown 
into the fire, and then his head should be cut off and his body divided 
into four parts, to be hung up in divers places. 

This brutal punishment of "hanging, drawing, and quartering" was 
in practice sometimes — perhaps at Lancaster usually — modified to the 
extent of allowing the victim to hang till he was dead or quite insensible. 

17 By "minister" is to be understood one of the established clergy 
of the time ; there were no nonconformists. 

18 English Martyrs (Catholic Record Soc), i. 74-8 ; Challoner, 
Missionary Priests, quoting Bridgewater's Concertatio ; Gillow, op. cit., 
i. 173. 

lu The date is not given ; perhaps about 1 575- 

20 On one occasion " they drew him to the church with such fury and 
barbarous cruelty as though they had drawn a beast to the slaughter, 
hauling him by the heels through the streets upon the stones in such 
sort that his head was very sore wounded, and all the stones besprinkled 
with his blood." 

21 English Martyrs, i. 78-88; Gillow, op. cit., ii. 257. 
23 Gillow, op. cit., iii. 165. 

23 The "any other" was no doubt Philip of Spain, whose Armada 
was actually despatched in 1588 in order to recover this country for the 
Catholic religion by force of arms. The question meant : If the King 
of Spain invades this country, will you take sides with him, by arms or 
influence, or will you side with the queen ? and the answer meant, We 
will side with Philip if he comes absolutely for religion and not for political 
aggrandisement. 

24 See articles by Fr. Pollen in the Month, Nov. 1904, March 1905. 
2i I 'ictoria History of Lancashire, iii. 89. 



THE MARTYRS 53 

** Caltndar of Statt Papers, Domestic, 1 598-1601, p. 14. 

" Challoner, op. at., Nos. 120, 131. For Nutter, see also Gillow, op. cit., 
v. 203 ; for Tawing, Foley, op. tit., vi. 175. 

" Miscellanea (Catholic Record Society), iii. 16, 18. 

" Ibid., ii. 277, 282 ; in prison in London. 
1 His examination is printed by Foley, op. cit., viii. 1367-9. 

11 English Martyrs, i. 3S6 ; Gillow, op. cit., iii. 4S1. 

31 In London Fr. Middlcton was admitted to the Society of Jesus : 
Foley, op. tit., viii. 962. 

" The sheriff was Sir Cuthbert Halsall. 

14 Those who attended the State services while remaining Catholics 
by conviction were called "schismatics" by Catholics to distinguish 
them from Protestants proper; they were called "Church papists " by 
Protestants. 

* English Martyrs, i. 388. 

M Ibid., i. 385. 

" Challoner, op. cit., No. 137. No particulars are recorded. 

" Foley, op. cit., vi. 181. 

" Ballad in Pollen's Acts of Martyrs, 202. 

40 Ibid., 196. A ballad, printed ibid., 204, is stated to have been 
composed by the martyr himself. 

" Challoner, op. cit., No. 155. It appears from the story that there 
were other priests in prison at the same time. 

" Ibid. 

11 Stanton, M'cnolog); 292. 

44 Calendar of State Papers, Domestic, 1627-8, p. 405 ; Foley, op. cit., 
ii. 60-61. 

44 Miscellanea (Catholic Record Soc), i. 105. 

** His baptismal name was Brian ; he adopted Edmund at confirmation. 
On the mission he was known as Rigby or Bradshaw. 

17 Several horrible stories are told of the judge's brutality. 

49 Foley,c/. cit., ii. 24-74; Challoner, No. 160; Gillow, op. cit.,\. 62. 
A report of the time states "that Mr. Arrowsmith's clothes and the knife 
that cut him up, are at Sir Cuthbert Clifton's house." Some other relics 
were obtained from the castle, as appears by a certificate in Foley, 
Op. cit., ii. 59. 

4 " Challoner, No. 161 ; Gillow, iii. 4S7. The surname is spelt Ilcrst 
and Hirst also. 

50 His baptismal name was Edward^ 

M Challoner, No. 164; Gillow, i. 134; Camm, Martyr Monk of Man- 
chester (C. T. S.) ; Apostolical Life of Ambrose Harlow (Chetham Society). 
" Hart-Davis and Holme, Wardlcy Hall, 153-60. When found the 



54 ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 

skull was " furnished with a goodly set of teeth and (had) on it a good 
deal of auburn hair." Considering the martyr's age and his long and 
hard life as a missionary priest in perilous times, his teeth would probably 
be decayed and his hair grey. 

•* Challoner, No. 184 ; Gillow, i. 120. 

" Challoner, No. 186. 

66 Foley, op. cit., vi. 322. At Rome he "afforded a remarkable example 
of the mildest disposition." The following abstract is given of his replies 
to the questions put to him on admission to the college: "He was 
son of Thomas and Dorothy Woodcock, and was born at Leyland and 
brought up at Clayton(-le-Woods) in Lancashire until he was 19 years of 
age. His parents were of the middle class. He had an elder brother 
but no sisters. His father was a heretic or schismatic ; his mother a 
pious Catholic. He studied for one year at St. Omers, after having been 
a heretic or schismatic until nearly twenty years of age, when he was 
converted to the Catholic faith, and suffered much for a long time from 
a cruel father on that account. He went to his grandfather, a Catholic 
gentleman, viz. Mr. Anderton of Clayton. At last under the care of 
Edward Squire, a Jesuit Father, he crossed over with others to Belgium." 

66 Challoner, No. 185. His head was secured and sent to the English 
Franciscans at Douay. 

" Victoria History of Lancashire, iii. 340. 

18 See the numerous Lancashire cases in the Royalist Composition 
fapcrs, printed by the Record Society. 

69 Challoner records one in 1651 and another in 1654. 

eo Carlyle, CromuielVs Letters, No. 216. 



Ill 

THE DARK AGE 

DURING the age of martyrdoms a veil of darkness covers 
the story of faithful Catholics in and around Lancaster. 
A recusant roll compiled about 1593 ' gives a few names 
in the town and neighbourhood, with the fine of ^260 
noted against them in most cases ; but the list must be 
imperfect, as several townships are not named. The 
following are those recorded in this roll of honour : — 

Lancaster 

William Wool fall, gent. 
Ellen H ubber sty, widow. 

Scotforth 
Matilda Taylor, widow. 

Middlcton 
Elizabeth Eccleston, spinster. 

Torrisholmc 

Richard Westby, husbandman. 

Margaret, his wife. 

George Charnley, yeoman. 

(Catherine, wife of Richard Procter, husbandman. 

Richard Huetson, husbandman. 

Elizabeth, his wife. 

Mary Chambers, spinster. 



56 ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 

There was at that time no possibility of fixed 
missionary centres. In a small country town, where 
everybody knew everybody else's business, it would have 
been impossible for a priest to settle down and carry 
on his work without detection. How any Catholics 
managed to exist in Lancaster is wonderful, but it 
appears that there were a few ; and the town residences 
of the gentry — for example, the house of the Shireburnes 
of Stonyhurst — may have sheltered a priest for a few 
days at a time. Aldcliffe and Bulk, estates of the 
Daltons of Thurnham ; Ouernmore, belonging to the 
Prestons of Furness Abbey, and the Carus residence 
at Hal ton, would afford more secure meeting-places ; 
but in general the missionary had to keep moving about 
from one house to another to avoid betrayal and capture, 
a stroke which might result in his own death and bring 
disaster on his benefactors. 

The pressure of the penal laws continued under the 
Stewarts, and in August 1625, soon after the accession 
of Charles I., the chief Catholic gentry of the county, 
headed by Sir Thomas Gerard, met at Quernmore, 
ostensibly for hunting, but no doubt to consult as to 
some petition for relief, including the greatly desired 
liberty of worship. Various hostile depositions about 
the assembly were sent up to the king's ministers, the 
jealous fears of local Protestants imagining that it must 
be seditious or treasonable ; but the Chief Justice having 
examined the accounts, reported that he could not 
advise any use of them in a court of justice.- 

The names of a few Catholic families are known. 
The South worths of Highfield, near Williamson Park, 



THE DARK AGE 57 

retained the faith for some time in the seventeenth 
century; for George Southworth of that place and 
Mary his wife were on the recusant rolls in 1622, and 
John Southworth was recorded similarly in 16S0. 3 
The Singletons of Scale Hall and the Copelands of 
Dolphinlce were recusants also, as will be seen here- 
after. Heaton about 1640-50 was the residence of 
some of the Brockholes family, likewise adherents of 
the proscribed faith. 1 Another branch of the Brock- 
holes family had Torrisholme by inheritance from 
that Thomas Covell who is a conspicuous figure 
in local history, but it is not clear that they were 
Catholics. 

Of such families fines, sequestrations, and disabilities 
of all sorts were the usual lot. It is not surprising that 
they often sank into obscurity ; not surprising, however 
sad, that they sometimes conformed to the State re- 
ligion, and saved their estates. In either case the object 
of the laws was secured. Those of humbler rank were 
protected by their poverty. The kindliness of neigh- 
bours would in many cases be their shield, though their 
absence from the parish church — the only place allowed 
for public worship — would be noticed, and the reason 
for it easily guessed. 

It would be interesting to learn the names of the 
priests who helped to keep the light of faith glowing in 
the darkness. Each of them had to possess more than 
ordinary courage, going forward even in apparently 
quiet times with the consciousness that at any moment 
he might be arrested, imprisoned, and condemned to 
a hideous death, and actually suffer it if the political 



58 ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 

exigencies of the king in his disputes with the Puritans 
seemed to require it. A list compiled about 1640 has 
been preserved, showing that in the whole county there 
were fifty-five missionary priests, of whom thirty-four 
were seculars, ten Benedictines, one Franciscan, and ten 
Jesuits. 5 

In the Civil War Catholics took the king's side. 
They had been accused of treason and were practically 
outlawed in their own country ; they had seen their 
priests put to death for ministering to them the word 
and sacraments of Christ. The king's enemies were 
their own bitter foes, for one of the grievances the 
Puritans had against the king was that he was lenient to 
Catholics. What wonder, then, that these should take 
up arms for the king, thus showing who were loyal and 
striking a blow for liberty at the same time ? Had 
Charles succeeded, he would probably have felt obliged 
to make some concessions ; as he failed, Catholics had 
to suffer still more in the loss of life on the field and 
the fines and confiscations levied by the victorious 
Parliamentarians, as stated above. This was specially 
the case in Lancashire, where the war was to a large 
extent a war of religion, Sir Thomas Tyldesley of 
Myerscough being the most active leader of the Royal- 
ists. The Earl of Derby, who gave his great influence 
and wealth to the same side, was a somewhat stiff 
Anglican ; the story that he became a Catholic just 
before his execution is too well authenticated to be put 
aside, and one can only conjecture that among the chief 
causes for the change was his admiration for the courage 
and loyalty of his friend Tyldesley, as opposed to the 



THE DARK AGL 59 

genera] disloyalty, as he would regard it, «>f the Lanca- 
shire Protestants. 

After the Restoration we have more definite in- 
formation about lay Catholics, for a list of convicted 
recusants, prepared about 1680 to show what money 
could be raised from their fines, gives the names of 
the following in Lancaster and the immediate neigh- 
In "urhood :• — 



Lancaster 

Alice, wife of Christopher Wilkinson, gunsmith. 

Anne, wife of Richard Ormandy, saddler. 

William Parkinson, Webster. 

Isabel, his wife. 

Thomas Whirtingham, husbandman. 

Ellen Nickson, widow. 

Anne, wife of Edward Jepson, husbandman. 

Alice, wife of Robert Sturzakcr, husbandman. 

Elizabeth Harrison, spinster. 

Isabel Knipe, widow. 

Ellen Knipe, spinster. 

Dorothy, wife of Edmund Newton, gent. 

Elizabeth, wife of Mark Horsfall, blacksmith. 

Janet, wife of Richard Russell, slater. 



Aldcliffe 

Ellen White, widow. 

Margaret Heyes, widow. 

I torothy, wife of Francis Walker. 

Robert Sergeant, senior. 

Eleanor Sergeant, daughter of Thomas Sergeant. 

Robert Sergeant, son of Robert Sergeant, senior. 

Margaret, daughter of the same Robert Sergeant. 



6o ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 

Bulk 

John Copeland, yeoman. 

Katherine, wife of Robert Copeland, yeoman. 

James Wallon, his servant. 

Bridget, wife of Thomas Copeland. 

Thomas Preston, yeoman. 

Elizabeth, his wife. 

William Jelly, husbandman. 

Elizabeth, his wife. 

Thomas Sergeant, husbandman. 

Ellen, his wife. 

Thomas Copeland, husbandman. 

Christopher Croskell, husbandman. 

Elizabeth Worthington, spinster. 

Katherine Copeland, spinster. 

Ellen Copeland, spinster. 

Ellen Harrison, spinster. 

John White, husbandman. 

Elizabeth, his wife. 

Quernmore 

Christopher Cumberland, husbandman. 

Dorothy, his wife. 

Elizabeth, wife of Richard Gibson, husbandman. 

Thomas Winder, husbandman. 

Barbara, wife of Thomas Holme, husbandman. 

Anne, wife of William Hathornthwaite, husbandman. 

Skerton 

Robert Edmundson, linen webster. 

Mary, his wife. 

John Hewetson, husbandman. 

Margaret, his wife. 

Elizabeth, wife of John Carter, husbandman. 



THE DARK AG] 61 



Heaton -.vitli Oxcliffe 



M irgaret, wife of Edward Parkinson. 

|ane, wife of Robert Mashiter, husbandman. 



Ponlion, Bare, and Torrisholme 

fohn Gregg. 

Anne Aple, spinster. 

The disproportionate superiority of women in these 
lists will be noticed. It was far too common in those 
evil days for the husband to conform occasionally to the 
statutory worship in order to escape conviction for 
recusancy and the consequent fines and disabilities, and 
to trust to a deathbed reconciliation. 

The only fresh Act directed against Catholics at this 
period was the Test Act of 1673, preventing them sitting 
in Parliament and holding any public office. 

The castle as a prison for Catholics comes into the 
story again during the madness aroused by Titus Oates' 
plot. Francis Sherington, of Booths in Worsley and 
Claughton near Caton, is stated to have died in the castle 
while a prisoner for recusancy about 1679. 7 The parish 
registers show that on December 25, 1680, " Mr. Birkett 
a prisoner" was buried. According to Challoner, his 
offence was his priesthood and he was condemned to 
death for it, but was probably reprieved. He was 
a Jesuit, and Mr. Gillow believes his true name to have 
been Penketh. H is will made in February 1 67S-9 shows 
that he anticipated the fate of Oates's victims, for after 
giving instructions about his burial, he adds : " Unless 



62 ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 

it please my Lord that I suffer at Lancaster, when 
I hope that some good Catholic souls will do me the 
charity to inter my poor body, if the law do not dispose 
otherways thereof" — a significant "if." 8 In Dr. Kirk's 
Biographies it is stated that another priest, Richard 
Barton, was condemned for his priesthood and confined 
in Lancaster Castle from 1679 to 1684, when he appears 
to have been set free. 

A few years later, in the days of James II., there 
was a brief interval of religious liberty both for Catholics 
and Protestant Dissenters. It is just possible that the 
former may have ventured, as did the latter, to provide 
a room for public worship, for in B inns' map of the 
town, made in 1824, he marks a house at the south- 
east corner of Bridge Lane and Church Street as the 
traditional site of a Catholic chapel. Nothing else is 
known of it, and the only record of mass being publicly 
said in the town at that time occurs in the Diary of 
Thomas Cartwright, Bishop of Chester, a zealous ad- 
herent of the king. He visited Lancaster at assize time, 
when one of the judges was a Catholic, and under date 
August 12, 1687, notes: "I went with Judge Powell, 
the colleague of Allibone, to the [parish] church. Sir 
Richard Allibone and the Catholics went at the same 
time to the school house, where they had mass and 
a sermon." 9 Accounts of Judge Allibone (d. 1688) may 
be seen in the Dictionary of National Biography and in 
Gillow's Bibliographical Dictionary. He was the son of 
a convert, and his religion, as well as his support of the 
king's prerogative, helped to win James's favour. He 
had a brother who was a missionary priest. During this 



THE DARK AGE 63 

assize (August 16, 16S7) the Corporation of Lancaster 
enrolled both the judges among their freemen; also 
Sir William Gerard, Sir Thomas Clifton, and a few 
other Catholic gentlemen. 

Soon afterwards Bishop Leyburne, the vicar apostolic, 
was able to hold a confirmation, the following being the 
record of recipients : On September 1, 1687 — Aldclillc, 
223 ; Thurnham, 87 ; Thurnham or Dickison, 71. 10 

The sunshine soon passed, and at the Revolution of 
168S the doctrine and worship of the Catholic Church 
were again banished to darkness and secrecy. Protest- 
ants had just learned to tolerate each other, but took care 
to devise fresh measures of repression against professors 
of the old religion, 11 in addition to excluding any of them 
from the throne. Catholics were almost universally loyal 
to the exiled Stewarts, so that the hostility of the 
revolutionary government was due to political as much 
as to religious reasons. No overt act of rebellion occurred 
for a quarter of a century, 12 but on the Scottish Jacobites 
invading the country in November 1 7 1 5 they were joined 
at Lancaster by several of the Catholic gentry, including 
Mr. Dalton of Thurnham. Only two of the townsmen, 
both "papists," did the same; one was Edmund Gart- 
side, a barber, and the other was a joiner. They were 
appointed quartermasters. 13 During the stay of the 
force in Lancaster the chronicler records thus : " This 
evening (November 8) a discourse about religion 
happened between the minister of this town and two 
Romish priests." " The disastrous overthrow of the 
invaders at Preston on November 13 caused the castle 
to be crowded with prisoners. 



64 ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 

The rising inevitably provoked a hunt for the mis- 
sionary priests. James Swarbrick, born at Singleton in the 
Eylde in 1655, and educated at St. Omers and the English 
Colleec at Rome, to which latter he was admitted in 
1673, was ordained in 1678, and left for Flanders two 
years later. 15 He took charge of the Singleton mission 
in 1706, the chapel being in Mr. Richard Gillow's house 
there. A search being made in 17 16, Mr. Swarbrick 
was arrested, conveyed to Lancaster, and imprisoned in 
the castle " on suspicion of being a Popish priest." 
Through the overcrowding and filthy condition of the 
prison and the harsh treatment of those confined there, 
great sickness prevailed. It is said that forty-three 
captives died there ; and nine of those condemned were 
hanged in February and October 17 16. The political 
offenders were almost all Catholics, so that it may be re- 
garded as a sign of divine mercy to them that a priest 
was there also, who could assist them in their last 
moments. The priest himself was a victim, dying in 
prison in March 171 5-6. l6 One of his last acts was to 
bequeath ^10 to the old Lancashire and Westmorland 
Clergy Fund. 17 

Another priest, Edward Kitchen, serving the mission 
at Broughton near Preston, was also in 17 16 convicted 
at Lancaster as " a reputed Popish priest." 18 

In 17 1 7, when all Catholics were required to register 
their estates, only four residents in the town had to do 
so. They were George Carus, and Frances, the widow 
of another Carus, who registered annuities charged on 
the Halton estates; 19 and John Robinson, a joiner, and 
Elizabeth his wife, who had a small estate in Forton 



THE DARK AGE 65 

inherited from the wife's father, Andrew Snape. " No 
return of the number of " papists " at that time was made 
l p Bishop (i.istrrll of < 'hestrr. 

It may be useful to interpolate a short account of the 
government of Catholics during that dark age. Late in 
the reign of Elizabeth the pope appointed an arch-ptiest 
to regulate the missionary priests working in England, but 
in 1623 a bishop was appointed with the name of vicar 
apostolic and a title from one of the ancient sees in 
the East overthrown by the Mohammedans and there- 
fore described as in partibus infidclium. In 16SS the 
country was divided into four districts, each with its 
vicar apostolic, and Lancashire was part of the North- 
ern District, which was ruled in succession by the 
following bishops: 16SS, James Smith; 17 15, George 
William; 1725, Thomas Williams, O.P. ; 1 74 1 , Edward 
Dicconson; 1 751, Francis Petre; 1770, William Walton ; 
i7So, Matthew Gibson; 1790, William Gibson; 18 10, 
Thomas Smith ; 1S24, Thomas Penswick ; 1833, John 
Briggs. In 1S40 Lancashire was made into a separate 
district, and the priest in charge of the Lancaster mission, 
the Rev. George Brown, was appointed Vicar Apostolic. 
When the hierarchy was restored in 1850 he was made 
Bishop of Liverpool, Lancaster being in the new see, 
and his successors have been : — 

1856, Alexander Goss. 
1873, Bernard O'Reilly. 
1894, Thomas Whiteside. 

Turning from Lancaster itself, which from early in 
the eighteenth century had a resident priest, it is time 

E 



66 ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 

to notice the history of the neighbouring places so far 
as it concerns the present purpose. 

Aldcliffe 

After the suppression of Syon Abbey, Aldcliffe and 
Bulk were retained by the Crown for a time, but in 
1 557—8 were sold to Robert Dalton of Thurnham, 
whose successors continued to be the most prominent 
Catholics in the neighbourhood and great benefactors of 
the mission till the death of Miss Dalton in 1S61. 21 In 
the middle of the seventeenth century Aldcliffe Hall was 
the residence and property of the eleven sisters of that 
Thomas Dalton who was fatally wounded at Newbury 
in 1644 when fighting for Charles I. Seven of them 
were convicted of recusancy in 1640, and two-thirds of 
their estate was consequently sequestered in 1643, when 
the Parliament obtained power." They survived these 
troubles and saw the restoration of Charles II. Two 
of them were still living there unmarried in 1674, when 
the inscription was set up which gave the house its name 
of " The Catholic Virgins." 2S It reads : — 

CATHOLIS.E * 

VIRGINES NOS 

SVMVS : MVTARE 

VEL TEMPORE 

SPERXIMVS + 

ANO ^ DM I 

1674 

They had suffered, and could without immodesty fling 
out this defiance to Time, but the sequel shows that 
he had his revenges. 



THE DARK AGE 67 

Their portion of the Aldcliffe estate they left in trust 
for the use of the secular clergy serving the mission. 
Peter (".•".den, a member of a Catholic family resident 
near Eccles, is the first priest known to have enjoyed 
this provision."' When Cartwright, as above stated, paid 
his official visit to Lancaster in 1687, he went to see 
the " Catholic Virgins," and mentions Gooden."'' This 
priest had a school there for boys whom he wished to 
prepare for the seminaries abroad. He had himself 
been educated at the English College, Lisbon, to which 
he was sent in 1660. He is supposed to have settled 
at Aldcliffe about 1680. " During the reign of James 1 1. 
Mr. Gooden was appointed chaplain to the Duke of 
Berwick's regiment, and he obtained considerable cele- 
brity by the able manner in which he conducted public 
disputations with some of the most learned Protestant 
divines, more especially with Dr. Stillingfleet and Dr. 
Clagett." Later he returned to Aldcliffe, and was buried 
at the parish church of Lancaster on December 31, 
1694, having died on the 29th. The registers, which 
describe him as "a Romish priest" from Aldcliffe, 
also record the burial of one Thomas Hayes, another 
" Romish priest," on December 31, 1692 ; he may 
have been at Aldcliffe for a time. 

There is a defect in the evidence for nearly twenty 
years, the celebrated Dr. Edward Hawarden being sent 
there probably in 1711." 8 He was of the family of 
Hawarden of Appleton in Widnes, and was educated 
at Douay, being ordained priest in 1686. He was one 
of the Catholic divines whom James II. forced upon 
Magdalen College, Oxford, but his tenure of office was 



68 ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 

for a few weeks only in 1688, and he returned to Douay 
to teach there. He was made D.D., and appointed 
vice-president of the college. His great reputation for 
learning and ability in controversy led to his being 
nominated in 1702 for a professorship in the University 
of Douay ; but he was defeated, as his friends alleged, 
by an intrigue at court. About 1703 he fell under 
suspicion of Jansenism, but no specific charge was made 
until 1 710, after he had left Douay for some time and 
undertaken the work of the English mission. He 
averred that "he detested and always had detested 
the errors of Jansenius and all others condemned by 
the apostolic see." In England from 1707 onward, he 
laboured in Durham. Afterwards, as above stated, he 
was at Aldcliffe, as some extracts from Thomas Tyldesley's 
Diary will show : " 7 — 

1 71 2, June 8. — Went with two cousins Waltons to Ald- 

cliffe to prayers. 28 
Sept. 28. — In the morning took Aggy behind me to 

Aldcliffe to prayers. 
Dec. 25. — Dr. Hawarden prayed and dined with us.- 9 

1713, March 29. — Went to Aldcliffe with cousin Fletcher. 

On many later Sundays and holy days he " went to Ald- 
cliffe," showing that mass was regularly said there, but no 
priest's name is given till Aug. 9: "Went in the morning to 
Aldcliffe and to confession ; Dr. H. came back to dinner." 
Among later entries will be found the following: — 

Oct. 18. — Went to confession to Dr. Hawarden at 
Aldcliffe. Found John Hathornthwaite there, who 
came and dined with me. 

Dec. 24. — About 1 1 at night went to Aldcliffe, where 
Dr. Hawarden preached gloriously. 




DR. HAWAKHKN 



THE DARK AGE 69 

\~\.\,Jdii. 17. — Dr. Hawarden prayed here [Lancaster], 
dined and stayed till evening. 
June 6. — Went in the morning to Aldclifle with Mrs. 

[T.], Doctor and Mr. Taylor both being (here. 30 
Aug. 20. — Dr. Hawarden here, and lie with cousin 
Carus and his lady, son, and daughter dined 
with us. 31 

1 >r. 1 Iawarden probably left Aldcliffe on the disaster 
to the Jacobites in 17 15, and was settled in London 
by 1 7 19. Here he had a conference, by desire of the 
queen of George II., with Dr. Samuel Clarke, one of 
the Broad Church divines of that day who had ex- 
plained away the orthodox doctrine of the Trinity. He 
said he would ask Dr. Clarke but one question, and 

ired an answer Yes or No to it; it was, "Can God 
the Father annihilate the Son and the Holy Ghost?" 
His opponent, after taking thought, said he had not 
considered that point ; and the conference ended. He 
afterwards wrote a formal " Answer to Dr. Clarke and 
Mr. Whiston," published in 1729. The University of 
Oxford gave him thanks for this work. He died in 
London on April 23, 1735, aged seventy-three, with a 
high character for learning and humility. 

In addition to the work mentioned, his principal 
publications were the following, relating to the Anglican 
and general Protestant controversy : The True Church 
of Christ, 2 vols., 17 14-5, a reply to Charles Leslie; 
Discourses of Religion, 17 16; Rule of Faith and its 
Postscript, 1720; Charity and Truth, 1728, a reply to 
Chillingworth ; and Wit against Reason, 1735, a further 
reply to the same. It was in reference to the first of 
these that Bishop Milner remarked that the author, " for 



7o ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 

depth of learning and strength of argument, had not 
been surpassed since the time of Bellarmine." From 
the date of publication, the book may well have been 
written at Aldcliffe. 

He was perhaps the last missionary priest at Ald- 
cliffe. After "the '15" the Government made an 
inquiry into the estates held by Catholics, and par- 
ticularly into those suspected of being devoted to what 
were abusively called " superstitious uses," i.e. the ser- 
vice of the Catholic religion. An informer betrayed the 
secret trust on which Aldcliffe was held, and so it was 
confiscated and sold. 

Of the Catholics of Aldcliffe we know little. During 
the Civil War time the estate of Robert Sergeant of 
Aldcliffe was confiscated and sold by the Parliamentary 
authorities, 32 and there can be no doubt that his religion 
was the chief if not the only cause of his punishment. 
The name of Robert Sergeant the elder, probably the 
same man, will be found in the list of convicted recusants 
at Aldcliffe given above. Roger Sergeant of Aldcliffe 
was a recusant in 1679. 33 The Sergeants of Ellel were 
recusants also. In 17 17 William Walker, Mary Cope- 
land, and Henry her son registered estates at Aldcliffe 
as " papists." 34 

Bulk 

Dolphinlee from about 1580 was the residence of 
the Copeland family, who were leaseholders of the 
Daltons and acted as their agents. 35 At the outbreak 
of the Civil War, Lawrence Copeland had two-thirds of 
his estate at Dolphinlee sequestered for his religion ; 



THE DARK AGE 71 

after his dc.iih in 1651, his son Robert and (Catherine 
his wife petitioned for its restoration:" Names of some 
of the family will be found above in the list of convicted 
recusants for the time of Charles 1 1. 

The house afforded a shelter to the missionary 
priests. " Mass was said in the old chapel in Dolphin- 
lee from a very early period. The pre-Reformation 
chalice from the chapel of Caton was the one in regular 
use at Dolphinlee till the service there was discontinued, 
when it was handed over to the priest serving Claughton 
Hall and Robert Hall . . . whence it was transferred 
to I lornby." 37 

The surface of the land in the north-west part of 
Bulk in general slopes down to the Lune, so that 
Dolphinlee, which stands nearly a mile from the river, 
is not seen from Lancaster. The front of the house 
faces the south-west ; in the centre is a projecting porch- 
way of nearly the same height as the main building, 
and having, like it, two stories and an attic. At the 
back is another larger projecting part, containing 
pantries, &c. Thus the original house may be de- 
scribed as cruciform, with the chimney-stacks at the 
end gables of the longer part ; there is a modern 
residential bay at the south-east end, and various lean- 
to's, offices, and farm buildings at the back. The 
windows are the usual long low ones with stone mullions. 
Over the entrance doorway is this inscription 33 in capital 
letters : — 

REDEEME THY SINNES BY ALMSDEEDS 
AND MERCIE TOWARDS THE 
POOKE. DA. 4+1623 L C E 



72 ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 

Entering the house, a passage leads across the 
building, but its walls are of board only. To the 
left is the kitchen, with a large fireplace and an 
ingle-nook the entire width of the room ; an ancient 
doorway leads to the back. To the right of the 
entrance is a sitting-room with a fireplace on which 
is the text : 3D — 

WHEN' THOV MAKEST A FEAST 
CAL THE POORE LAME AND BLYNDE. LV. 14. 

The doorway from this room to the modern addition 
reveals the great thickness of the wall — some four feet. 
A passage along the far side of the same room leads to 
a vise or spiral staircase of stone in the eastern corner 
of the old part of the house. This stairway, which has 
a second (external) door, leads to the upper story, now 
partly in use for bedrooms, and to the attic, which is 
curiously partitioned and shows the strong roof-beams. 
The attic floor has two trap-doors ; one of them, on 
being opened, gives a view of the basement, and above 
it hangs a rope over a beam. In the western room of 
the upper story is a fireplace over that of the kitchen, 
having memento mori carved over it ; and on each 
side of this fireplace is one of the priests' hiding- 
places, entered by a trap-door in the attic above. One 
hiding-place is quite dark, but the other has a small 
window. A crucifix and a mahogany candlestick with 
brass top were found in one. Mass is said to have 
been celebrated in the attic, and there is a story that 
a duke's daughter was married there. 

Thomas Tyldesley and his wife went to Bulk to 




w 

— 



o 



THE DARK AGE 77, 

" prayers" i'ii March 25, 1712, and he went again in the 
Following April, but not later, so far as appears from his 

iry. 

Several "papists" registered small leasehold estates 
in Hulk in 1717, viz. Ellen, widow of Richard Cottam 
of Broughton near Preston ; Robert Croskcll.and Robert 
Ball of Dolphinlee. 40 The Croskells and Balls were 
yeoman families of great fidelity to the Catholic religion, 
and a number of priests sprang from them, including 
Mgr. Robert Croskcll, who became provost of Salford 
and died in 1902, and the Rev. William Ball, who died 
at Dolphinlee in 1SS0." 



Qleknmore 

At Quernmore there was frequently a priest during 
the time it was owned by the Prestons of Furness and 
their heirs the Cliffords, that is, from about 1630 to 1790. 
•• The Rev. Peter Winder, alias Bradley, son of William 
Winder of Caton, yeoman, came to England from 
Lisbon in 1644 and was stationed in his native district. 
It is very probable that he served Robert Hall [in 
Tatham] for some time before he undertook the charge 
of the chapels at Ouernmore and Bulk. Sir Thomas 
Preston established an annuity for the use of the priest 
attending to Quernmore in 1677, and it is probable that 
Mr. Winder settled there about that time, for in 16S0 his 
name appears in a list of fines for recusancy at that 
place." ,J It was perhaps not more than a domestic 
chaplaincy. Mary Walmsley of Park Hall in Quern- 
more, wjdow, in 1 7 17 as a "papist" registered her little 



74 ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 

estate, viz. a house and 19 acres tenanted by her sons 
Richard and Thomas Taylor. 43 

Skerton 

The Singletons of Brockholes held Scale Hall about 
1600. It may have descended to them from a younger 
branch of the Lawrence family, but the evidence is 
obscure. John Singleton of Scale occurs on Lord 
Burghley's map of 1590. Mary, widow of Thomas 
Singleton of Scale, in 165 1 petitioned the Parliamentary 
Commissioners for a third part of the small estate left to 
her; they had in 1649 sequestered it for her recusancy 
alone. 44 It appears that her husband had in 1636 sold 
his estate to John Bradshaw, described as " recusant 
and delinquent," i.e. Catholic and Royalist. In 1633 
Richard Blackburn of Skerton compounded for the two- 
thirds of his lands liable to sequestration for recusancy, 
by an annual fine of £$, 6s. 8d. 45 Some later members 
of the Bradshaw family remained true to their religion, 
for in 1 67S Ambrose Bradshaw of Skerton and Jane his 
wife were indicted for recusancy. 46 

The list above given records two Edmundsons as 
convicted recusants about 1680. Nicholas Edmundson 
gave the English Franciscans a house and garden at 
Skerton ; " and his son Peter entered that order, and 
died in 1690, being considered a man of great promise. 48 
It does not appear that any mission was established 
across the Lune till recent times. In 17 17 two " papists," 
Francis and John Gate of Poulton, registered their estates. 
They were the sons of Thomas Gate of Poulton, who 



THE DARK AGE 7- 

was a recusant in i68o. 4fl Thomas, son of John Gate 
by Margaret Walker his wife, was admitted to the Eng- 
lish College at Rome in 1712, but died of consumption 
the following year. Francis Gate was a benefactor to 
the Lancaster mission, bequeathing /, 10 in 1752 to Mr. 
Skelton, " the interest thereof to be applied toward the 
maintenance of such Roman Catholic priest as shall 
officiate at Lancaster." 

We are thus brought back to the beginnings of the 
permanent mission in the town itself. 

NOTES 

1 Exchequer L.T.R. Recusant Roll, 34 Elizabeth. Some of the dates 
in the roll are later than 1592. 

* Calendar of State Papers, Domestic, 1625-6, p. 161, 173. 

I Miscellanea (Catholic Record Society), v. 1 57-8. 

' Royalist Composition Papers (Record Society L. and C), i. 246-9. 
5 Miscellanea (Catholic Record Society), i. 115. 

* The list is printed in the above-cited volume of Miscellanea (v.), with 
copious notes by Mr. Joseph Gillow ; Lancaster, p. 231 ; AldclifTe, 247; 
Hulk, 245 ; Quemmorc, 232 ; Skerton, 236 ; Heaton and Poulton, 251. 

' Ibid., v. 168. 

* Ibid., iv. 431. 

* Diary (Camden Society), 71. 

10 Kirk, Catholicon (1817), iv. 87. 

II In 1689 Acts were passed to remove "papists and reputed papists" 
from London, and not allowing them to come within ten miles of it ; for 
disarming "papists and reputed papists"; and for conferring their church 
patronage on the universities of Oxford and Cambridge. In 1699 was 
passed an Act giving .£100 reward to informers against priests; an Act 
which led to much trouble until its repeal in 1778. 

'-' The so-called "Lancashire Plot" of 1694 was an informers' device, 
but there can be no doubt that Catholics kept up constant communication 
with the old king. 

13 Lancashire in 7,-/5 (Chetham Society), 90 ; from Clark's diary. 

11 Ibid., 97. It does not appear that the priests were local men. The 
vicar, James Fenton the younger, appointed in 1714, was a time-server, 



76 ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 

supposed to be friendly to the Jacobites, but waiting to see what would 
happen. In 1745 he was decidedly Hanoverian. 

'^ Foley, Records, vi. 421. 

18 Estcourt and Payne, English Catholic Non-jurors, 355. 

17 The account of Fr. Swarbrick is chiefly due to Mr. Joseph Gillow, 
who has assisted the compilers in many other details. He states that 
the ancient chalice belonging to the Singleton mission, a silver crucifix 
containing a relic of the true cross, certain vestments and altar furniture, 
were in the possession of Mr. John Francis Gillow of Lilystone Hall, 
Essex, who died in 1894. The old processional cross, dated 1662, has 
the figure of our Lord depicted with the flowing wig of the Stewart period ; 
it is in Mr. Joseph Gillow's possession. It may be well to add that the 
statements that Fr. Swarbrick caused himself to be arrested out of charity 
for the prisoners, and that he was condemned to death, are imaginary 
or doubtful. 

18 Miscellanea (Cath. Rec. Soc), v. 165. 
" Estcourt and Payne, op. at., 144. 

!0 Ibid., 146. 

11 See the account of the family in a forthcoming volume of the 
Victoria County History of Lancashire ; also the late Mr. Roper in the 
Historic Society's Transactions (new series), vi. 105-8. The following is 
an outline of the descent : Robert Dalton, the grantee of Aldcliffe and 
Bulk, died 1578 — nephew Robert (son of Thomas Dalton), d. 1626 — 
son Thomas, killed 1644 — son Robert, d. 1700— two daughters, Elizabeth 
and Dorothy. The former married William Hoghton of Park Hall in 
Leyland Hundred, and had a son John, who took the name Dalton ; 
he was the Jacobite, and died in 1736 — son Robert, d. 1785 — son John, 
d. 1S37 — daughters, the above-named Elizabeth, &c. The last-named John 
Dalton had a half-brother William, from whom the present Daltons of 
Thurnham, who are Protestants, are descended. 

a Royalist Composition Papers, ii. 109-114. 

13 It was found by the late Mr. Dawson of Aldcliffe, and given to 
the owner of Thurnham, where it is still kept. It is translated : "Catholic 
Virgins are we ; even with Time we disdain to change." 

24 For a memoir of him, see Gillow's Bibliographical Dictionary, ii. 524-8. 
He printed two controversial tracts. 

B On August 13, 1687, he "went after dinner to the Catholic Virgins, 
where Mr. Gooden lives" : Diary, 71. 

,6 From the account in Gillow's Bibliographical Dictionary, iii. 167-182, 
where may be found a full list of his works, and an account of the con- 
troversies he was engaged in. A portrait at Burton Constable is mentioned ; 
an engraving from it was issued in 1814. 



THE DARK AGE - 

" Published at Preston in 1873; edited by Joseph Gillow and Ant. 
Hewitson. The writer, a Jacobite squire, was of Myerscougb Hall and 
I OS Hall near lllackpool. 

" " Prayers" was the name for mass used in the penal days. When in 
Lancaster OD a Sunday the diarist often spent "all morning in the house." 
Dr. Hawarden is not mentioned by name till the end of thi c. 11,14 

** In Lancaster. So on the following Feb, 15 : "Dr. Hawarden played 
here" — /.<•. said ithe bouse. 

M Mr. Taylor «,is the priest at Tluirnham. 

31 The last time Dr. Hawarden is named in the Diary. 
•acock, Index of Royalists, 44. 

:3 Misallanta (Cath. Ret Soc), v. 247. 

" Estcourt and Payne, ''/'. cit., 14;. William Walker was a yeoman 
with an estate at Aldclift'e and Quemmore. Mary Copeland (widow of 
Thomas) and her son Henry had houses for life. 

** - : ; (Cath. Rec. Sue), v. 245 ; see also new Victoria History 

of Lancashire. 

" Royalist Composition Papers, ii. 77. 

M .' ■, v. 245. See further in Appendix III. 

** Daniel iv. 14. 

" Luke xiv. 13. 

" Estcourt and Payne, op. cit., <"/>, 143, [46. 

" Long accounts of these families arc given by Mr. Gillow in the 
volume of Miscellanea above cited. In his Bibliographical Dictionary (i. 
599) he gives a notice of the Rev. William Croskell, one of the Douay 
students imprisoned at Dourlens, 1794-5, by the French Revolutionists; 
he died in 1838, being Grand Vicar of the Northern District. William 
Ball of Bulk was a trustee in 1761, and in 1772 was succeeded by his son, 
Robert Ball of Dolphinlce, who died in 1807. Robert Ball gave ,£io, 10s. 
to the building of Dalton Square chapel in 1798. 

'-' Miscellanea (Cath. Rec. Soc), iv. 319. 

43 Estcourt and Payne, op. cit., 146. 

" Royalist Composition Papers, i. 224 ; Calendar of Committee for Com- 
pounding, iv. 2695. 

w Transactions of the Lanes, and Cheshire Historic Society (new 
series), xxiv. ; other compounders were Thomas Dalton of Thurnham, 
Christopher Cams of Halton, and Thomas Shireburne of Heysham. 

" Kenyan MSS. (Historical MSS. Commission, xiv.), 109. 

,: Thaddeus, Franciscans in England, 94. 

u Ibid., 229. 

*" Estcourt and Payne, op. cit., 145. 

" Foley, Records, vi. 403. 



IV 
DAWN 

The first positive evidence l of mass being said again 
within the town is to be found in the Diary of Thomas 
Tyldesley as already quoted. The following entry is 
under April 3, 17 12: — 

Went to cousin W. W. [Rev. Wm. Winckley] to con- 
fession. ... In the evening went out with cousin W. W. 
Took the old house in Leonardgate of Thomas Gibson. 

It is possible, from the circumstance of a priest 
accompanying him, that Squire Tyldesley took the 
house with the intention of making it a centre for 
Catholic missionary work. It was a quarter of a cen- 
tury after the Revolution, and as active persecution 
appeared to have ended, local Catholics may have 
thought they could venture, though as quietly as pos- 
sible, to fix the priest's residence in a market town, 
and meet there for worship with comparative regularity. 
A step of this kind was taken in Liverpool about the 
same time, the Jesuit Father Gillibrand taking up his 
residence in that town in 1707. 2 Though the entries in 
the Diary do not altogether support this theory, it may 
be observed that Tyldesley on various Sundays spent 
in Lancaster made his confession to "Cos. W. W.," 

who may have said mass also, and probably did so. 

78 



DAWN 
William Wincklry was later Styled rural dean oi Ley- 

laml -, be was living in 1 7. \2. 



Mason Street CiiArEL 

The storm of 17 15 which destroyed the Aldcliffe 
refuge would affect the Lancaster plan also. At all 
events, nothing certain is known for some twenty years 
or more, and then " Nicholas Skelton, gentleman," had 
a tenement described thus : — 

"All those two messuages, burgages, or dwelling houses 
and one barn, with the orchard and garden thereto belonging, 
situate and being on the north side of a certain street in 
Lancaster aforesaid, called St. Leonardgate ; together with 
several erections and buildings thereupon erected and then 
erecting or building thereon." 

It is possible that this was the house in St. Leonard- 
gate occupied by Thomas Tyldesley in 17 12 and later. 
The Nicholas Skelton named in the deed just quoted, 
the date of which is not given, was the Catholic priest 
serving the Lancaster mission. He was a younger son 
of Richard Skelton of Armathwaite in Cumberland, by 
his wife Mary Meynell, and was born December 17, 
1 69 1. His father was the last of the family to own 
the hereditary estate of Armathwaite, but an ancient 
pedigree had apparently one result : it caused the Duke 
of Hamilton, when residing at Ashton Hall, to call on 
Fr. Skelton, a recognition which might be very useful 
in dangerous times. Nicholas was sent to Douay in 
1705, and took the college oath in 1710; unfortunately, 
the dates at which he was sent on the mission and settled 



80 ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 

in Lancaster are not known — perhaps by 1736, when he 
was serving in Lancashire. 3 He was rural dean 174 1 — 
52, and is stated to have resided in St. Leonardgate 
from about 1740 until his death in 1766, in the house 
described above, the " barn " mentioned being in fact 
the chapel. St. Leonardgate at that time and long 
afterwards was quite at the edge of the town ; the street, 
though fringed with houses, had fields on each side. 
The priest's house was entered from the street, but the 
chapel at the back might also be approached by a pas- 
sage through the "orchard and garden" from what is 
now called North Road ; the passage became Mason 
Street, and forms the western boundary of Gillow's 
works. 

Fr. Skelton was regarded as a man of prudence, for 
at his death he held over ^2500 trust funds of various 
kinds, for the support of the Catholic clergy and other 
uses. Some of the capital had been employed in pur- 
chasing houses in the town, he holding tenements in 
Market Street and Penny Street as well as in St. 
Leonardgate. In 1765 he made himself liable for the 
payment of the turnpike rent of Bulk tolls and tollhouse, 
viz. £70 a year. He died November 13, 1766, and 
the following is a copy of his will, which was proved 
in the following February by the Hon. E. Clifford of 
Ouernmore : — 

I, Nicholas Skelton, of Lancaster in the county of Lan- 
caster, gentleman, being of sound and disposing mind, 
memory, and understanding, do make, publish, and declare 
this my last will and testament in manner and form follow- 
ing, that is to say : In the first place I do order that all my 
just debts and funeral expenses shall be paid and discharged 



DAWN Si 

l>v mv executors hereinafter named, and desire that mv 
funeral expenses may be moderate, because my debts and 
just demands upon me may be larger than my s.ud executors 
or others may imagine. 

1 give and devise all my real estate and estates whatso- 
ever and wheresoever, whether in my own actual possession or 
held by Others lor my use and benefit, unto the Honourable 
Edward Clifford of Park Hall in Quarmore, and Thomas 
Winder Faithwaite of 1'ottycats in Littledale in the said county, 
gentleman, to hold to the said Edward Clifford and Thomas 
Winder Faithwaite, their heirs and assigns, for ever as tenants 
in common and not as joint tenants. 

I also give and bequeath all my personal estate and 
effects whatsoever, and all my mortgages, bonds, bills, notes, 
and other securities, whether taken in my own name or in 
the name of any other person or persons for me, unto the 
said Edward Clifford, Thomas Winder Faithwaite, and William 
Pennington of Kobert Hall in the said county, gentleman, 
their executors, administrators, and assigns. 

And I do hereby nominate, constitute, and appoint the 
said Edward Clifford, Thomas W'inder Faithwaite, and 
William Pennington joint executors of this my last will and 
testament. In witness whereof I, the said Nicholas Skelton, 
have hereunto set my hand and seal the fourth day of October, 
one thousand seven hundred and sixty six. 

Nicholas Skelton. 

The witnesses were Anthony Atkinson, Thomas Shep- 
herd, and John Hankinson. 

While his temporal possessions thus come into view, 
it is noteworthy that his priestly office and work are 
not mentioned, though they could have been no secret 
in Lancaster. In fact, he and two other priests were for 
a time imprisoned in Lancaster Castle in consequence 
of "the 45." 4 That his labours were not in vain may 
be judged by a return of " papists " furnished to the 
Bishop of Chester the year after his death. This records 



82 ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 

that in Lancaster proper there were 640 ; in Caton, 
Littledale, and Gressingham, 71 ; in Overton and 
Poulton, 12; and in Bolton-le-Sands, 27. 5 

James Tyrer, named as the Lancaster priest in the 
return just cited, was described as of the diocese of 
Chester when he took the college oath at Douay on 
May 24, 1 764." The names of his parents are not 
recorded, but he probably came from south-west Lanca- 
shire, where the surname is common. He was ordained 
on March 25, 1766, by the Bishop of Arras, and ministered 
at Lancaster for seventeen years. Two confirmations 
are known to have been held in his term, viz. in June 
1774, when Bishop Walton as coadjutor of Bishop Petre 
confirmed 72 at Dolphinlee, in addition to 90 at Scorton 
and 29 at Hornby; and again in 1782, when Bishop 
Matthew Gibson called at Hornby, Lancaster, and 
Garstang, on his way to Preston. Mr. Tyrer died at 
Hardshaw, St. Helens, on May 5, 1784, being buried at 
Windleshaw. 

After a few months' delay, during which the Rev. 
Richard Edmundson's name' appears in the registers, 
the place was filled by Dr. John Rigby. He built the 
chapel in Dalton Square, and a brief notice of his career 
will be found below. On September 14, 1784, Bishop 
M. Gibson confirmed 42 persons at Lancaster, where 
there were stated to be 400 communicants ; others were 
during the same visitation confirmed from Hornby (43), 
Yealand Conyers (16), Robert Hall (2), Thurnham (3), 
and Scorton (115). The register then kept for the 
Mason Street chapel will be found in the Appendix. 

A part of the priest's house still fronts St. Leonard- 



DAWN 83 

te, just opposite the Athenaeum, now the Grand Theatre. 
The chapel portion at the rear has been much altered, 
bring turned into several back-to-back cottages. The 
following account of the property was compiled about 
1 S90 : — 

There arc still traces of the original character of the old 
chapel in Mason Street. A built-up doorway has long shown 
the level of the chapel floor. The long chapel windows v 
partially built up, except [two], one on each side of the house, 

which still retain their full size. In a room in one of the 
lower houses there are an arch and other evidences of dedica- 
tion to other uses than the one to which it is now applied. 
The two houses in St. Leonardgate were occupied by the 
priest as hi- residence. These houses and the chapel were 
thatched. Subsequently the house was converted into the 
George Inn and was kept by .Mr. Joseph Redmayne, father 
of the late Mr. Leonard Redmayne, who became the principal 
of the firm of Messrs. Gillow <K: Co. It was next altered into 
two dwelling-houses, and so remains to this day. The chapel 
was formerly used by Messrs. Gillow as a warehouse for 
furniture, and owing to its original character was known 
amongst the workpeople as " The Temple." It was afterwards 
used with the yard now forming Mason Street for storing 
timber, by the late Mr. James Monks. In 1837 the property 
passed from Messrs. Gillow & Co. to the late Mr. Richard 
Dunn, who transformed the chapel into houses and built the 
remainder of the dwellings in Mason Street. 8 



Dalton Square Chapel 

The latter part of the eighteenth century was a time 
of prosperity for Lancaster, and the number of Catholics 
grew until the old " barn " became not merely unsuit- 
able but inadequate. By a relief Act in 1791 it became 
lawful for Catholics to build churches, and soon afterwards 



S 4 ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 

Dr. Rigby took steps to provide a new place of worship. 
It is related that his first attempt was in King Street, in 
the part then called Back Lane, where he began to 
build the house now numbered 49. While it was still 
only a shell, a far better site in Dalton Square offered 
itself, and he sold the King Street house to Mr. Higgin, 
a local manufacturer, who finished it as a dwelling-house. 9 
Dalton Square was not only more convenient, but it 
was supposed that the site to be acquired was the very 
spot once occupied by the Black Friars' church ; later 
information showed this to be an error, for their church 
stood a little more to the east. 

On October 8, 1797, Dr. Rigby, as appears from his 
note-book, agreed to purchase four lots of ground at the 
north end of the square, measuring in all 79 feet by 87 
feet, and he was to pay .£260 for them. Only two days 
after doing this he printed an address to the Catholics of 
England asking; for contributions, as follows: — 

To contribute to the convenience and decency of public 
worship is in no slight degree to extend the influence of 
religion and morality. The wavering are often fixed and the 
tepid warmed by external aids ; and the devout must feel 
grateful to that pious liberality which has enabled them to 
enjoy the advantage of meeting together in prayer. 

To those who are acquainted with the local circumstances 
of the Catholic congregation at Lancaster it is useless to 
say that a new chapel is much wanted there, and that the 
members of it are not in general in a condition to contribute 
much to so desirable a purpose. It may be farther observed 
that the town and congregation are increasing daily, and 
likely to continue to increase : of course the necessity of 
adopting the measure proposed becomes daily more urgent. 
The R. R. William Gibson, bishop of the district, has 
sanctioned that measure and subscribed handsomely to 



r~* 



\!S£r^~ ^^cp^rwrrrwf! 






.^i 




dm 




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O 






< 

C- 

z 



n 



DAWN 85 

encourage it ; and to those who may be charitably induced 
to follow ln-> example these hues are addressed. 

Amy benefactions, therefore, toward the building of a new 
chapel and house for the incumbent at Lancaster will be 
gratefully received by Mr. Richard Gillow, London, or Dr. 
Thomas Rigby," do., or by 

John Rigby, Lancaster. 

- 10, 1797- 

The reference to Richard Gillow shows that Dr. 
Rigby had already consulted the leading members of his 
congregation, but it was not till the 1 5th that a general 
notice was given and a meeting summoned for the 22 nd. 
This meeting was poorly attended, but it passed the 
necessary resolutions, which were read over to the 
congregation on the 29th and approved with a slight 
alteration. The trustees appointed were Dr. Rigby and 
three laymen, Messrs. Robert Gillow, Richard Worswick, 
and John Kaye. The priest in charge was always to be 
a trustee ; when one of the lay trustees died or left, 
a successor was to be chosen out of the congregation 
by the remaining trustees. The old house and chapel 
were to be sold, and the money so obtained was to 
be spent on the new buildings. The bishop gave .£20 
and added .£10 later, but the largest subscribers were 
the Worswick and Gillow families. Mr. Dalton of 
Thurnham and members of the congregation sub- 
scribed, and the appeal to Catholics outside obtained 
some further aid. A collection at Preston amounted to 
nearly .£20, but that at Lancaster itself was a failure. 11 

In the end the subscriptions mounted up to 
£974, 1 8s. The old chapel and buildings in St. 
Leonardgate were on August 31, 1798, sold by auction 



86 ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 

at the Shakespear, Mr. Gillow being the purchaser at 
^610. Certain funds belonging to the mission were 
called in to the sum of ^549, 12 and the capital was 
sunk in the new building, the interest of course ceasing ; 
and Dr. Rigby himself appears to have lent or given 
most of the remainder. In 1801 a further sum of 
^89, 9s. was subscribed for painting the altarpiece and 
otherwise furnishing the building. By these means the 
total cost of .£231 1, 7s. was provided. There had been 
no delay in the prosecution of the work. Payment for 
the land was made February 11, 1798, and somewhat 
later .£39, 14s. 5Jd. was paid as the proportion of the 
expense of inclosing Dalton Square. 13 Tenders had 
been invited at once, and work was begun on March 
6, the foundation-stones of the north end of the 
building being laid on the 13th. In a letter to a friend 
in November 1798, Dr. Rigby observed that he had 
been building " on a very large scale." Slating was 
finished on September 8 ; the house was entered on 
December 17, and the chapel opened on March 1, 
1799. It was duly recorded at the Quarter Sessions in 
the following July. 14 Various minor gifts were made 
towards the furnishing of the chapel and dwelling- 
house. 15 

Externally the building yet remains but little altered, 
apart from the addition of an entrance porch in the 
square to adapt it for its more recent uses, and a further 
entrance at the corner in Friar Street. The chapel was 
a simple parallelogram. To Dalton Square the altar 
end showed an unpierced wall, with imitation windows 
to match those of the priest's house, which adjoined it to 



DAWN S; 

the west. The side in Friar Street bad three plain 
round-headed windows lighting the body ol the chapel, 

and a more ornamental one of three lights near the 
altar; the division between nave and sanctuary was 
indicated externally by the masonry of the wall. 

The entrance was by a wide square-headed door at 
the north-east corner. As Friar Street slopes down from 
the square, this entrance was below the level of the floor, 
so that some interior steps were needed. The north 
end appears to have been quite plain, facing only the 
narrow lane called Friars' Passage. On the west were also 
three round-headed windows to afford light on that side. 

Internally the arrangements were quite simple. The 
altar, as stated, was placed at the Dalton Square end. 
The wall behind it was " ornamented with a beautiful 
altarpicce, executed in chiaroscuro by Mr. Baker of 
Wakefield." 18 lie received ^42 for his work, which 
represented the apparition of our Lord to the two 
Marys, after a picture by Angelica Kauffmann." This 
altarpiece was repainted in 1828-9 by Mr. Richmond of 
Lancaster at a cost of £\ 10. On each side of it were 
figures, one of St. Peter and the other of St. Paul. The 
painting was in stone-colour, shaded so as to give the 
effect of sculpture. The decoration near the altar was of 
green and gold. The seating arrangements were those 
usual at the time ; there was no central aisle, but two 
side passages, the seats being fixed in the centre (with 
a partition down the middle) and against the east and 
west walls. ls At the north end was a gallery, in which 
an organ was afterwards placed. At the same end, 
below the floor, was a burial vault. There were no 




88 ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 

stations of the cross, nor any side altars ; but in its later 
days an image of our Lady was placed in the chapel, and 
there was also a crucifix at the west side. Two large 
candlesticks stood by the altar rails, containing candles 
lighted during the elevation. The font is now in the 
chapel at Clifton Hill, Forton. 

Though the building was simple almost to bareness, 
the ceremonies of the Church were, at least in its later 
time, carried out with the greatest solemnity and beauty. 
Mass on Sunday morning was followed by a catechising 
for the country children. The afternoon service was 
vespers, and the public catechising for the local children 
came at the end of it. Benediction was given only 
once a month. 

The next work of Dr. Rigby's was to provide for 
the children. A school was built in 1805 at a cost of 
,£222; and in 1818-20 a considerable addition, or perhaps 
a new building — that to the west of the chapel — was 
erected at a cost of ,£317. The school stood or stands 
in Friars' Passage, at the north-west corner of the chapel. 
It is a small building of two stories, the lower one for 
boys and the upper one for girls. A large stone cross 
still marks the entrance. According to the proposals of 
1805, the master was to have .£20 a year and to teach 
twenty-five children free, so that the place was classed 
as a " charity school " ; any children in excess of that 
number were to pay fees. In 1825 about eighty 
children attended. 

Various improvements were carried out from time to 
time, such as the new altar rails provided in 1 839. 19 More 
important was the organ, built by J. C. Bishop at a cost 



DAWN 89 

of ^290, and opened August S, 1S41, pontifical high 
mass 1 icing sung by Bishop Brown, who was still 
nominally the incumbent ; the preachers on the occasion 
were the Rev. Thomas Butler, U.D., of Liverpool, and 
the Rev. George Gillow of Ushaw. The first organist 
was Henry Crowe, who was to receive £40 the first 
year and .£30 afterwards. The choir was formed from 
the congregation. The later organists at Dalton Square 
were as follows : — 

1847— Richard Wall. 

1850 — Gustave Arnold, a musician of distinction. He 
afterwards settled in Manchester, where he taught 
Cli. tries Halle's children, and on the death of his 
wife, a Lancaster lady, he retired to Lucerne, and 
died there Sept. 28, 1900. 

1S54 — William Parkinson, who removed to Preston, where 
he afterwards (1869-76) had the Theatre Royal. 
About 1880 he went to Australia, and died at 
Melbourne in 1905. He was a famous tenor 
singer. 

1855 — Peter Laurenz Schmitz. 

Dr. John Rigby, the builder of the chapel, as 
previously stated, received charge of the Lancaster 
mission in 1 784. eo He was a son of Richard Rigby of 
Pemberton by Mary \\ 'instanley his wife, and was born in 
1 753. He went to Douay in 1766, and thence to St. 
Gregory's Seminary, Paris, in 1773, remaining there for 
over ten years. He was ordained priest in 1782, and 
in the following year acted as superior of the seminary 
during a vacancy. While there he obtained his D.D. 
degree at the Sorbonne in 1784. Soon afterwards he 
came over to England for a short visit, and while here 



9 o ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 

was persuaded by the Vicar Apostolic, Bishop Talbot, 
to accept charge of Lancaster, where he arrived about 
the end of October. Here he continued to minister 
until his death. The registers show that his periods of 
absence were few and brief, but the wide extent of his 
district, extending from Caton to Heysham and north to 
Bolton-le-Sands, must have required a number of short 
excursions. 

He was considered "a most accomplished scholar, 
an excellent missioner, and (was) a great benefactor to 
the mission." He wrote a catechism or Abridgment 
of the Christian Doctrine, the IMS. of which is still at 
St. Peter's, and printed a number of copies ; but as the 
Vicar Apostolic, Bishop Gibson, had not been asked to 
sanction the printing and did not approve a new work of 
the kind, Dr. Rigby withdrew the copies from circulation. 
Among other of his writings which have been kept is 
a printed letter to the Catholic freemen in view of the 
election of July 1802. He pointed out that they could 
not take the oath of supremacy without renouncing their 
religion, and therefore could not vote. A similar letter 
in 1807 was not printed. He composed the inscription 
on the aqueduct made over the Lune in 1797, as 
follows : — 

Qua; deerant adeunt : sociantur dissita : merces 
Flumina conveniunt arte datura novas. 

He died on June io, iS 18, "of a creeping apoplexy," 
and was buried before the altar of the chapel on the 
15th. His body was removed to St. Peter's cemetery 
in January i860, and now lies there near the cross. 21 




DR. Kiom 



DAWN 9] 

The following inscription was cut upon his tomb- 
stone, which was removed with the body to the 
cemetery : — 

* 
1 11 s 

II c I," 

R.D. JOANNES RIGBY S.T.D. 

urns SACELL1 

C0NDIT0R ET PER 33 ANNOS MINISTER 

OBIIT iETATIS ANNO 61 

CHRIST! 1818 MENSE JUN DIE X 

IN tHKISTO SPES 

II1C OSSA CONDI 
II. EC SEPULCHRO INSCRIB1 VOLUIT 

The local newspaper gave the following account of 
him : — 

Died. — On Wednesday last at his house in Dalton Square, 
in his sixty-fourth year, the Rev. John Rigby, D.D. He had 
been during thirty-three years pastor of the Catholic chapel 
in this town ; and had uniformly discharged the duties of his 
situation with a zeal and prudence which, while they endeared 
him to his own flock secured to him the esteem of men of 
every religious denomination. His piety was enlightened 
and free from affectation, his knowledge most extensive, his 
manners affable and engaging. To Lancaster he was warmly 
.iit.iched. On all occasions he proved himself ready to devote 
his abilities and leisure to the promotion of its interests ; and 
the great work of the canal owes much to his discernment 
and unwearied attention. Without an enemy, he was re- 
spected by a most numerous circle of acquaintance, who 
will long cherish the remembrance of his worth and long 
lament the loss which they have suffered by his death. 22 

The general esteem in which he was held locally 



92 ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 

was shown by the subscriptions to his monument, which 
amounted to ,£158, 19s. 6d. M The mural tablet repre- 
sents Faith standing by the cross, at the foot of which 
lie the priestly vestments and chalice, and it bears the 
following inscription : — 

Memorise perenni 

Rev. Viri IOANNIS R1GBY S.T.D. 

In amoris et observantiae monumentum collato asre pon. cur. 

Catholici Lancastrienses 

Quos per annos xxxiii verbo vitae Christi minister pavit 

Et ex amicis quamplurimi 

Qui cum vivum coluissent mortui desiderium hoc qualicumque 

Solatio leniendum iudicarunt 

Coram altari quiescunt ossa. Anima sit cum Deo. 

This monument is fixed on the wall of the south 
transept of the present church. 

There is a portrait of Dr. Rigby at the rectory. 
A mezzotint engraving was published. 

During the thirty-three years of his missionary 
career his flock included all degrees from the peer 
of the realm and prominent local traders 24 down to 
the pauper in the workhouse, the criminal in the castle, 
and the wanderer of the road. Rowland Belasyse, 
who became sixth Viscount Fauconberg and a baronet 
on the death of a cousin in 1S02, 55 resided in Lancaster 
and subscribed to the building of Dalton Square chapel ; 
he died in 18 10 and was buried at the parish church, 
where there is a memorial tablet stating that " in all 
the relations of life he lived unblamed, and by those 
who knew him best (would) be longest mourned." 
A younger brother Thomas having died before him, 
the titles passed to another brother, the Rev. Sir 



DAWN 93 

Charles Belasyse, D.D., seventh Viscount. He was 
born in 1750, and like Dr. Riid>y was educated at 
Douay ami Paris, graduating at the latter in 1788 as 
I>.1>. For a time he laboured in the London mission, 
and then retired to Lancaster to live with his sister. 
lie died in her house in Thurnham Street, afterwards 
the Infirmary, on June 21, 1 S 1 5, the titles then be- 
coming extinct. He was buried at the parish church, 
as were his sisters Frances (d. 1825) and Barbara 
(d. i823). M His five nieces, daughters of Thomas, were 
well known in Lancaster ; the eldest of them died in 
Liverpool, December 9, 1853. 

During Dr. Rigby's time the income of the priest 
in charge appears to have increased from about ,£50 
a year to .£90, being derived largely from the bench 
rents. In the 1799 chapel it was proposed to charge 
6s. and 5s. for each seat in the body of the chapel, 
and 10s. 6d. to 8s. in the gallery. When the freehold 
was purchased in 1S11 it was stated that the income 
was ^80 from the chapel and .£10 from another 
source. 27 

A vacancy of several months followed Dr. Rigby's 
death. There was no resident priest, but services 
were maintained and the names of several ministrants 
appear in the registers, as Geo. Corless, Rowland 
Broomhead (of Manchester), Bart. McHugh, John 
Lingard, T. Lupton, and others. Then the Rev. 
George Brown was appointed to the charge, arriving 
at Lancaster in the middle of April 1819. He was 
a son of William Brown of Clifton, near Preston, by 
his wife, Helen Gradwell,' 8 and was born at Clifton 



94 ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 

January 14, 1786. He was educated at Crook Hall 
and Ushaw, being ordained priest in 18 10, and re- 
maining at college till he was sent to Lancaster. One 
of the earliest notes in his handwriting: relates to the 
Catholic Circulating Library accounts ; this institution 
died out, but a number of the volumes belonging to 
it are still kept at St. Peter's. In 1840, as recorded 
above, a Lancashire vicariate was created, and Dr. 
Brown was appointed to govern it, being consecrated as 
Bishop of Bugia in partibus infidelium on August 24, 
1840, at Liverpool. Two years later he was translated 
to Tloa, the change being in name only. He retained 
the care of the Lancaster mission till October 1841, 
but after his consecration in 1840 gave the practical 
work to his nephew and successor, the Rev. Richard 
Brown. 29 

In 1843 the bishop was appointed assistant at the 
pontifical throne. At the restoration of the hierarchy in 
England in September 1850 he became first Bishop of 
Liverpool, by a translation from Tloa. While at 
Lancaster (1833) he published a Supplement to the 
Diurnal, adapted for use in England, and after his 
consecration he issued some pastorals. About 1853 
his health failed, and he died at Liverpool, January 25, 
1856, being buried at St. Oswald's, Old Swan. He 
was described as " a man of great Christian charity 
and unwearying zeal." A lithographed portrait was 
published. 

It was in 1829, in the middle of his time at Lancaster, 
that Catholic Emancipation was carried into law. The 
old persecuting laws were not entirely repealed, and 




DR. GEORGK IJROWX 



DAWN 95 

some fragments still disgrace the statute-book, but they 
ceased to be operative ill practice, and Catholics became 
eligible for all public employments, except the Lord 
Chancellorships. The old close corporation on Feb- 
ruary -J. i i re olved to present petitions against 
the Bill to both houses of Parliament, on the ground 
that "the Protestant establishment of these kingdoms" 
made it necessary that " persons acknowledging ecclesi- 
astical obedience to a foreign state or power should not be 
eligible as members of the legislature." The resolution 
was carried by a majority of two only, 15 voting for 
it and 13 against it. Other adverse petitions to both 
houses lay at the town-hall for signature by the inhabit- 
ants generally, and received nearly 700 names. The 
same ground was again taken, it being argued that 
those who refused to disclaim a "foreign " ecclesiastical 
authority " must be considered as abandoning the 
privileges which they might else enjoy." The borough 
members, Cawthorne and Greene, both voted against 
the Bill ; the latter also spoke against it, as involving 
ruin to "our establishment in Church." 

For many years after 1829 those Catholics who were 
appointed to any place of trust or authority had to take 
a special oath prescribed by the Act, and containing, after 
the usual profession of loyalty and acceptance of the 
Protestant succession, the following words: "And I 
do further declare that it is not an article of my faith, 
and that I do renounce, reject, and abjure the opinion, 
that princes excommunicated or deprived by the pope or 
any other authority of the See of Rome may be deposed 
or murdered by their subjects or by any person whatso- 



96 ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 

ever : and I do declare that I do not believe that the 
pope of Rome or any other foreign prince, prelate, 
person, state, or potentate hath or ought to have, any 
temporal or civil jurisdiction, power, superiority, or pre- 
eminence, directly or indirectly, within this realm." 
Then followed, *' I do swear that I will defend to the 
utmost of my power the settlement of property within 
this realm, as established by the laws " ; words intended 
apparently to prevent Catholics making any claims to 
the churches and endowments of the established religion. 
The oath-taker expressly renounced any " intention to 
subvert the present Church Establishment as settled by 
law within this realm," and undertook not to use his new 
privileges to " disturb or weaken the Protestant religion 
or Protestant government in the United Kingdom"; 
and all this without any mental reservation, &c. No 
Catholic was elected on the old corporation, but from 
1837 onwards several have been elected councillors or 
assessors. The first to take the oath were Thomas 
Eastwood, John Whiteside, and Jeremiah Walmsley ; 
then Gabriel Coulston in 1839. After Dr. George 
Brown's time were Jonathan Wilson (1851), Richard 
Leeming (1853), Thomas Preston (1856), and Matthew 
Hardman (1859). The oath was abolished about 1865. 
The story of the Rev. Richard Brown, successor 
of the bishop, belongs to the new church of St. Peter 
which he raised. In 1850, while he was at Dalton 
Square, there burst out a storm of Protestant indignation 
over what was called the " Papal Aggression" in restoring 
the hierarchy. In Lancaster a public meeting was held 
to protest against it, at which an amendment deprecating 



DAWN 97 

notice of the event was moved by the Unitarian 
minister, but found no seconder. The resolution, which 
was moved by Mr. I . I ■. 1 lornby of Dalton, was there- 
fore adopted, as follows '. — 

Thai the recent attempt of the pope to infringe on (he 
supremacy of our queen is a direct b each of the spirit of the 
laws of England, and demands the immediate and determined 
resistance of every loyal subject of her Majesty. 

The local Anglican clergy, to the number of twenty- 
four, headed by the vi( r rural dean, also presented 
addresses to the Queen and the Bishop of Manchester, 
telling the former of their " sorrow and indignation " at the 
■' attempt of the bishop of Rome to mark out territorial 
ecclesiastical divisions in this realm of England," thereby 
invading the Queen's "prerogative as under God the 
sovereign Head of the Church of England," &c. The 
address to their bishop contains the following sentences, 
which read curiously now : — 

We beg to express our unabated attachment to the 
doctrines and constitution of our Protestant Church as by 
law established in these realms at the Reformation. 

We view with indignation and regret the attempt of 
the bishop of Rome to revive his exploded claim of spiritual 
dominion over the realm of England by the appointment 
of schismatic and heretical bishops, thereby invading the 
rights and prerogative of her most gracious Majesty, and 
ignoring the existence of our National Church. 

We respectfully look to your lordship for counsel and 
advice in this momentous crisis, that we may be the better 
able to repel the aggression of a foreign bishop and to 
establish our people in the pure faith of the Gospel. 

The town council afterwards adopted an address 

G 



98 ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 

moved by Alderman De Vitre, to the effect that they 
had "heard with feelings of just indignation of the 
attempt made by the pope of Rome to interfere with 
(her) Majesty's prerogative by assuming the right of 
appointing archbishops and bishops within these realms 
and conferring upon them territorial rank and juris- 
diction " ; and they desired measures to be taken to 
preserve her supreme authority. Only two members 
dissented. 

Catholics on their part thought it wise to make a 
counter move. " An address to be presented to her 
Majesty is in course of signature in this town from 
the Roman Catholics," runs a newspaper paragraph, 
" expressive of their unimpaired and unalterable fidelity 
to her royal person, crown, and dignity. It assures 
her that whatever their Church at any time had done 
for establishing its regular system of government, the 
organisation granted to them was entirely ecclesiastical 
and its authority purely spiritual, and it left untouched 
every tittle of her Majesty's right, authority, power, 
jurisdiction, and prerogative as their sovereign." 30 
This address was no doubt drawn up by Dean Brown, 
but it is not certain whether it was ever presented 
or not. 

A return made in 1S55 shows that the gross income 
had risen to a little under ^"260, out of which the 
necessary outgoings were some £2>y, leaving for the 
clergy in charge a net income of £172. Yet Lancaster 
was considered a " rich mission." Various priests' 
names occur in the registers, 31 showing probably those 
who had temporary charge during Dean Brown's 



DAWN 

absence from sickness or oilier causes, but no resident 
a sistant seems to have been appointed until i S 5 -5 , 
when the Rev. Henry Gibson came, lie was aft<r 
a few months removed to the Catholic Institute, Liver- 
pool ; from 1859 to 1S71 he was chaplain to the Kirk- 
dale Industrial School and the Gaol; he served the 
Coniston mission from 1871 to 1 888, and then was 
transferred to the charge of Bolton-le-Sands, remaining 
there until his death on March 7, 1907. 32 

The next assistant priest whose name occurs in the 
registers was the Rev. George Green, for a few months 
in 1856. The Rev. Henry Cooke, of a Chorlcy family, 
and ordained in 1 S54, came in 1856 and stayed during 
part of the following year, witnessing the foundation 
of the new church. He was then sent to Fleetwood 
and to Southport, having charge of this latter mission 
from 1S60 till his death on May 19, 1890. He was 
dean of the deanery of St. Joseph also. 33 At Lancaster 
he was followed by the Rev. Jeremiah Holland, who 
stayed about a year, 1857-8; he was a good preacher 
and was transferred to St. Patrick's, Liverpool. He 
died December 10, 1888. His successor, the Rev. 
James Taylor, saw the new church consecrated and 
opened. 

The Dalton Square chapel, which had never been 
consecrated, was sold in 1859 to the Total Abstinence 
Society for ,£1400. This did not include the priest's 
house. Under the new name of Palatine Hall it was 
used for concerts, public meetings, &c. It was again 
sold in 1907, and is now a place of variety entertain- 
ments called the Hippodrome. 



ioo ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 



NOTES 

I Much of this section is derived from articles in the Lancaster 
Guardian of September 1S82 and later, by Provost Walker. Papers pre- 
served at St. Peter!s have also been used. 

- Nicholas Blundcll's Diary. 

3 Dmtay Diaries, 55, 90; Kirk, Biographies of English Catholics, 260. 
In the latter volume (p. 197) is a statement that Thomas Reydon, a 
Douay priest (1720), went on the mission and that " Lancaster was the seat 
of his labours." The date is not given, but must have been about the 
years 1738-40. It is further stated (p. 250) that Mr. Reydon was grand 
vicar in Lancashire for Bishop Williams, who died in 1740. The name 
Reydon does not occur in the Douay Diaries, but a Thomas Roydon 
took the college oath in 1725, and was residing there in 1735, 1736, 1737, 
1741, and 1743. 

* Kirk, op. at., 211. The other priests said to have been imprisoned 
with him were Edward Barrow and John Sergeant. Of the former nothing 
is recorded. The latter was born at Cockerham and educated at Douay 
(i739)> an d arriving in Lancashire in 1745, t0 °k P art m tne Young Pre- 
tender's march. After his liberation he served the Scorton mission for 
nearly fifty years, dying in 1795 ; ibid., 205. He made clocks ; one of 
them is now at St. Peter's. See Miscellanea (Catholic Record Soc), 
v. 248. 

6 Historic Society's Transactions (new scries), xviii. 2 1 S. 

6 Douay Diaries, 73. 

' Richard Edmundson, son of Richard and Anne Moss, of the diocese 
of Chester, took the oath at Douay, December 8, 1779, being twenty-five 
years of age ; ibid., 79. 

9 Time-honoured Lancaster, 171 ; probably contributed by Provost 
Walker. 

3 This information was given to the Mother Superior of Mount Vernon 
Convent by Mrs. Chippindall, a daughter of Mr. Higgin, but Dr. Rigby 
does not mention it. His plan seems to have been the then common 
one of having the priest's residence on the ground floor, w f ith the chapel 
above. 

10 Brother of John ; see Gillow, Bibliographical Dictionary, v. 423. 

II A list of subscribers is printed below in Appendix IV. 

12 These consisted of old benefactions by Bishop Petre, ,£200 ; J. 
Brockholes, ,£200; John Parkinson, ,£50; Francis Gate, ^9; William 
Hall, £\o ; Alice Haresnape, £$ ; Agnes Morton, £$ ; and others by 
Robert Gillow the elder, ,£20, and Robert Gillow the younger, /50. In 



DAWN 101 

the old chapel had been sunk £-. Hareanape, ■•■■ 

iherei i tin- /6io. There was anothei : on's) 

,-rs at the •■ used for the 

budding. 

" The mission property was enfranchised in 1811 I payment 

to Mr. Dalton and th< 

printed in Appendix V. 
e Appendix V I. 

" Baines, rectory (1825), ii. 20. 

" There is an engraving of it by Bartolozzi. 

" A plan ol the seats has been preserve.!. 

" The chief subscribers to the cost (.£50) were Thomas Coulston of 
Well ! bn Whiteside, and Walmsley of Richmond House. 

•'" This account is mostly from Gillow's Bibliographical I'. 
v. 4:1 ; Catholic Mag., iii. 108. There is also a notice in Kirk's 
which is fuller in the earlier part 

B His brother, Dr. T. Rigby, died in 1 ; • t 3 - Another brother, William 
of 1'embcrton, died December 3, 1823 : Catholic Spectator, ii. 40. 

" Lancaster lunc 13, 1818. The following notes from Mr. 

William Hewitson of Bury show Dr. Ki^by and his flock in another 
aspect at a time of great national emergency: On September 22, 1794, 
at a county meeting held at Preston, convened by the High Sheriff, it 
ed to offer to raise a regiment of Fenciblcs by means of a 
county subscription, free from all expense to the Government except 
with regard to arms and accoutrements, for the internal defence of the 
country. A regiment of Royal Lancashire Volunteers was formed accord- 
ingly. Among the subscribers were "the congregation of Roman 
Catholics at Lancaster, who contributed ,£15, 7s. ; the congregation of 
Roman Catholics at Thurnham, through their minister (Rev. James Foster), 

. 13s. 6d. ; ditto at Hornby, .£4, gs. ; ditto at Scorton, £3, 6s. 
In 1797 : Subscriptions were collected in the town of Lancaster and 
its vicinity "for the relief of the brave men who were wounded, and the 
widows and children of such as fell, in the memorable engagement — 
Lord Duncan's victory — on the nth October, 1797." Dr. John Rigby 
and a number of Catholic laymen contributed. 

" The chief subscribers were the Gillow and Worswick families. John 
Dalton and William Cock gave 10 gs. each, Redmainc, Whiteside, and 
Ferguson the same; Mrs. and Miss Bclasysc, 6 gs. ; and John Lt:; 
5 gs. The Rev. John Lin £\. 

" The Worswicks, who had the principal bank of the town, and the 
Cillows, still commemorated in the great furniture works, though the family 
have long ceased to have any share in the business. It is of interest to 



102 ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 

notice that after the failure of the Worswick bank in 1826 and the dis- 
appearance of the family, a new and greater bank was established largely 
through the efforts of John Coulston, whose family have been great bene- 
factors to the mission. James Whiteside, another benefactor, was also 
connected with this bank. For the Gillow family, see Miscellanea (Catholic 
Record Society), v. 198; Gillow, bibliographical Dictionary, ii. 467-92; 
and for some Worswicks, ibid., v. 593-4. 

25 G. E. C., Complete Peerage, iii. 324. He was son of Anthony Belasyse 
(d. 1754) by his wife, Susanna Clervet (d. 1783). 

2li For the Belasyse monument, see Time-honoured Lancaster, 12, 324; 
Roper's Lancaster Church, iv. 693. The following paragraph appeared in 
the Lancaster Gazette of June 24, 181 5: "Died, on Wednesday last, 
June 21, at his house in Thurnham Street in this town, the Rev. Charles 
Lord Viscount Fauconberg, D.D., aged 65, of a lingering decay. Before 
he came to the title he was chaplain to the Portuguese Ambassador 
in London; since that event he has devoted himself in compleat retire- 
ment to the support and consolation of his sister and orphan nieces, 
whose tears will long bedew his grave. With him the title is extinct." 

27 This "other source" was the Hoghton benefaction mentioned in a 
former note. 

28 Gillow, Bibliographical Dictionary, i. 320. 

29 Other names occur in the registers, thus : Revs. J. Worswick and J. B. 
Marsh, during Fr. Brown's absence in 1820; Peter Wilcock, May-Aug. 
1825; George Jenkins, Sept. 1826; John Dixon, Nov. 1826, Sept.-Oct. 
1827; E. Morron, Sept. 1834; J. B. Marsh, April-May 1838; William 
Henderson, June to December 1838 ; Richard Brown, May-June 1839. 

' so Lancaster Guardian, November 30, 1850. 

31 Robert Croskell occurs in various years from 1842 to 1853; Bishop 
Sharpies, 1848 (at a marriage) ; Edmund Carter, John Coulston, and Robert 
Coulthwaite, 1849; William Henderson (Yealand), 1852, 1855; George 
Gibson, J. van Antwerpen, and Robert Wheeler, 1852. 

32 Liverpool Diocesan Annual, 1908 ; with portrait. 

33 Ibid., 1891, p. 103 ; with portrait. 



• • 




SI II III;-, from LLn - utl 9 



V 
THE PRESENT CHURCH 

Within fifty years Dr. Rigby'a chapel, though he had 
as he thought planned it on a large scale, was becoming 
too small for the congregation. Dean Brown, therefore, 
ever zealous for the glory of God's house, began to 
think of a new church. Other matters also required 
attention. There was then no public cemetery, so that 
( .uholics desired a burial-place of their own. The 
schoolrooms were small and the teaching unsatisfactory, 
and as popular education was then becoming a burning 
question, it was necessary to build and equip a proper 
school so that a grant from the Government might be 
applied for, if it should be deemed advisable. 

There was some difficulty in finding a suitable piece 
of land. About 1S47 a plot 3 acres in extent was 
purchased at Greenfield, then an open area on the east 
side of the canal. One side of it fronted East Road, 
which was formed about that time. The cost of the 
land was ,£2200. At the upper end a cemetery was 
formed in 1849-50; in the centre new schools and a 
convent were built in 185 1-3; and the lower end was 
left vacant for, the erection of a church and house when 
a convenient time should come for starting work. 

This time came in 1856. Mr. Thomas Coulston of 

'°3 



104 ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 

Well House died in February of that year, bequeathing 
.£2000 for the building of a new church. 1 This was at 
once augmented by the promise of ,£1000 from his 
cousin, Miss Anne Coulston, daughter of Gabriel Coul- 
ston, on behalf of herself and her departed sister Mary. 
In the following August Mr. John Whiteside died, and 
on his behalf his brother James gave ,£2000 to the 
building fund, and then added .£1000 for himself; this 
sum he doubled by his will. Miss Dalton of Thurnham 
about the same time promised ^1000 for the building 
and endowment of a Lady chapel. A substantial 
nucleus was thus formed ; and other subscriptions being 
promised in a very liberal manner, mostly to the general 
fund, but some for special objects, such as a window or 
an altar, 2 a building committee was formed to carry 
forward the great undertaking. It consisted of the 
clergy, the Revs. Richard Brown and Henry Cooke, 
and the following laymen : Messrs. James Whiteside, 
Richard Leeming, Thomas Preston, treasurer, Henry 
Verity, Robert Wilson, Edward Smith, Robert Farmer, 
Joseph Coulston, and William Leeming, secretary. 
Matters advanced so well that in March 1857 the 
committee were able to invite tenders 3 and decide 
upon them. 

The plans had been prepared by Mr. Edward 
Graham Paley of Lancaster, who took a special interest 
in this church, which is by many considered to be his 
finest work. Mr. Paley was born at Easingwold in 
Yorkshire in 1S24, and was partner with Mr. Edmund 
Sharpe, another famous Lancaster architect, whose sister 
he married. He died January 23, 1895. He and his 



THE PRESEN r CHURCH 105 

successors, M> Austin & Paley, have done much 

further work for the church and the institutions au.u bed 
to it. 

I ■ in Brown was resolved to have the best work he 
could procure, and by way of preparing himself for 
giving judgment, made a tour in east Yorkshire and 
Lincolnshire to gather ideas for his new building. The 
diary he made while on this tour is preserved at St. 
Peter's ; it is worthy of nou- that Beverley Minster 
excited his enthusiasm more than any of the Other 
churches he inspected. It is said that he frequently 
visited Cartmel Church. 

The foundation-stone was blessed with the usual 
ceremonial on April 29, 1S57, by Dr. Alexander Goss, 
then Bishop of Liverpool, Bishop Brown, who would 
have taken a special interest in it, having died the year 
before. The bishop was attended by Canon Fisher 
and Provost Croskell as deacon and subdeacon, and many 
of the North Lancashire clergy assembled round them. 
There was a large attendance of laymen also, and the 
ceremony, then an unusual one in the district, was 
conducted with decorum and edification, as Dean Brown 
was glad to record. The police force offered its ser- 
vices to keep order, but had little beyond routine work 
to perform, the behaviour of the people being reverent. 
There was a luncheon afterwards, and in the evening 
the police and the workmen had supper provided for 
them. 

The contractors chosen were James Duckett of 
Preston and Burnley, for the mason's work ; Robert 
Wilson of Lancaster, a member of the committee,' for 



io6 ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 

joiner's work ; Thomas Dickinson, plumbing and glaz- 
ing ; E. Cross & Sons, slating and plastering ; and 
J. Shrigley, painting. It was currently stated that one 
of the best builders in the town had been asked to 
undertake the mason's work at his own estimate, but 
being a zealous Protestant, declined to do so solely on 
religious grounds. 6 

The great building of church and priests' house rose 
rapidly. Its progress was assisted by the discovery of 
good building stone upon the site, a discovery which 
lessened the cost also. Dean Brown had resolved not 
to open the church in debt, but his funds came to an end 
before the spire was erected, and it looked as if the 
church would have to be left unfinished for a time. It 
was known that Mr. William Marsland intended to leave 
money for the spire, and in order that there might be no 
delay it was arranged that he should have an annuity of 
£50 during his life and give the capital sum at once. 
Thus the whole was completed without a stoppage, and 
the cross was fixed in position on the spire on Sep- 
tember 14, Holy Cross Day, only three weeks before the 
consecration. The cost of the whole was over ,£15,000. 

The ceremony of consecration, lasting over four 
hours, took place on Tuesday, October 4, 1S59, Bishop 
Goss officiating. As it requires the floor space of the 
building to be kept clear, the people are not admitted 
to it as a body. The new church of St. Peter, Prince 
of the Apostles, was opened for public worship on the 
following Thursday, with pontifical high mass. The 
attendance was somewhat restricted by the high charges 
for admission. The music was Haydn's Imperial Mass. 



THE PRESENT CHURCH 107 

The procession, which entered by the west door, in- 
cluded the Rev. W. Henderson as cross-bearer, forty 
Other priests, the canons of the diocese, and the bishops 
of Salford (Turner) and Beverley (Briggs). After terce 
had been sung the bishop of the diocese began mass, 
assisted by Canons Cookson, Fisher (deacon), and 
Walker of Scarborough (subdeacon). The Revs. J. 
Swarbrick and J. Roskell, U.D., were masters of cere- 
monies within the sanctuary, and the Rev. R. Gradwell 
without. Dr. Roskell, Bishop of Nottingham, preached 
from the words of our Lord, "Going, teach ye all 
nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and 
of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost." 6 After mass a 
solemn Te Dcum was sung. The music was con- 
ducted by Mr. Gustave Arnold, a former organist ; he 
brought a full orchestra from Manchester. Mr. Schmitz 
was organist. 

A luncheon in the schoolroom was presided over by 
the late Mr. R. T. Gillow of Leighton Hall, represen- 
tative of one of the families who had been the chief 
promoters of the Dalton Square chapel. The toasts 
were the Pope, the Queen, the bishops, Dean Brown, 
the architect, and the ladies. Bishop Goss in his speech 
congratulated the people of Lancaster upon having 
raised " one of the most glorious works of the present 
age " without appealing to external aid. 

Dean Brown, in acknowledging the toast of his health, 
said : " With regard to the building he had determined, 
as far as he had anything to do with it, either to have 
the best that could be raised or to have nothing to do 
with it. If there was any merit due to him, how much 



108 ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 

more was due to the people of Lancaster, who had so 
liberally opened their purse-strings and who had shown 
that their religion was their honour and their glory. At 
the same time, he must not omit to observe that amidst 
the joy and satisfaction he experienced at the comple- 
tion of so noble a structure, one little dash of bitterness 
had crossed his mind. Everybody appeared to think 
that there was a mine of wealth in Lancaster — that they 
were at the diggings, in fact. Now he believed there was 
not more wealth in Lancaster, in proportion to its size, 
than in other places ; and he believed it was the spirit 
that moved the people to live temperately and godly 
and not beyond their means, to which might be traced 
the abundance that had been laid out in this town to the 
honour and glory of religion." He went on to say that 
the church had not been built for show, and to hope 
that it would be used for the honour and glory of God. 
He thanked those who did not profess the Catholic 
religion and yet had given help and shown favour, and 
while disclaiming any desire to flatter or cajole, he said 
" he had found, after a missionary life extending over 
a lengthened period, that the soundest Protestant made 
the best Catholic." 

On the following Sunday the bishop preached. 

The anniversary of the dedication has been kept up 
yearly by special sermons, sometimes in October, near 
the actual day, and sometimes on the last Sunday in 
August, which is observed in the diocese of Liverpool as 
the feast of the dedication of all churches. A special 
collection is made that day, the only time in the year, 



I HE PRESEN i CHURCH 

for the maintenance of the church and clergy. The 
following have been the special preachers in more 
recent years : — 



! r. de 1 [ummelauer, S. I. 
op Hi dl( y, >.B. ' 

iSyO. — Kr. OR. illy, S.J. 

— Fr. Coupe, S J . 
Fi Nil bolson, S.J. 
I. Bishop Hedley, O.S.B. 

iijoo. — Kr. < loupe, S.J. 
1 90 1. — Ft. Butterficld, S.J. 



1902. — Mgr. Cn Ice Robinson. 
1903. — Bishop Hedley, O.S.B. 
1904. l :. I tonne) ly, S.J. 
1905. — Fr. Donnelly, S.J. 

, 1I1. Bernard \ aughan, S.J. 
" ' 1 Fr. Joseph Browne, S.J. 
1907. — Fr. George, O.F.M. 
1908. — Fr. Lawrence, O.F.M. 



The work (if the church has been carried on con- 
tinuously ever since its opening. With the rapid 
growth of the town in the last thirty years, the number 
of Catholics has increased also, but the churches at 
Skerton and Morecambe have provided for part of the 
increase. Missions have been preached from time to 
time. 

The first Catholic mayor since the Reformation was 
the late Alderman Thomas Preston, who died in 1894. 
It was in 1875 that he was first elected to the chair, 
but Protestant feeling in the town was so bitter at the 
time that it was considered injudicious for him to pay 
a state visit to St. Peter's. At his second term, in 1889, 
no opposition was raised, and an official visit was there- 
fore made. His nephew, Alderman Robert Preston, 
elected mayor in 1894, 1899, and 1900, also visited the 
church in state. Another member of the congregation 
who rendered useful service to the town was Mr. William 
Smith, now of Newsham, who was mayor in 1891 and 
for many years an alderman ; he founded the annual 
treat given to all the school children of the town on 



no ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 

Easter Monday. For a few years, 1892-5, he repre- 
sented the neighbouring North Lonsdale Division in 
Parliament. 

The Building 

The church so built and opened for worship was 
somewhat bare, but has in the course of fifty years 
received abundant enrichment and some enlargement, 
as will be seen by the detailed description which follows. 
There was a restoration of the church and house in 
1884, and new benches were afterwards procured. The 
style is the geometrical Gothic of the first part of the 
fourteenth century. Externally the plan is seen to be 
a church with clerestoried nave and side aisles, north 
and south transepts, semi-octagonal apse at the east end, 
and tower and spire at the north-west corner of the 
nave. The chancel is of the same height as the nave, 
so that the long roof line extends unbroken till it 
terminates in a cross at the extreme east. The first 
design for the church had shown an apsidal chancel 
of less height and width than the nave, and with 
windows of two lights only. 

The entrance is by three doorways at the west end ; 
one under the tower, facing north ; another in the centre 
of the west front, from which point a good view is 
had of the castle and old parish church, which stand 
at a somewhat greater height above the sea-level ; and 
the third, in the south aisle, is entered by steps from 
a covered porch, which connects the church with the 
priests' house. There is another small door in the north 
transept, but it is rarely used. 



THE PRESENT CHURCH rn 

Intern. illy the impression is one of width and height. 
The nave proper is 114 feet long by 36 feet wide ; it 
rises 47 feet to the square of the roof and 74 feet to the 
apex It is separated from the side aisles, which are 
90 feet long and 12 feet wide, by five arches on each 
side. The pillars, 34 feet high, are circular, with 
moulded bases and carved capitals ; but great clustered 
pillars support the tower arches and the loftier arch- 
ways of the transepts. The chancel is of the same 
width and height as the nave, and 43 feet long. Thus 
the total length of the church is 157 feet, and the width 
of nave and aisles 60 feet. The transepts extend 10 
feet at each end beyond the aisle walls ; they are 80 
feet across from north to south, and 23 feet wide. 

The chancel has on the south side an archway 
opening into the nuns' chapel, so that they can hear 
mass and receive communion without leaving their own 
chapel ; the archway is fitted with iron screen work. 
On the same side is the chapel of St. Charles Borromeo, 
opening into the south transept. The end of this tran- 
sept is occupied by the Sacred Heart chapel, and the 
vestries adjoin it. On the north side of the chancel is 
the Dalton chapel, and at the end of the north transept 
is the baptistery. The Whiteside and Coulston chapels 
open into the south aisle and add to the effect of 
width. The roof on the nave and aisles is open, but 
that of the chancel is groined in wood, and illuminated 
in gold and colours. 

The chancel is lighted by three-light windows, one 
in each face of the apse, and by two small windows in 
each side wall. The Dalton chapel has two two-light 



ii2 ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 

windows at the side, and a triangular window above 
the altar. The north transept has a traceried window 
of four lights, and the south transept a rose window. 
The nave clerestory has pairs of lancet windows over 
each arch ; there are four windows of three lights each 
in the north aisle ; other three-light windows are placed 
at the ends of the north and south aisles, while in the 
west end of the nave is a large traceried window of five 
lights. The side chapels have each a pair of two-light 
windows. 

The Chancel 

The chancel is enclosed by a low stone wall instead 
of the usual altar rails ; this extends from one pier of 
the chancel arch to the other, and has twelve panels 
filled with carving of fruit and foliage. In the centre 
are oak folding gates, with ornamental carving, which 
give admittance to the sanctuary. Two steps lead up 
to the gates, and then four more to the general level of 
the chancel or choir. 

On each side are two rows of oak choir stalls, carved 
with scenes from St. Peter's life, as follows : — 

On the bench ends towards the nave — North, the 
angel bidding St. Peter in prison to bind his shoes on, 
and leading him to the open gate ; south, the maid 
listening to Peter at the door, and the punishment of 
Herod his persecutor. On the front of the stalls — 
North, St. Peter exclaiming, " To whom shall we go ? " 
and being told to put his sword into its sheath after he 
had cut off the ear of Malchus ; south, his entering into 
the sepulchre first on the resurrection day, and his 




ST. PLTEK'S CHURCH, INTERIOR 



["HE PRESENT CHURCH 113 

; into the lake on the appearance of our 
Lord. On the bench ends at the altar side — North, 
the punishment of Ananias and Sapphira; south, the 
command to "rise and walk" to the cripple at the 

Temple gate, and the protest, " We cannot but 
speak," to the rulers of the Jews. The symbols of 
the four evangelists appear at the ends of the benches ; 
the four Latin Doctors are "insets" in the carving, 
and the niches dividing the carved groups contain 
figures of saints. 7 The stalls were designed by 
Austin and Paley, and the principal carving was done 
by R. Bridgeman of Lichfield. They were placed 
there in 1S99, 8 being used for the first time on Sunday, 
December ^4. 

The flooring, originally of red and black tiles, was 
during the jubilee alterations changed to black marble. 
Two lamps kept lighted before the Blessed Sacrament 
used to hang from brackets fixed on the inner sides 
of the chancel arch ; both lamps and brackets were of 
ornamental brasswork. These have now been removed. 
Ornamental brackets holding candles have been placed 
at the sides of the chancel. 

Another step, composed of alternate blocks of black 
and white marble, marks the presbytery floor, and then 
three more steps, also of black and white marble blocks, 
lead up to the high altar. The altar, like the steps, 
belongs to the jubilee restoration. The old high altar, 
the gift of Mrs. Gabriel Coulston, was the work of 
Stirling of Liverpool. The table was a slab of veined 
marble supported by four pillars of Devonshire marble 
which rested on a granite base. The lower part of the 

ii 



ii4 ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 

altar was thus divided into three panels ; the centre had 
a carving representing the Lamb of God shedding His 
blood for men, and the side pieces showed ministering 
angels with outspread wings. The altar was consecrated 
on October 9, 1 861, by the Bishop of Liverpool. The 
reredos was of alabaster ; the lower part was plain, while 
the upper half was arcaded in a simple manner, the niches 
being filled with statues of Saints Peter, Paul, Cuthbert, 
William, Wilfrid, and Oswald, these four being the 
most prominent of the saints of northern England. In 
the centre was a tabernacle of marble with orna- 
mental brass doors ; above stood the throne, having 
a pinnacled canopy of alabaster. 9 This altar has been 
given to the church of St. Malachy, at the south end 
of Liverpool. 

The new altar, which stands further to the east 
than the old one, is nearly 3$ feet high and 10J feet 
long. It has a frontal of white statuary marble, upon 
which is a bold carving of the Last Supper; our Lord, 
represented as beardless, is of course in the centre, 
with six apostles on each side. All the figures stand 
out in high relief; those at the ends project beyond 
the front proper, giving the ends the appearance of 
curvature. The altar stone, a monolith weighing 27 
cwt., is of black marble. In it are relics of SS. Urban 
and Valerian taken from the Roman Catacombs. At 
the back is the superaltar, or ledge of white marble on 
which the candlesticks are placed. The tabernacle is 
fixed in the centre ; it is of wrought steel, gilded within 
and without. 

The new reredos stands behind the altar, at some 



THE PRESENT CHURCH 115 

little distance from it; it is of black marble, and 1 

t<> a height of 8 feet Above it is the lofty and wide- 
spreading triptych, which is the most striking of the 
jubilee innovations. It rises to a height of 23 feet 
ab.ve the reredos. The centre part, 13 feet wide, 
is divided vertically into three sections. The middle 
is occupied by the throne for exposition of the Blessed 
Sacrament ; at each side of this arc figures of adoring 
angels, while above the canopy is a panel represent- 
ing the taking down from the cross. Each of the 
side sections is divided into six panels; these contain 
wood carvings in high relief showing various scenes 
in the passion of our Lord. High above all, over the 
interlacing work representing the crown of thorns, the 
crucifix is seen, with St Mary and St. John a little below 
it; at the side are figures of sorrowing angels. 1 he 
cross is 6 feet high. The designs are after the school of 
Albert Diirer, and all the panels and borders arc richly 
coloured and gilded. The double folding wings at each 
side, which when closed exactly cover the centre, are of 
mahogany, and are painted in twenty panels with re- 
presentations of the saints and events named in the 
canon of the mass ; those before the consecration being 
shown to the spectator's left, and those after it to his 
right. 

The whole thus illustrates the sacrifice of the New 
Law offered at the altar, whereby the death of the Lord 
is shown until He come ; the Last Supper, the Passion, 
and the Crucifixion all being represented, while the 
sides display the saints who are marked out for com- 
memoration in the missal, so becoming partners with us 



n6 



ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 



in the celebration. The following sketch plan shows 
the details of the scheme : — 




i. Our Lord exhorting to take up the cross and follow Him. 

2. The disciples rebuked for persuading Him not to go up to 

Jerusalem to suffer. 

3. The beginning of the Passion at the agony in the garden. 

4. The capture. 

5. The trial and condemnation by the high priests. 

6. The mockery by the high priests' men. 

7. The further mockery by Herod and his men. 



THE PRESENT CHURI II 117 

8. The scourging. 

'i. I he < rowning with thorns. 

10. "Behold the Man!" 

1 1. The 1 trrj ing <>f the cross. 

1 2. The stripping at Calvai 

A, !!, C< The Crucified with Oui Lady and St. John at I 

13. The- taking down from the cross, the Passion being con- 

summated. 
1 1, E. Sorrowing angels. 

The border Of this part contains shields hearing what arc rail. 'I 
the "arms of the Pa lion," the cross, nails, spear, &c. The 
inscriptions at the head are "Paree nobis, Domine" and 
" Bxaudi nos, I >i >min. 
The wings to tli» spa tator's left contain : 

14. The glorious and ever-virgin Mary, mother of our God and 

Lord Jesus Christ ; 

15. The bl( SSed apostles and martyrs Petei and Paul, 
i<>. Andrew, James, and John, 

17. Thomas, James, and Philip, 
mew and Matthew. 

19. Simon and Thaddeus, 

20. Linus, Cletus, Clement, Sixtus, and Cornelius, 
si. Cj prian and Lawrence, 

22. Chrysogonus, 

23. John and Paul, Cosmas and Damian. 
'Pin wings to the spectator's right contain : 

24. The sacrifices of God's just servant Abel, 

25. Our patriarch Abraham, and 

-•". Melcbisedech the high priest of God ; 

27. The souls in purgatory — Memento etiam Domine; 

2S. The holy apostles and martyrs John, Stephen, 

29. Matthias, Barnabas, 

30. Ignatius, Alexander, Marcellinus, Peter, 

31. Felicitas, Perpetua, Agatha, Lucy, Agnes, 

32. Cecily and Anastasia. 

The panels numbered iS, 21 and 30, 55 are on 
minor hinged doors, which can be opened so as to 
show the throne at times, such as Passiontide, when 
the- large wings have to be closed. The images at 
the top are covered at Passiontide by curtains raised 



uS ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 

and lowered by pulleys in the baldacchino. No. 33 
represents a scene in the life of St. Richard of 
Chichester, who is not in the canon ; it was inserted 
as a memorial of the patron of the present rector of 
the church. 

Between the altar and the reredos are steps by which 
the priest ascends to place the Blessed Sacrament in 
the throne at the times of exposition. 

High above the altar, at the level of the top of the 
triptych, is suspended the baldacchino or canopy of 
carved and gilded wood, to cover the altar space ; it 
hangs from the roof beams. 

The design for the altar and reredos was made by 
Mr. G. Gilbert Scott, and the work was carried out by 
Brindley and Farmer of London and Lawrence Turner 
of London. The paintings were by Tosi of London. 
The figures of the reredos were modelled by Miss Reid, 
who also carved the altar frontal. The cost of this part 
of the work was about ^3000. 

Mr. Scott also designed four beautiful candelabra of 
bronze, each holding seven candles to be lighted at the 
exposition of the Blessed Sacrament. The candelabra 
are fitted in sockets in the triptych, two at each side of 
the throne. 

The crucifix, which formerly stood on the altar, was 
formed of a carved ivory figure of our Lord upon a 
cross of ebony. It is not used there now, because 
that at the summit of the triptych suffices. 

The lower walls of the apse are filled with an 
arcading of Caen stone, as part of the memorial of 
Dean Brown in 1869. Eight of the arches are filled by 



I III-: PRESENT CHURCH i (9 

figures nt" the Following saints painted in oils : St IVter, 
the Blessed Virgin, St Paul, St Joseph, and St William 
i>(" York to l!)'' north of the altar; St. Cuthbert, St. 
Wilfrid, and St. Charles Borromeo to the south, on 
which side the piscina occupies the other spaces. Four 
of the pictures were given by the late Mrs. Parkinson of 
Hare. 10 The wall of the apse behind the reredos 
remains plain. 

The upper part of the walls of the whole chancel, 
including the apse, is richly decorated in gold and 
colours, the figures representing a procession of saints, 
including those named in the litany of intercession 
for the conversion of England and its restoration 
to communion with the See of St. Peter. Below 
the procession on the north side, between the 
arches opening into the Lady Chapel, is Our Lady 
enthroned ; and opposite her, on the south, is St. 
Peter, likewise enthroned. The arms of the late 
Pope Leo XIII. are inserted in commemoration of 
the decree which he issued in 1893, dedicating Eng- 
land to Our Lady and St. Peter. In the arches 
over the nuns' choir are subjects from St. Peter's 
life, representing the bestowal of the keys and the 
charge to feed the sheep and lambs of Christ. The 
apse window spaces and the wall over the arcading 
are filled with figures of angels. This work was 
begun in 1894 as part of the memorial to Provost 
Walker, 11 and was carried on and finished by special 
subscriptions, chiefly from the Leeming and Coulston 
families. 1 " 

The illumination of the roof of the chancel remains 



120 ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 

the same as when the church was opened. It was 
found to require no renovation at the jubilee. 



The Nave 

During the recent alterations all the walls of nave 
and aisles were recoloured and the stone-work was 
cleaned. The consecration crosses were also repainted. 
The old tiling of the passages across the transepts and 
down the nave and aisles was taken up, having become 
worn in many places, and was replaced by red tiling 
with stone strips forming a cross pattern. The wood 
flooring of the nave was left untouched, but in the aisles 
was replaced by wood blocks. The principal improve- 
ment here was the reseating of both nave and aisles ; 
the old dark-stained pitch-pine benches were taken away, 
and new oak ones of a good pattern were substituted 
for them. The light tint of these benches agrees with 
the general effect of this part of the church. They are 
the work of J. Hatch & Sons of Lancaster. The old 
doors of the nave and aisles were replaced by new 
ones of oak at the same time. 

In the nave proper one of the ornaments is the 
pulpit, which stands on the south side against the 
western pier of the transept arch. It was the gift of 
Mr. William Leeming, now of West Derby near Liver- 
pool. The body is of light veined marble, semi- 
octagonal in shape, with four dark-coloured marble 
shafts at the corners, on each of which stands a white 
alabaster figure of one of the evangelists. The sides 



THE PRESENT CHURCH 121 

arc filled with alabaster panels carved with the following 
subjects : — 

in St. Peter and the other apostles preaching on the day 
Pent '; with the inscription, " With your ears receive 
my word 

(2) St. Peter preaching .it the gate of the temple; " Re- 
pent theret'i ne and be convei ted." " 

(3) St. Peter and the apostles confronting the Sanhedrim ; 

" rhi j poke the win il ol < rod v. ith ci mfidi no 

(4) The 1 vangelist inspired to write the gospel ; " Wherel y 
you may keep a memory of these things.' 

In 1903 the donor gave a new carved cornice for the 
pulpit. There is a sounding-board over it. 

As already stated, the organ of Dalton Square 
( bapel was brought to the present church and set up 
temporarily in the south transept, and then in the north 
transept, where it remained till iSSS. It was then sold 
to St. Sylvester's, Liverpool, on a new organ and 
gallery being given by Mr. Richard Leeming of 
Ci reaves House. The benefactor died September 22, 
188S, a few months before his gift came into use, and 
lies in St. Peter's cemetery. The gallery, supported on 
eight granite pillars, stands at the west end of the nave 
and bears the donor's coat of arms. The architects 
were Austin and Paley. The organ was built by Henry 
Ainscough of Preston. It is divided into two halves, 
so as to show the fine west window ; on the northern 
side are the great and choir organs, and on the southern 
the swell ; the pedal organ is divided. The keyboard 
is at a detached console, so that the player faces the 
choir. The bellows were blown by an hydraulic engine 



122 



ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 



till 1905, when an electric motor was substituted for it. 
The following is the specification : — 



No. 



Gkeat Organ, CC to A — 58 notes. 

On a wind pressure of 3 \ inches : 

Double Open Diapason 
Open Diapason 
Small Open Diapason 
Hohl Flote 
Principal . 

6. Flute Harmonic 

7. Twelfth . 

8. Fifteenth . 

9. Mixture 3 and 4 ranks 



letal, 


16 ft. 


tt 


8 ft. 
8 ft. 


wood 


8 ft. 


metal 


(4 ft. 


)t 

it 
tt 


4 ft. 

2§ft. 

2 ft. 




various 



10. 



On a wind pressure of 4^ inches : 
Trumpet metal, 8 ft. 



No. 



Swell Organ, CC to A — 58 notes. 
On a wind pressure of 3^ inches: 



1. Lieblich Bourdon 


wood, 16 ft. 


2. Open Diapason 


metal, 8 ft. 


3. Salcional ...... 


„ 8 ft. 


4. Voix Celestis . 


„ 8 ft. 


5. Principal ..... 


„ 4 ft. 


6. Mixture 2 and 3 ranks 


„ various 


7. Oboe 


. „ 8 ft. 


8. Vox Humana .... 


„ 8 ft. 



On a wind pressure of j\\ inches , 



9. Horn 
10. Clarion 



metal, 8 ft. 
„ 8 ft. 



Tremulant acting on Nos. 1 to 8. 



THE PRESENT CHURCH 



'23 



Choir Oroan, CC to A— 58 notes. 
On a wind pressure ofz\ iiulics .• 



Co. 1. 


Gamba 


. metal, 8 ft. 


II 2- 


Dulciana . 


. . . „ 8 ft. 


•. 3- 


Lieblicfa Gcdacht 


. wood and metal, 8 ft. 


.. 4- 


Plauto Traverso 


. metal, 4 ft. 


.. 5- 


Salicet 


. „ 4 ft. 


,. <>• 


Clarionet . 


. . „ 8 ft. 


- 7- 


Orchestral Oboe 


, 8 ft. 



Pedal Organ, CCC to TenorY — 30 notes. 
On <i wind pressure of t,\ inches: 



No. 



Open Diapason 
Contra Bass . 
Bourdon 
Violoncello 



wood, 16 ft. 

metal, 16 ft. 

wood, 16 ft. 

metal, 8 ft. 



On a wind pressure of 4.J inches: 

„ 5. Trombone wood, 16 (t. 

Couplers : No. 1. Swell to Great. No. 4- Swell to Pedals. 
„ 2. Swell to Octave. ,, 5. Great to Pedals. 
„ 3. Swell to Choir. „ 6. Choir to Pedals. 

Four self-reversing pistons acting upon the couplers 1, 2, 4, 5. 
Two double-acting compositions to Swell Organ. 
Three double-acting compositions to Great and Pedal 

Organs. 
One pedal reducing Pedal Organ to Bourdon and also taking 

in Great to Pedal couplers. 
One pedal bringing in the F"ull Organ and Swell to Great 

and Great to Pedal couplers. 

The new organ was opened on Sunday January 6, 
1889, pontifical high mass being sung by Dr. O'Reilly, 



i2 4 ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 

Bishop of Liverpool ; the sermon was preached by the 
Rev. R. N. Billington, then of St. Austin's, Preston, and 
now rector of St. Peter's. The music was that of Haydn's 
No. 3 Mass. At the afternoon service the bishop gave 
an address. There was an organ recital on the following 
Tuesday. 

Mr. P. L. Schmitz continued to be the organist until 
February 1894, when he resigned ; he lived in the town 
till his death on January 30, 1909, being eighty-six 
years of age. He is buried in St. Peter's Cemetery. 
As organist he was succeeded by Mr. John Hughes 
Holloway, previously of the cathedral at Portsmouth. 
On leaving for work at Ushaw in 1904 his place 
was taken by Mr. T. Morrison, and he in 1909 
was followed by the present organist, Mr. Reginald 
Dixon. 

During the jubilee alterations an oak screen, glazed, 
was erected under the organ gallery around the west 
door. It had not been possible to use this door on 
ordinary occasions, because of its exposure to the usual 
westerly winds ; it can now be used at any time. At 
the corners of the new screen inside the church are 
carved heads of the Bishop of Liverpool and Canon 
Billington, the work of Mr. Caleb J. Allen of Lancaster. 

In the nave is the mural brass commemorating the 
builder of the church, the Very Rev. Dean Brown. It 
was at first placed on the south wall of the chancel, but 
is now fixed on the pier of the transept arch, immediately 
opposite the pulpit. It bears a figure of the dean, 
vested as for mass ; his right hand is raised in blessing, 
while his left carries a model of St. Peter's church. 



THE PRESENT CHURCH 125 

In the upper corners arc angels. Beneath is the 
inscription : — 

Orate pro anima Rev. Admodum Dni. Ricardi Brown 
per XXVI 1 1, annos hujus congregationis pastoris, canonici 
<>lim dioecesis Liverpolitanae. tianc aedificavit eccam., 
(lmiuini, scholas, monasterium. Pie obiit in Dno. die 
xxxi. Dec. anno M DCCC LXVI1I. aetatis Ixii. Ossa 
quiescunt in ooemeterio. Anima sit cum Deo in pace. 
Ilaec et alia fieri fecit pastoris boni ^rcx fidelis. 

Around the border, in the corners of which are the 
symbols of the four evangelists, is the text : *h Beati 
mortui qui in Dno. moriuntur. Amodo jam, dicit Spiritus, 
ut requiescant a laboribus suis. Opera enim illorum 
sequuntur illos." 

The Aisles 

At the lower end of the southern aisle the font 
originally stood. Near its old position is the vessel 
containing holy water, the old font bowl, which became 
flawed, being utilised for it. It was cut from a block 
of red Cornish serpentine marble by Stirling of Liver- 
pool. The inscription round it has been repeated on 
the present font. 

The holy-water basin by the entrance door has the 
inscription : >i* My house is a house of prayer. >{* Wash 
me yet more from my iniquity and cleanse me from my 
sin. 

The Coulston CHANTRY adjoins the entrance. It 
was founded for Thomas Coulston of Well House, the 
younger, whose bequest, as above stated, gave the 



i26 ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 

impulse to building the church. There is fixed a brass 
tablet on the wall, which represents the founder kneeling 
at the foot of a floriated cross, at the sides whereof 
are six scrolls bearing the names of his father Thomas, 
his mother, stepmother, brother, and sisters. 18 Below is 
the following request : — 

+ Of your charity pray for the souls of the Coulstons re- 
corded above, and also for Thomas Coulston of Well House, 
son of the above named Thomas Coulston, who died Feb. 14, 
1856, aged 46 years. He was a benefactor to this church and 
convent, also to the poor schools, in which for 28 years he 
constantly taught on Sundays. He designed this chantry 
to be founded for himself and family. This brass was set up 
by his friends for the edification of the faithful and to beg 
their prayers for his repose. Pie Jesu Dne dona eis requiem. 

The chapel opens into the aisle by two arches filled 
with iron screen-work. The roof is vaulted in stone. 
The floor of the chapel is one step above the aisle, and 
two more steps lead up to the altar. This was conse- 
crated October 8, 1859. The front of the altar has 
three ornamental panels, and as reredos there is under 
an arch a beautiful Pieta, or group showing our Lord 
in His Mother's arms after the taking down from the 
cross ; this was carved by Ginflowski. The dedication 
is to the Sorrows of our Lady, St. Thomas the Apostle, 
and St. Thomas of Canterbury. 

During the jubilee alterations the floor was relaid in 
marble, with stone strips. 

The same was done to the Whiteside Chantry, 
which stands further to the east, two confessionals 
separating it from the former chapel ; a third confes- 



1 HE PRESENT CHUR( II 127 

sional intervenes I >--t ween it and the transept. Its design 
and arrangements are similar to those of the Coulston 
chantry. The iron screen-work is a little more elaborate, 
and hears the letter m several times. The altar was 
first consecrated on October 5, 1859, by Dr. Turner, 
Bishop of Salford The front has two panels, each 
containing the figure of an adoring angel. The reredos 
has a carving of the Agony in the Garden, by Lane of 
Birmingham. The dedication is to the Agony of our 
Lord md the Apostles John and James the Great. On 
August 26, 1 901, the altar was reconsecrated, the lid of 
the sepulchre containing the relics having been broken 
and the relics damaged ; other relics had to be sub- 
stituted, viz. some of SS. Felix and Placida, martyrs. 
On the side wall of the chapel is a brass plate inscribed 
thus : — 

4- Of your charity pray for the souls of William Whiteside, 
who* died 31st Dec. [824 ; Catherine, his wife, who died 
24th March 1825; Richard, their son, who died 1st Sept. 
1815; William, their son, who died 16th Sept. 1818 ; John, 
their son, who died 1st Aug. 1856. He was a benefactor 
to this church, and to his memory this chantry was founded. 

■i- Of your charity pray also for the soul of Anne, wife 
of the aforesaid John, who died 30th Oct. 1867. And of 
James Whiteside, his brother, also a benefactor to the church 
and founder of this chantry, who died 13th Jan. 1861. On 
all whose souls sweet Jesus have mercy. 

These chantries were provided independently of the 
gifts which the founders made to the church building 
fund ; they cost from .£500 to .£560 each. 19 They are 
used for the masses prescribed by the founders, and at 
other times as occasion requires. 



128 ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 

The Transepts 

In the south transept, in a recess or chapel on the 
east side, stands the altar of St. Charles Borromeo, the 
patron of the deanery. The chapel, which faces the 
aisle and has a screen-work gate, is raised on two steps 
above the floor, with a third step for the altar. There 
are three panels in front of the altar ; the central one 
has a cross in it ; those at the sides have a cardinal's hat 
and a scroll with the saint's motto, Humilitas. The 
reredos contains in the centre a figure of the saint 
preaching and holding in his left hand his book of 
Diocesan Regulations. To the right is a panel showing 
him ministering to the sick in the plague time, while 
to the left another panel depicts him praying for the 
cessation of the pestilence. The altar, consecrated in 
i860 by Bishop Goss, was the gift of the Misses 
Coulston of Dalton Square, eminent benefactors of the 
Catholics of Lancaster and district and of the poor 
in general. They were cousins of Thomas Coulston. 
The survivor of them, Miss Margaret Coulston, died at 
Skerton in 1909 ; an account of her chantry foundation 
will be found in an appendix. 

When the promise of this altar was made, Fr. Brown, 
who had a great devotion to St. Charles, one of the 
great reforming saints of the sixteenth century who 
became archbishop of Milan and cardinal, determined 
that it should be dedicated to him, and carried his point. 

In memory of Miss Coulston, this chapel was deco- 
rated during the jubilee by Alderman Preston. Mr. 
G. G. Scott directed the work. 



THE PRESENT CHUKCll 

The end of the transept is occupied by the altar 
of the Sacred Heart, for which a separate ( hapel has 

been formed by an arcading of stone. The altar, 
which was not part of the original design of the 
church, was given anonymously, in fulfilment of a vow, 
and was consecrated by Bishop O'Reilly on April 9, 
(890. The table is of Sicilian marble, and contains 
relics of SS. Irenaeus and Justin. The centre of the 
reredos is occupied by a statue of our Lord crowned 
and showing His Heart; it is carved in white Carrara 
marble and stands under a tall canopied niche. The 
side niches are occupied by statues of SS. Catharine 
of Alexandria, Margaret of Scotland, Helen, and 
Frances of Rome. The panel in front of the altar is 
of alabaster carved, and has at the sides alabaster 
statues of St. Elizabeth of Portugal and St. Elizabeth 
of Hungary. The designer was Mr. Edward Simpson 
of Bradford. 

The stone arcading which forms a screen for the 
altar on the north side was designed by Mr. P. P. 
Pugin, and was placed there in 1896. The interior 
arcading on the south wall, the altar steps, &c, were 
added in 1S99 from a design by Messrs. Austin and 
Paley. The total cost was .£530. 

The monument to Dr. Rigby, which has been 
described above, is fixed to the wall of this transept. 

Here also is the entrance into the vestries. The 
new vestry was built in 1887 at a cost of ^412. It 
contains many valuable vestments and other ornaments 
for the church. A list of them is given in Appendix 
XV. ; it may be compared with the inventories of 

1 



i 3 o ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 

well-furnished mediaeval churches, a number of which 
have been printed. 

The north transept, from which there is a small 
door leading to the cemetery, was formerly occupied 
by the organ. It received a noteworthy augmentation 
in 1 900- 1, when a new baptistery, meeting-room, and 
confessional were added externally. The entrance to 
the baptistery is by a wide arched passage through the 
north wall of the transept ; the doorway is fitted with 
a gate of tasteful open ironwork ; at the sides of the 
doorway are statues of the patron saints, Processus 
and Martinianus. They were chosen as having been 
the gaolers of St. Peter in Rome, being converted and 
baptized by him in the Mamertine dungeon. They 
were afterwards martyred, and their feast is kept on 
July 2. The following is the legend as it appears in 
the Roman Breviary of to-day : — 

What time Peter and Paul were kept in the Mamertine 
prison at the foot of the Tarpeian Rock, two of the gaolers 
named Processus and Martinianus, along with other forty, 
were moved by the preaching and miracles of the apostles 
to believe in Christ, and were baptized in a spring which 
suddenly brake forth out of the rock. These men let the 
apostles depart if they willed it. But Paulinus, prefect of 
the soldiers, when he heard what was come to pass, strove 
to turn Processus and Martinianus away from their pur- 
pose. And when he found that he but wasted time he 
ordered their faces to be bruised and their teeth to be 
broken with stones. Moreover, when he had had them 
led to the image of Jupiter, and they still boldly answered 
that they would not worship the gods, he caused them to 
be tormented on the rack and white-hot plates of metal 
to be put to their flesh, and that they should be beaten 
with sticks. Whileas they were suffering all these things 



<■ 



THE PRESENT CHURCH 151 

they urn- heard to say onlv this one word—" Blessed be 
the Name of tlie Lord.'' They were afterwards cast into 
prison, and in a little while they wen- taken outside the 
city and slain with the axe upon the Aurelian Way. The 
Lady Lochia buried their bodies upon her own farm upon 
the 2nd day of July ; but they were afterwards [about 820] 
brought into the city, and are buried in the church of the 
Prince of the Apostles.* 

The baptistery was designed by Messrs. Austin and 
Paley. It is octagonal in form, with groined roof of 
decked Runcorn stone, and is lighted by four two-light 
windows. On the east side is an altar, containing relics 
of SS. Innocent and Justus, martyrs. It was con- 
secrated on August 27, 1901, and is used on Maundy 
Thursday as the altar of repose ; mass is sometimes 
said there on the festival of the saints. The front of 
the altar his a panel showing the baptism of our Lord. 
The arcaded reredos contains statues of four saints : 
Thomas of Canterbury, Chad, William of York, and 
Richard of Chichester. The altar was carved by 
Boulton of Cheltenham. 

The font stands in the centre of the baptistery, upon 
two marble steps. The original bowl, having become 
cracked, was replaced by the present one in 1904. the 
gift of Miss Ellen Smith. It is of green marble, and 
circular in shape ; it rests on a central pillar with four 
minor shafts round it. Around it, copied from the 
former bowl, is the inscription : ►{« Quicumque bapti/.ati 
sumus in Christo Jesu in morte ejus uaptizati sumus. 21 
The carved oak canopy over it is raised by means of a 
pulley in the boss of the vaulting. 22 The cost of the 
building was about ^4000. 



132 ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 

The late Cardinal Vaughan visited the church soon 
after this baptistery was completed, and was so pleased 
with its beauty that he preached a sermon which he 
wished to be considered the "opening sermon," thus 
connecting himself with the new building. This was 
on September 15, 1901 ; it was the only visit he paid 
to St. Peter's after he had been created cardinal, though 
he had frequently been in earlier times. 



The Lady Chapel 

The Dalton chapel, dedicated to the Blessed Virgin 
Mary in honour of her Immaculate Conception, is 
entered from the north transept. It is 26 feet long 
and 12 feet wide. The two arches on the chancel 
side are closed by open iron screen-work, and the arch 
into the transept has another screen, with gates. The 
floor of the chapel is raised by two steps above the 
transept, and is of mosaic work. 

Two more steps lead to the altar, the table of which 
is of veined marble and is supported by Irish green 
marble shafts. The reredos is also of marble. Over 
the tabernacle in the centre it has a figure of our Lady 
carved in white marble and standing under a canopy ; 
on one side there is a panel carved with the Annuncia- 
tion, and on the other side one of the Nativity of our 
Lord. This altar was consecrated by the Bishop of 
Liverpool the day after the church, viz. October 5, 
1859. 

This chapel, as already stated, was the gift of Miss 
Dalton of Thurnham, who died in 1S61, and its cost 



THE PRESEN1 CHURCH [33 

1 • .£1098, including a sum for endowment : A 
marble slab on the south wall is thus inscribed: — 

►J« Pray for the Eve sisters of the family of Dalton 
of Thurnham : Charlotte, deceased Feb. 2.x, an. 
; Mary, Aug. 17, [820 j Bridget, Aug. 5, 1821 ; 
Lucy, Nov. 14, 1843 ; and Elizabeth, Men. 15, 1861. 
Elizabeth, the last of .1 race firm through trouble- 
some tunes in their devotedness to the Catholic 
faith, winch they sustained in this neighbourhood 
by their sufferings and influence, built and endowed 
this chapel of our Lady Immaculate to secure for her- 
self and Meters the prayers of the faithful. 

On the north wall is hung a facsimile of the 
miraculous picture of our Lady of Perpetual Succour, 
preserved in the church of St. Alphonsus Liguori at 
Rome. Provost Walker gave the picture, and Mr. 
R. Leeming the carved oak setting. A lamp is kept 
burning before it. 

The chapel was restored in 1904 at a cost of .£380, 
in celebration of the jubilee of the proclamation of the 
Immaculate Conception in 1854. 

The silver lamp hanging before the tabernacle was 
formerly in the nuns' chapel. 

The Windows 

In the course of time nearly all the windows have 
been filled with stained Mass. Those of the apse and 
chantries were so filled from the opening of the church ; 
the remainder are more recent. Almost all the work 
has been done by Hardmans of Birmingham ; the ex- 
ceptions will be noticed in the following account. 

The windows in the apse are now to some extent 



i34 ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 

concealed by the reredos. The central one represents 
the Ascension. In the upper part is the figure of our 
Lord ascending to heaven surrounded by angels, clouds, 
and stars; in the side lights are the two angels who 
addressed the apostles. Our Lady and the apostles 
stand below, gazing up into heaven. This window was 
given by Miss Sarah Anne Gillow of Clifton Hill, in 
memory of her parents, Robert and Anne Gillow ; she 
died in 1 87 1. In the window to the spectator's left the 
central figure is that of St. Peter, holding the keys of 
heaven ; on each side are souls in white robes being 
conducted to him. Heaven above and around is de- 
noted by emblems of the Trinity, angels, &c. In 
the base our Lord is represented giving His charge to 
St. Peter. This window was given by the late Thomas 
Fitzherbert-Brockholes, the "old Squire" of Claughton 
and Heaton ; he died in 1873. The upper part of 
the window on the spectator's right shows St. Paul in 
rapture in the third heaven, before our Lord in majesty 
surrounded by seven spirits ; the base gives a picture of 
St. Paul's conversion. This window was subscribed for 
by the congregation. 24 The four small windows in the 
upper part of the chancel represent the keys of St. 
Peter, with other emblems. 

At the other end of the church, the great west 
window was given by Mr. Joseph Smith in iSSS. It 
illustrates the " Te Deum." Our Lord in glory is 
represented in the upper part of the centre. He is 
surrounded by a circle of clouds, with angels, archangels, 
&c, who exclaim, " Sanctus, Sanctus, Sanctus, Dominus 
Deus Sabaoth," as the legend on the scroll below tells. 



THE PRESENT CHURCH 135 

The tracery above is occupied by the emblem of the 
Holy Ghost, surrounded by rejoicing angels. In the 
outside light to the spectator's left arc the apostles, with 
their prince, St. Peter the key-bearer, in front ; a scroll 

bears the words, " Tc glonOSUS apostolorum chorus." 
1 he corresponding light on the other side represents 
the prophets, with 1 'avid and his harp in the foreground ; 
the scroll is inscribed, " Te prophetarum laudabilis 
Humerus." Below the apostles and prophets are two 
groups of martyrs, headed respectively by St. Stephen, 
the first Christian martyr, and St. Thomas, the " blissful 
martyr " of Canterbury, most renowned of English saints ; 
the former saint is accompanied by St. Alban and St. 
George, the latter by St. Edmund and St. Oswald. 
Here the scrolls bear the words, " Te martyrum 
candidatus . . . laudat exercitus." In the lower part 
of the centre light kneels our blessed Lady ; St. John 
Baptist and St. Elizabeth are behind her, and St. Joseph 
and St. Anne in the adjacent lights to her right and 
left. Below them are the traditional authors of the great 
hymn, SS. Ambrose and Augustine, with a scroll reciting 
its opening words, " Te Deum laudamus, Te Dominum 
confitemur." Behind St. Joseph are St. Edward the 
Confessor, St. Richard, king of the West Saxons, and 
St. Charles Borromeo ; while St. Anne heads a company 
of women saints — St. Mary Magdalene, St. Gertrude, 
St. Helen, and St. Catherine of Alexandria. The 
patrons of the donor are figured among them, and at 
the foot is the request : " Orate pro felice statu Josephi 
Smith et domo ejus." The donor died in 1889, and is 
buried in St. Peter's Cemetery. 



136 ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 

The clerestory windows remain plain, except one 
at the north-east end, which was given by Messrs. 
Shrigley and Hunt in 1904. It represents the seraphim, 
the intention being to fill these windows with the nine 
choirs of angels. 

The south aisle has its west window filled with glass, 
the work of Shrigley and Hunt, representing our Lady's 
Assumption. She is mounting up to heaven surrounded 
by a multitude of rejoicing angels. The inscription is 
from the antiphons of the feast : " Assumpta est Maria 
in caelum ; gaudent angeli." Underneath is a brass 
plate recording that "This window was given by Richard 
Smith in memory of his wife Mary, who died 18 April, 
1890. R.I.P." Mr. Smith, who gave the window in 
I904,' :5 himself died in 1907. Both are buried in 
St. Peter's Cemetery. 

The Coulston chapel has two windows representing 

(1) St. Thomas the Apostle following our Lord to His 
passion, and touching His wounds after the Resurrection ; 

(2) St. Thomas of Canterbury meeting his murderers, 
and his martyrdom. The Whiteside chantry has figures 
of (1) St. James the Great, St. Anne ; (2) St. John at 
Patmos, St. Catherine. 

In the north aisle the west window remains plain, 
but the four side windows were filled with stained glass 
in 1894 and 1895. The lights form a series representing 
the life of St. Peter, as is shown by the inscriptions 
below each. The window nearest the north door is 
a memorial to Dean Brown, and was inserted by Mr. 
Robert Preston. Its three lights show the call of 
St. Peter ; our Lord preaching from his boat ; and 



THE PRESENT CHURCH 137 

the miraculous draught of fishes. In the tr.icery is 
a figure of the saint, with St. I'etcr's, Rome, on one 
side and St. Peter's, Lancaster, on the Other. The 
next window was presented by Miss Margaret Coulston 
in memory of her sister Elizabeth, who died in 1893. 
The lights represent St. Peter casting himself into 
the sea ; our Lord washing his feet ; and the denial. 
The tracery has the tiara, angels, &c. The third 
window was part of the memorial to Provost Walker; 
it shows St. Peter preaching on the day of Pentecost ; 
St. Peter at the council of Jerusalem ; and St. Peter 
delivered from prison. In the tracery is the charge 
given to him: "Peed My lambs; feed My sheep." 
The window next to the transept is a memorial 
to Mr. Richard Leeming and his wife, inserted by 
members of the family. The subjects of the three 
lights are: St. Peter raising Tabitha to life; the vision 
of " Uomine, quo vadis ? " and the crucifixion of St. 
Peter. 

The rose window in the gable of the south transept 
was subscribed for in 18S8 by a number of priests who 
belonged to Lancaster by birth or early residence. The 
keys of St. Peter occupy the centre, the surrounding 
circles being filled with spreading foliage and red and 
white roses. 28 The design was suggested by words from 
the Paradiso of Dante, describing the infinite number 
of white-robed saints who in heaven circle round the 
Li<:ht of God : :7 — 

In fashion as a snow-white rose lay there 
Before my view the saintly multitude, 
Which in His own Mood Christ espous'd. 



138 ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 

Then St. Bernard explains the sight, pointing first to 
our Lady, queen of all saints : — 

" Search around 
The circles to the furthest, till thou spy, 
Seated in state, the queen that of this realm 
Is sovran." 

The division of the rose was made according as the 
saints lived before or after the coming of our Lord, and 
thus Adam and St. Peter head the families of mankind 
and of Christians : — 

" Those highest in bliss, 
The twain on each hand next our empress throned, 
Are as it were two roots unto this rose : 
He to the left, the parent whose rash taste 
Proves bitter to his seed ; and on the right 
That ancient father of the holy Church 
Into whose keeping Christ did give the keys 
Of this sweet flower." 

The names of the donors are recorded on a brass 
plate beneath the window in the following inscription : — 

Deo et B. Petro Robertus Episcopus Loidensis et Un- 
deviginti presbyteri vel nati vel a pueris Lancastriae educati 
et hac die inter vivos numerati quorum nomina in rei 
memoriam in hoc aere incisa sunt : Robertus Croskell, Praep. 
Cap. Salford. et Cubicularius SS. D. N., Joannes Coulston, 
Thomas Croskell, Gabriel Coulston D.D., Thomas Croskell, 
Gulielmus Kirkham, Joannes Gardner, Fredericus Smith et 
frater ejus Thomas, Jacobus Gardner, Joannes Tomlinson, 
Ricardus Preston D.D. et frater ejus Josephus, Thomas 
Whiteside, Jacobus Birchall, Edwardus Smith, Gulielmus 
Leeming, Gulielmus Newsham, et Robertus Etheiington. 
Cum quibus se conjunctos voluerunt Gulielmus canonicus 
Walker, rcc. miss., et Ricardus Walsh, P.A. 1888. 



THE PRESENT CHURCH i.w 

The opportunity may be taken to say something <>f 
the donors, as examples of the numerous priests the 
town h.is yielded for the work of Christ. Robert 
Cornthwaite, Bishop of Leeds, wis born at Preston in 

iNtX, but his parents settled in Lancaster soon after- 
wards. He was educated at Ushaw and Rome, and 
returning to England, served Stockton and other 
missions in the north-cast. In 1861 he was consecrated 
to the See of Beverley, and when this was divided in 
1878 he took the Leeds portion. He died on June 16, 
1890, having been infirm for some years. 2 " 

Robert Croskell, provost of Salford and a papal 
chamberlain, was descended from the Croskells of 
Bulk, but was born in Liverpool in 1808. He was 
educated at Ushaw, served in and around Manchester, 
and became Provost of the Salford chapter, dying on 
Dec. 12, 1902, 29 at Levenshulme. 

John Coulston, son of John Coulston of Bowram 
and brother of the Miss Coulston who is frequently 
mentioned in this narrative, was born in 1822. He 
founded the mission at Wilmslow in Cheshire in 1871, 
and died there on June 4, 1SS9. 30 

Thomas Croskell the elder was a younger brother 
of the above Robert. He was educated at Ushaw, 
where he was procurator for many years, and died at 
Lancaster on January 2, 1901, aged eighty. 

Thomas Croskell the younger, nephew of the last 
named, was born at Lancaster in 1845. Educated at 
Sedgeley Park and Ushaw, he was ordained in 1872, 
and received charge of St. Edward's, Rusholme, in 
1 S 7 4 ; this he still retains. Monsignor, 1906. 



140 ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 

Gabriel Coulston, D.D., son of Gabriel Coulston of 
Lancaster, was Professor of Dogmatic Theology at 
Ushaw for many years, and now lives there in retirement. 

William Kirkham was born at Lancaster about 
1S49, and educated at Ushaw. After ordination he 
served at St. Patrick's, Leeds, and other missions. On 
the division of the diocese, he became attached to the 
Middlesbrough portion, his latest charge being Ulshaw 
Bridge. He has retired from active work for some 
years. 

John Gardner was born at Lancaster about 1845, 
and educated at the English College at Lisbon, being 
ordained in 1875. He was appointed to the little 
mission of Woolston near Warrington, and afterwards, 
about 1S80, to St. Teresa's, Birkdale. There he died 
on February 12, 1903, and was buried at Ainsdale. 31 

Frederick Smith was born at Charnock Richard 
in 1855, educated at Ushaw, and ordained in 1878. 
After serving as curate at St. Anthony's, Liverpool, 
he was appointed to the charge of the new mission of 
St. Francis of Assisi, Garston, in 18S3, and remained 
there until his death on November 26, 1909, having 
fully established the work and built a church. 

Thomas Smith, brother of the last, was educated at 
Ushaw, to which he was sent at nine years of age. 
He continued at the college as student and teacher 
until 1S84, when he was ordained priest and sent to 
assist at Newcastle-on-Tyne. He was afterwards at 
Carlisle and Millfield, until in 1897 he was appointed 
to the charge of St. Mary's, Sunderland, which he still 
retains. He is a canon of I Iexham and Newcastle. 



THE PRESENT CHURCH 141 

lli. ilock celebrated the twenty-fifth anniversary of their 
pastor's ordination in October last by placing a new 

pulpit in the church. 

James Gardner was a son of John Gardner who gave 
the bells; four of his sisters were nuns. He was born 
at Lancaster ; educated at St. Edward's, Liverpool, 
and Ushaw, and ordained in 187S. After service of 
some years in Liverpool his health broke down, but in 
1S97 he was able to take charge of Lea, near Preston, 
where he died July 27, 1908. He lies buried their. 

John Tomlinson was born at Lancaster in 1852, and 
educated at Ushaw. He served at YVignn, Liverpool, 
and St. Helens, and was then appointed to Catforth, 
near Preston, where he spent the last ten years of his 
life. He died on August 28, IQ03. M 

Richard Preston, D.D., son of the late Richard 
Preston and brother of Alderman Robert Preston, was 
born in 1857 in the house at the corner of Thurnham 
Street and Brock Street known as Owen House. He 
was educated at Ushaw from 1S64 to 1SS1, then going 
to the English College at Rome. Here he took the 
degree of D.D. in [884 and was ordained priest. 
After another year at Rome and one at Innsbruck he 
returned to Ushaw, where in 18S6 he was appointed 
Professor of the Sacred Scriptures, &c, and in 1895 
Professor of Moral Theology. In 1900 he was 
appointed to be auxiliary bishop for Hexham and 
Newcastle, being consecrated on July 25 with the title 
of Bishop of Phoccea. He had but a brief tenure, 
dying at his brother's house, Southfield, on Eebruary 9, 
1905, after a painful illness borne with much fortitude. 



142 ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 

The dirge was sung at St. Peter's on Sunday, Feb- 
ruary 12, and the requiem mass the following morning. 
The body was then conveyed to the cathedral at New- 
castle, where another requiem was sung on Tuesday ; 
after which it was buried at Ushaw. 34 

Joseph Preston, brother of the last named, was sent 
to Ushaw when only six years old, and stayed there all 
his life as student or teacher, becoming prefect in his 
later years. He was ordained priest at St. Peter's, 
Lancaster, on August i, 1886, and said his last mass 
there on the first Sunday in Lent 1889, dying at his 
brother's house on St. Joseph's Day in that year. He 
was buried at Ushaw. 35 

Thomas Whiteside is the present bishop of the 
diocese. He was born at Lancaster in 1857, the son 
of Robert Whiteside of St. George's Quay, the manager 
for Whiteside and Leeming. He was educated at St. 
Peter's Schools, then at St. Edward's College, Liver- 
pool, and at Ushaw. Thence he was sent to Rome, 
where he was ordained priest in 1884. Returning 
to England, he was made Professor of Scripture and 
Canon Law at Upholland, becoming vice-rector and 
then rector. He was made D.D. in 1893. He had no 
missionary work. On the death of Dr. O'Reilly in 
1894 he was elected Bishop of Liverpool, being con- 
secrated on August 15 by Cardinal Vaughan. On his 
first official visit to Lancaster he pontificated at St. 
Peter's on November 18, Mr. Robert Preston, the 
mayor, attending the church in state, and his brother, 
Dr. Richard Preston, preaching on the text, " Render 
unto Caesar the things that are Caesar's, and unto God 



1 UK PRESENT CHURCH i 1 3 

the things that in- God's." On the following evening 
there was a public reception of the bishop, when 
addresses of congratulation were presented by the 
Catholics of Lancaster and the school children. 50 

lames Birchall served for some years at St. Vincent 
de Paul's, Liverpool, and after assisting at Euxton, was 
in [890 appointed to the charge of Yealand. 

Edward Smith was ordained in 1885 and sent to 
assist at Thurnham. He was transferred to Garstan^ 
in 1XX9, and received charge of Pilling in 1891 and 
of Pemberton in 1900. In 1909 he was appointed to 
Lea near Preston. 

William Leeming, son of the late Richard Leeming 
of Greaves House, was educated at Ushawand ordained 
in 1S87. Two years 1 iter he was appointed to the staff 
of St. James's, Bootle, and in 1891 received charge of 
St. Paul's, West Derby, in succession to another Lan- 
caster priest, the Rev. Joseph Clarkson, deceased. 

William Newsham w.is ordained in 1887, and 
assisted at St. Joseph's, Liverpool, for a few years. 
The charge of St. Anthony's in the same city was 
given to him in 1893; this he still retains. 

Robert Etherington was ordained in 1885, and after 
acting as the bishop's secretary for some years, was 
appointed to All Saints', Liverpool, and in 1894 to 
St. Mary's, W'igan. Prom 1S99 to 1905 he was one 
of the staff of St. Philip Neri's, Liverpool, being then 
appointed to the charge of the Blundellsands mission. 

The large window in the north transept was inserted 
about the same time. It is known as the Martyrs' 
Window, because it commemorates four of the martyrs 



144 ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 

under Henry VIII. and Elizabeth who were in 1886 
declared Blessed by the Roman See — viz. John Fisher, 
Bishop of Rochester ; Sir Thomas More, sometime 
Chancellor of England ; John Houghton, prior of the 
London Carthusians ; and Cuthbert Mayne, protomartyr 
of the seminary priests. Below the central figures are 
small medallions representing Fisher praying Henry 
VIII. not to proceed with his divorce suit; More 
saluting Fisher after they had both refused to acknow- 
ledge the royal supremacy over the Church, and saying, 
"Well met, my lord; I hope we shall soon meet in 
heaven " ; Houghton and three other martyrs on their 
way to execution ; and Mayne's arrest. Above the 
figures are the donors' patron saints : St. Matthew, 
St. Helen, St. Mary Magdalene, and St. Richard of 
Chichester, with the legend, " Orate pro anima Matthaei 
Hardman et domo ejus." In the tracery above is 
depicted our Lord as King of Martyrs, surrounded by 
angels. As the inscription intimates, the window com- 
memorates Matthew Hardman, who died in 1S86, and 
lies buried in St. Peter's Cemetery ; it was given by his 
widow and her nephew and niece, Mr. Robert Preston 
and his wife Mary. 

At the entrance to the baptistery are two small 
windows, one showing Herod, 37 the slaughterer of babes 
— babes " baptized in their own blood " — and the other 
our Lord with a child in His arms. The four windows 
inside may be thus described : ( 1 ) St. Peter, St. Paul ; 
underneath are Processus and Martinianus being baptized 
by St. Peter, and then renouncing paganism and being 
condemned. (2) St. Processus, St. Martinianus ; under- 



THE PRESENT CHURCH 145 

nc. l!i, the execution and burial of the saints. (3) An 
ail -1, St. Philip the Deacon ; underneath, Philip teaching 
the Ethiopian and then baptizing him. (4) St. Augus- 
tine, St. Paulinus ; underneath, the former saint bap- 
tizing King Ethelbert, and the latter saint baptizing 
his converts in the Swale. The inscription which runs 
round at the base of the windows reads: Euntcs ergo 
docete omncs gentes bap | tizantes cos in nomine Patris 
et P'ilii I et Spiritus Sancti, docentes eos servare | omnia 
quaecumque mandavi vobis. 38 The baptistery windows 
were executed by Shrigley and Hunt of Lancaster. 

In the Lady chapel the glass originally inserted in 
the triangular east window showed our Lady surrounded 
by angels with censers. This was removed in 1904, and 
the present design, a similar subject, was inserted by 
Shrigley and Hunt. The windows in the north wall 
contain pictures of the Presentation in the Temple and 
of the Visitation ; these were formerly in the nuns' 
chapel, in which two companion windows still remain. 

Minor Ornaments 

The Way of the Cross was formally inaugurated on 
December 19, 1861. The Stations then acquired were 
bought in Paris, the cost in all being under ^200. 
Twelve of them were subscribed for by Miss Jenkinson, 
Mrs. G. and Miss Coulston, Joseph Coulston, Misses M. 
and E. Coulston, Mrs. John Coulston, Mrs. John White- 
side, Mrs. Margaret Leeming, Miss M. Leeming, Mr. 
Richard Leeming, Mr. Hewitt (the Veronica), Mr. J. 
Pirchall, and Mr. H. Verity. Apart from this, sub- 

K 



1 46 ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 

scriptions came in liberally, and the surplus was spent 
on the statue of St. Peter over the north doorway. For 
the jubilee the paintings were reframed in oak and hung 
in somewhat more convenient positions. 

The statue of our Lady was given by Miss Margery 
Leeming, and that of St. Joseph by Misses Margaret 
and Elizabeth Coulston. There is also a statue of the 
Sacred Heart. 

Near the north door is a seated statue of St. Peter, 
holding the keys in his left hand and raising his right in 
benediction. It is an exact copy of that in St. Peter's 
at Rome. It is of wood, stained to imitate the original, 
but the right foot is of bronze. The chair is painted to 
imitate marble. The statue was placed in the church in 
1 88 1. Its cost was ^80. 

At Christmas time, instead of the usual crib, there 
is shown a beautiful group representing our Lady and 
St. Joseph worshipping the new-born Child, while an 
angel with outspread wings hovers over them. 

Electric lighting was introduced into the church 
and house in 1894 as part of the memorial to Provost 
Walker. The heating arrangements were entirely re- 
modelled at the jubilee. 

The Exterior 

Externally, the most striking feature is the beautiful 
spire, rising to a height of 240 feet from the ground. 
Attention should be directed to the richness and beauty 
of the architectural details of the whole building, e.g. 
the clerestory arcading north and south. The number 




•■(wx M 



- I 111 l.l; S, iron. tl„ Nortb W 



1 HE PRESEN 1 CHURCH 147 

of carved corbel heads, inside as well as outside, is 
quite remarkable. The spire is surmounted by a 
copper cross, 9 feet 10 inches high and .\ feet across. 
The spire was repointed and the cross regilt in 1900; 
the three topmost stones, which were found to be de- 
cayed and had to be renewed, may be seen in the 
garden. As already mentioned, there is a statue of 
St Peter in the niche over the tower doorway. The 
baptistery is pleasing externally as well as internally, 
and relieves the outline on the north side. 

For twenty yens the bell chamber in the tower 
remained unoccupied, but in 1879 Mr. John Gardner 
of the Greaves gave /"iooo for a peal of eight bells. 
1 le died on November 25 in that year, a few weeks 
before the bells were ready. They were cast by 
Warner & Sons of London, and were consecrated 
by the Bishop of Liverpool on December 21, two 
days after their arrival. The bishop gave an address, 
explaining the service and touching upon various 
customs of blessing persons and things. In his ex- 
hortation to attend to "the voices of the bells" of St. 
Peter's, he asked the people not to be unmindful of 
him who had passed away, the giver of the bells : 
" Pray for him that God may reward his charity ; pray 
for him that though he did not live to have the satis- 
faction of hearing these bells themselves, he may now 
— or if not now, he may speedily — be amongst the 
choirs of the blessed and unite his voice with the 
voices of the countless myriads who still sing God's 
praises for ever and ever." 

The bells were afterwards hung, and on Tuesday, 



i 4 8 ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 

January 20, iSSo, the first peal 39 was rung on them 
by a band of ringers from the parish church ; the 
ringers were entertained to supper in the evening. 
The following is a description of the bells, which 
have the eight beatitudes and names of saints inscribed 
upon them : — 

No. 1. Diameter across the bottom, 30} inches. Weight, 
6 cwt. 3 qrs. 20 lbs. ; gross, ioi cwt. Note E. 
Beati qui persecutionem patiuntur propter justitiam 

quoniam ipsorum est regnum caelorum. 
Sancta Maria Magdalena. Ora pro nobis. 
No. 2. Diameter, 31 \ inches. Weight, 7 cwt. 1 qr. 3 lbs. ; 
gross, i2| cwt. Note D*. 
Beati pacinci quoniam filii Dei vocabuntur. 
Sancta Teresia. Ora pro nobis. 
No. 3. Diameter, 33 inches. Weight, 8 cwt. o qr. 14 lbs. ; 
gross, 14^ cwt. Note Cjf. 
Beati mundo corde quoniam ipsi Deum videbunt. 
Sancta Helena. Ora pro nobis. 
No. 4. The Angelus Bell. Diameter, 35 inches. Weight, 
8 cwt. 2 qrs. 8 lbs. ; gross, 16 cwt. Note B. 
Beati misericordes quoniam ipsi misericordiam 

consequentur. 
Sancte Thoma. Ora pro nobis. 
No. 5. Diameter, 38 inches. Weight, 10 cwt. 2 qrs. 23 lbs. ; 
gross, 18 cwt. Note A. 
Beati qui esuriunt et sitiunt justitiam quoniam 

ipsi saturabuntur. 
Sancte Jacobe. Ora pro nobis. 
No. 6. Diameter, 41 inches. Weight, 12 cwt. 2 qrs. 21 lbs. ; 
gross, 20 cwt. Note G*. 
Beati qui lugent quoniam ipsi consolabuntur. 
Sancte Joannes. Ora pro nobis. 
No. 7. Diameter, 45 inches. Weight, 15 cwt. 2 qrs. 5 lbs. ; 
gross, 22.\ cwt. Note F5. 
Beati mites quoniam ipsi possidebunt terram. 
Sancta Maria sine labe concepta. Ora pro nobis. 
Sancte Gulielme. Ora pro nobis. 



THE PRESENT CHURCH i \g 

No. « s . Diameter, 50 inches. Weight, 2ocwt 2 qrs, .j lbs. ; 

gross, 15 cwt Note B. 
1 leati pauperes spii itu quoniam ipsorum est regnum 

caelorum. 
Sancte 1 'ctre apostolorum princcps. Ora pro nobis. 
Sancte Bernarde. Ora pro nobis. 
Has octo campanas S. I'ctro Lancastrcnsi D.D. 

[ohannes Gardner Lancastrensis a.d. 1879. 

T. Dickinson, contractor, Lancaster. 

The bells arc of sweet tone. The Angelus is rung 
daily at J a.m., noon, and 7 P.M. 



The Priests' House 

A priests' house adjoining the church and connected 
internally with it was part of Dean Brown's plan, and 
in spite of some financial difficulties the building was 
erected, forming three sides of a little court, the other 
side being the wall of the church. 

Formerly there was no right-of-way past the west end 
of the church and priests' house, the road being closed 
by a bar which at certain times was made fast to secure 
the right. Changes became desirable on opening the 
Moorlands estate, and so the road up, instead of ending 
at the convent gate, was opened to Balmoral Road, and 
In 1S90 the Corporation acquired and straightened St. 
Peter's Road, purchasing some of the church land, and 
allowing the garden to be extended a little. The road 
had previously curved round a piece of land on the 
canal side, used as a kitchen garden. 

Soon afterwards the increase of the clerical staff 
required an increase of house accommodation, and in 



ISO ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 

1895-6 the house was extended by adding a large bay 
to the south, from the designs of Austin and Paley. 
The cost of this extension, including furnishing, was 
greater than that of the original house, reaching to more 
than £3000, for in the forty years' interval there had 
been a great alteration in prices and in the conditions of 
labour. 

The Cemetery 

As has been stated already, the cemetery plot, God's 
acre, was the first utilised portion of the land acquired 
by Dean Brown. The site was approved by the 
Government inspector, who made certain recommenda- 
tions as to the proper mode of laying it out ; as, for 
example, that there should be a walk all round the 
burial-ground at a short distance within the boundary 
wall, and that the space between this wall and the walk 
should be planted with trees. Other rules dealt with 
the frequency of interments in the same grave, and other 
sanitary points. 

The cemetery was laid out accordingly in 1849-50, 
being solemnly blessed by the Bishop of Liverpool on 
August 28, 1850. The entrance is through the school 
yard by a lichgate. An inscription in the stone at this 
point records that four masses are to be said annually, 
one in each Ember week, for those whose bodies lie in 
the cemetery. These masses were founded by the Rev. 
Thomas Abbot, who died in 1904 and was himself 
buried there. 

A cross, designed by Mr. Paley, was erected in the 
centre of the ground in 1S51. After it was blown 



THE PRESENT CHURCH 151 

down by t storm in [896 it was replaced by ;i new one 
in 1899, the gift of Mr. Richard Smith." It baa the 
figure of our Lord banging on the west face, our Lady 
standing on the other. On the pedestal are the words : 
"Apud Dominum tnisericordia et copiosa apud eum 
redemptio. " " 

'1 lie cemetery was frequently used for burials up to 
1886, by which time nearly all the grave spaces had 
been sold. Since that time it has been used occasionally 
only, in the case of those who had burial riyhts and 
those who acquired some of the few grave spaces which 
could be formed. When the public cemetery was opened 
in 1S55 a portion was reserved for Catholics and blessed 
by the bishop about November in that year. This is 
now the principal burial-place. 



NOTES 

1 For the Coulston family, see Miscellanea (Cath. Rec. Soc), v. 255. 

* As complete a list as can now be compiled is printed in Appendix XI. 
3 A conspectus of the tenders sent in will be found in Appendix XII. 

' Mr. Wilson, of course, retired while this contract was being considered, 
but it was the only one about which there was any dispute. Mr. Blades 
considered that his tender should have been selected, and claimed com- 
mission, which was refused, He afterwards did work for the church. 

5 At a later time he did some work in the church. 

* St. Matt, xwiii. 19. 

' SS. Nicholas, Patrick, Kcntigern, Chad, Augustine, Paulinus, and 
Cuthbert, on the north side ; and Richard of Chichester, Hugh, Anselm, 
Dunstan, Swithin, Wilfrid, and Cedd, on the south side. 

" The cost was about £j<x>. 

* The altar cost about £ 300, and the reredos ,£230. 

,0 About /120 was spent on the work from the memorial fund. 
" Part of the fund had been raised to commemorate his twenty-live 
years' tenure of the church, which it was hoped he would complete. 



152 ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 

'-' The work cost ,£730. 

13 Acts ii. 14. 

14 Acts iii. 19. 
l; ' Acts iv. 31. 
"II. Peter i. 15. 

" Apocalypse xiv. 13. 

18 The names will be found in Appendix XIII. relating to the chantries. 

" The building of the Whiteside chantry cost .£300, the stained glass 
,£49, the screens and metal work .£167. The Coulston chantry cost for 
building ,£2So, stained glass ,£41, iron screens £37, altar .£110, and mural 
brass £71. 

" The Marquis of Bute's translation. 

'-' Romans vi. 3. 

22 The original font cost £-,1, and the cover .£28. 

21 The building cost over ,£600, the stained glass .£72, the iron screens 
.£108, the decoration of the ceiling ,£60, the altar .£209, and the statue 
of our Lady, which came from Rome, ,£46. 

24 Each of the three large windows cost .£172. 

25 It cost .£300. 

28 This window, with the brass, cost nearly .£150. 

27 Cantos xxx.-xxxii. 

28 Weekly Register, June 21, 1890. 

39 Ushaw Mag., March 1903. For the family, see Miscellanea (Cath. 
Rec. Soc), v. 247. 

30 Ibid., v. 255. 

" Liverpool Catlwlic Annual, 1904. 

32 Ibid., 1909. 

33 Ibid., 1904. 

34 Lancaster Observer, Feb. 10 and 17, 1905. 
36 Liverpool Catholic Annual, 1890. 

38 Lancaster Observer, Nov. 23, 1894. 

" The fox by Herod's side refers to "that fox," his son Herod Antipas. 

38 St. Matt, xxviii. 19. 

38 One part of Holt's ten-part peal of Grandsire's Triples, 504 changes. 

40 The old cross cost ,£4S ; the present one ,£75. 

41 Psalm exxix. 7. 



VI 

THE CLERGY 

The Rf.v. Ruhard Melchiades Brown, to whose zeal 
and self-sacrifice St. Peter's, with the house, convent, 
schools, and cemetery form a noble monument, deserves 
a more extended notice than the scanty records available 
admit. His father, Richard Brown, 1 was the eldest 
brother of Dr. George Brown, first Bishop of Liverpool, 
already noticed as the priest in charge of the Dalton 
Square chapel from 1S19 to 1840; he was long the 
principal Catholic publisher in London, succeeding 
J. P. Coghlan in 1S00, and dying in 1837. His son 
Richard was born in London on December 10, 1806. 
1 le had his early schooling at Scholes near Prescot, and 
after studying at Ushaw went on to the English College 
at Rome. A diary of his life there has been preserved ; 
it notices, among other things, the election of a new 
pope, Pius VIII., in 1S29, and the grand ceremonies 
attending it ; also the joy of the students on learning the 
attainment of Catholic Emancipation in 1829. He was 
ordained priest at St. John's Lateran by the Patriarch 
of Constantinople on March 27, 1S30, and sang his 
first mass on the following Friday, the feast of the 
Seven Dolours of our Lady. Returning to England, 
he was appointed in succession to the following charges : 

•S3 



154 ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 

1830 — Poulton ; 1834 — Leeds; 1834 — Kilvington ; 
1S35 — Whitby; 1836 — Dukinfield. While at the last- 
mentioned place he caused the church, presbytery, and 
schools at Stalybridge to be built. 

As already stated, he took charge of the Lancaster 
mission in August 1840, when his uncle was consecrated 
bishop, and became its responsible pastor in October 
1 84 1. It was not long before he sought to improve the 
schools and began to make plans for a new church ; 
St. Peter's, after eighteen years, crowned his efforts. 
Soon after the restoration of the hierarchy he was made 
a canon of Liverpool, but held the dignity only a short 
time, from 1852 to 1854. He was from its formation 
until his death dean of the deanery of St. Charles, 
which embraces the Lancaster and Furness districts. 

After the anxious work of school and church building 
was accomplished, he lived a little over nine years in the 
new priests' house, and died there, fortified by the last 
sacraments, on December 31, 186S. The dirge was 
sung on the following Sunday, January 3, and the 
requiem mass on the following day, Bishop Goss and 
about forty priests being present. There was no sermon, 
in accordance with his own directions. He was then 
buried in the cemetery which had been laid out by his 
efforts, and his tombstone * near the cross, bears this 
inscription : " Pray for the soul of the Very Rev. Richard 
Brown, 2S years pastor of this congregation, and for- 
merly a canon of Liverpool. He departed this life 31st 
December 1868, aged 62 years." 

During the latter part of his time, knowing that his 
people had exhausted themselves in the efforts to secure 



THE CLERGY 155 

tlx ir church, he would not trouble them for contributions, 
ami was frequently very short of funds. 1 le was severe 
with himseli and austere in his manner to others, but 
the llock knew a faithful pastor, and there was a ready 
response to the appeal for a memorial to him, ,£451 
being raised. With this sum, in addition to the memorial 
brass and the arcading round the apse already mentioned, 
various ornaments were purchased to beautify the church 
he loved, including a crucifix, statuettes and hangings 
for the high altar, candlesticks for the elevation, and 
sanctuary chairs. 

No portrait of him is known ; he refused to have one 
taken. 

The local paper stated that he " had obtained the 
respect of all classes of the population by his courtesy 
and respect for the opinions of others." He was 

trded as "a man of great culture, with a taste for 
archaeological and architectural studies which had been 
developed and enriched by his residence in Rome." 

I lis successor, the Rev. William Walker, a nephew 
of Canon John Walker of Scarborough (d. 1873), 
was born at Layton Hall near Blackpool on August 2, 
1S00, 3 his father being a farmer there. He went first to 
the school at Bispham, and then to a private school 
taught by the Rev. Thomas Bryer, Anglican minister at 
Marten. When fifteen he was sent to Ushaw, and there 
he was ordained priest on August 4, 1849, remaining 
at the college, as professor of humanities, poetry, and 
rhetoric in succession, for another seven years. In 
September 1856 he was appointed to the charge of 
St. Augustine's, Preston, and remained there until 



156 ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 

January 1869, when he succeeded Dean Brown as 
rector of St. Peter's and head of the deanery of St. 
Charles. In 1873 ne was made canon of Liverpool, 
and in 1889, on the death of Mgr. Fisher, he was by 
Pope Leo XIII. appointed provost of the chapter. 

He continued the good work of his predecessor 
in beautifying St. Peter's Church and increasing its 
usefulness, for he too loved the beauty of God's house. 
He published little guides on the occasion of the blessing 
of the bells and the opening of the great windows in 
transepts and nave. The schools were enlarged by him 
in 1878 ; a former pupil teacher, George Sergeant, was or- 
dained priest at St. Peter's in 1 89 1 . Provost Walker was 
a man of culture and genial manners, very popular among 
his brother clergy and his flock, and in general esteem 
with non-Catholics ; he was generous to a fault, im- 
poverishing himself that he might give to others. The 
Bishop of Liverpool (Dr. O'Reilly) thus wrote of him 
after his death : " During a long life I have never heard 
him say a word against his neighbour. You will re- 
member the words which were written up in his house 
— ' If any man speak against his neighbour, let him 
know there is no place for him here.' This he acted 
upon to the very letter." The framed card bearing 
these words in Latin is still hanging in the dining-room 
of the house. 

At Lancaster he served on the Burial Board and 
the Infirmary Committee, and in other ways took part in 
local movements. His health failed early in 1892, and 
he died at Lancaster, November 28, 1893, fortified by 
the last sacraments ; he was buried in St. Peter's Ceme- 




provost u m.inI.i; 



THE CLERGY 157 

tcry next to his predecessor. The inscription on his 
tombstone is as follows : " Pray for the soul of the Very 
Rev. William Walker, V.F., M.R., Provost of the 
chapter of Liverpool, and for nearly 25 years pastor of 
this congregation, lie was born August 2, 1820; died 
November 28, 1893. R.I.P." 

The requiem mass on December 1 was sung by 
Dr. Gordon, Bishop of Leeds; the Bishop of Salford 
(Dr. Pilsborrow) and the coadjutor Bishop of Shrews- 
bury (Dr. Carroll) and about a hundred priests were 
present. The church was crowded, the congregation 
including the High Sheriff (Sir Thomas Storey) and 
the Mayor (Alderman Gilchrist). The discourse was 
preached by the Rev. R. N. Billington, who became 
his successor. 4 The Bishop of Liverpool was unable to 
be present on account of his own illness. 

There is a portrait of Provost Walker at St. Peter's. 
A fund of ,£668 was raised and expended on a memorial 
window in the church, the electric lighting of church and 
house, and part of the decoration of the chancel. 

The esteem in which he was held in the town as 
" a popular Catholic priest, an honoured citizen, and a 
beloved minister," was thus expressed by a local news- 
paper : " As a townsman he has been a prominent and 
central figure in society. He was, in fact, a local cele- 
brity of the first rank, whom to know personally was to 
admire. No words could describe adequately his fine 
nature, genial and friendly always, even to those who 
in secular matters might differ from him. He was 
generous to a fault, and the kindness of his heart not 
unfrequently made him a victim of impecunious im- 



158 ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 

postors. He always took a deep interest in the affairs 
of the town, especially in any work intended to promote 
the general welfare of the people. The Infirmary was 
one of the public institutions he most cordially supported, 
and his attendance at the annual meeting in February 
1892 was his last public appearance. His health was 
then failing, but he was there at the call of duty." 

Among the noteworthy incidents of Provost Walker's 
rectorship were visits from Cardinal Manning. One 
of these was in 1876, when Alderman T. Preston 
was mayor. On Sunday, September 3, the cardinal 
preached both morning and evening. At the morning 
service the Bishop of Liverpool sang pontifical high 
mass, and the sermon was on the words " Search the 
Scriptures." At the evening service, vespers and bene- 
diction, the discourse was upon Faith and Reason, 
based on Romans x. 17. On the following Tuesday 
there was a banquet at the town-hall, given by the 
mayor in honour of the cardinal, who was present with 
the Bishop of Liverpool. There were no toasts, but 
the cardinal made a speech. On Thursday he gave 
an address on Temperance at the Palatine Hall ; the 
mayor was in the chair, and the vote of thanks to 
Cardinal Manning was proposed by Mr. E. B. Dawson. 
Again in September 1S81 he visited Lancaster, preach- 
ing on Thursday evening and giving benediction. A 
year later he visited the town to lay the foundation- 
stone of the church at Bolton-le-Sands, on which 
occasion he gave an address. 

The Very Rev. Richard Newman Billington, the 
present rector, was born in 1S53, and educated at 




( \\<»N HILLINGTON. 



THE CLERGY 

Ampleforth and Ushaw. He was ordained in 1878, and 
for four ye rs wis secretary to the late Bishop of 
Liverpool. !!<• was appointed to the charge of St. 
Bernard's, Kingsley Road, Liverpool, in August 1883. 

There was then only a "district" called St. Bernard's, 
there being no church, schools, nor priest's house. A 
school was opened in 18X4, the upper story being used 
for a chapel. In [886 he was added to the clergy of 
St. Augustine's, Preston. Three years later, in 1. 
he received charge of Thurnhani. and on December 16, 
1893, succeeded Provost Walker at Lancaster as 
rector and dean. In 190S he was made canon of 
Liverpool. 

The following have been the assistant priests at the 
present church : — 

The Rev. James Taylor, who was appointed to 
I '.ikon Square in 1858, and thus witnessed the opening 
of St. Peter's and ministered there for a short time. 
He left in 1S60 for Preston, being afterwards stationed 
at Birkdale for a time. In 1S85 he was appointed to 
Lytham, where he remained till his death on January 3, 
190S. He was made a canon of Liverpool in 1S73, and 
domestic prelate to the pope in 1907. 6 

The Rev. Robert Smith, 1S60-1S64. He became 
a Camaldolese monk at Rome. 

The Rev. James Parkinson, 1S64-1866. He was 
in charge of Croft near Warrington from 1875 to 18S2, 
and died January 18, 1883. 

The Rev. William Massey 1 866-1 877. He had 
charge of the Ulverston mission from the time of his 
leaving Lancaster until 1S86. He then helped to 



160 ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 

found St. George's mission at Maghull, and died at 
Waterloo on April 23, 1889. 7 

The Rev. Richard Walsh, 187 7- 1888. While at 
Lancaster he took great interest in the schools. He 
was transferred to the charge of Our Lady Immaculate, 
Everton, retaining it until his death, which took place at 
Cairo, June 7, 1893. 8 

Lancaster in 1888, just before his leaving, had re- 
ceived a second assistant, the Rev. Thomas P. Murphy, 
and Fr. Walsh's successor was the Rev. Thomas Crookall. 
The former of these stayed for ten years, until in 1898 
he received charge of Ince Blundell ; he was appointed 
to Skerton in 1902. Fr. Crookall remained at Lancaster 
until 1902, when he was promoted to the charge of 
Douglas, Isle of Man. In 1905 he was made Dean of 
St. Maughold's deanery. 

Meantime, in 1895, a third assistant was given to 
Lancaster, and the staff has since that time been com- 
posed of the rector and three curates. The Rev. Joseph 
Roche, who came in 1895, was two years later trans- 
ferred to St. Anne's on Sea, and later to Freckleton, 
being followed at Lancaster by the Rev. John Walmsley, 
who went to St. Teresa's, Birkdale, in 1898, and is now 
at Ramsey. 

The Revs. Walter Griffiths and Patrick Delany were 
the new assistants in 1898. In 1902 the former was 
appointed to Our Lady of Lourdes and St. Bernard, 
Liverpool, and is now at the English College, Valladolid. 
The latter was in 1901 placed in charge of the chapel at 
Clifton Hill, Forton ; and was succeeded by the Rev. 
Dennis O'Shea, who remained at Lancaster but a short 



THE CLERGY r6i 

time, being next year transferred to St. Patrick's, Wigan, 

and later to St Philip Neri's, Liverpool. 

Thus all three assistants were changed in 1902, th< ir 
successors being the Revs. Francis Cosgrave, Thomas 
Wining, and John Austin Richmond. Fr. Waning, 
who in 1903 left for the English Martyrs' church, Preston, 
and is now at St. Patrick's, Widnes, was followed at 
Lancaster by the Rev. Louis H. Green. 

Fr. Cosgrave was born at Wexford on February 
23, 1S67; educated at St. Fdward's, Liverpool, ami 
Upholland ; ordained priest 1892, and stationed at St. 
Joseph's, Preston, till 1895, when he was moved to 
Birkdale, staying there till 1898. He returned to St. 
Joseph's, Preston, in 1901. At Lancaster he stayed 
from 1902 to 1905, when the charge of St. Anne's on Sea 
was entrusted to him. This he retained until his death 
on August 29, 1909. His place at Lancaster was taken 
by the Rev. James Kenny, D.D. Fr. Green was in 
1908 removed to Barrow, and the Rev. Richard O. 
Bilsborrow succeeded him. Fr. Richmond was in 1909 
transferred to St. Joseph's, Birkdale, and was replaced 
by the Rev. Edward Stephens. 

Dr. Kenny, the senior of the assistant clergy, was 
educated at Rome, where, after being ordained priest 
in 1S99, he took the D.D. degree in 1900. He was 
appointed to assist at St. Mary's, Wigan, in 1900, and 
was thence removed to Lancaster. Fr. Bilsborrow was 
educated at Ushaw, and ordained priest in 1905 ; he 
was placed on the staff of St. Oswald's, Old Swan, 
Liverpool, and in 1906 went to Hornby to assist the 
late Mgr. Wrennall (d. 1907) in his last years; from 

L 



i62 ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 

Hornby he came to St. Peter's. Fr. Stephens, also of 
Ushaw, was ordained priest in 1908, and assisted at St. 
Paul's, West Derby, till he was transferred to Lancaster. 



NOTES 

1 Gillow, Bibliographical Dictionary of English Catholics, i. 322. 
* The tombstone was carved by William Darwen, a working man who 
was not a mason, to the satisfaction of the designer. 

3 For biography and portrait, see Liverpool Catholic Annual for 1894, 
p. 120. 

4 The discourse was printed in the Ushaw Magazine, March 1894. 
8 Lancaster Gazette, Dec. 2, 1893. 

8 Liverpool Diocesan Annual, 1909 ; with portrait. 

' Liverpool Diocesan Annual, 1890, p. 85 ; with portrait. 

8 Ibid., 1894, p. 109 ; with portrait. 



VII 
THE JUBILEE 

To mark the fiftieth anniversary of the consecration 
of the church, considerable alterations were made, all 
tending to the greater beauty of the building and the 
convenience of the congregation. Details of them have 
already been given ; they may be summarised here as 
the provision of a new high altar with fine reredos and 
triptych ; new flooring for the chancel, aisles, chantries, 
and passages of the nave and aisles ; new benches all 
through the church, new doors, and a screen for the 
west door, the recolouring of the walls, the decoration 
of St. Charles's altar, and minor changes. During the 
alterations, which occupied many months, the services 
of the church had to be somewhat curtailed, and were 
conducted at much inconvenience to the clergy and 
the people, but the result has caused all that to be 
forgotten. 

The celebration began on Thursday evening, Sep- 
tember 30, with the veneration of the relics of SS. 
Urban and Valerian, which were to be deposited in the 
new altar. The relics, enclosed in a suitable casket, were 
placed on the altar in the baptistery, and the night 
office of "many martyrs" was recited there. 1 Those 

present were the Bishop of Liverpool, Canon Billington 

'63 



1 64 ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 

and the other clergy of St. Peter's, Mgr. Gillow of 
Kirkham, Dean Crookall of Douglas, Isle of Man, and 
the Rev. R. J. Langtree of Grange. 

On Friday morning, beginning at half-past seven, 
the bishop proceeded to consecrate the altar, Mgr. 
Gillow and Fr. Lanotree beino; masters of the cere- 

fc> o 

monies. The Rev. T. Murphy of Skerton and Dr. 
Kenny acted as deacon and subdeacon, the Rev. R. O. 
Bilsborrow being book-bearer, and the Rev. E. Stephens 
thurifer. In the stalls were Canon Billington and Dean 
Crookall. 

The service for the consecration of an altar lasts 
about two hours, and though of great interest to those 
who take part in it, is scarcely intelligible to the dis- 
tant spectators in the body of the church. The following 
is an outline of it : — 

The seven penitential psalms are recited while the bishop is 
vesting in the church, and then the litany of the saints is said, 
the bishop kneeling ; some special petitions are introduced. 
Holy water, with salt, ashes, and wine, is then blessed, and 
the bishop goes up to the altar, beginning the antiphon, 
" Introibo ad altare Dei," and the 42nd psalm, " Judica me " ; 2 
and after these are finished he marks five crosses on the 
altar table with holy water, and prays for its sanctification. 
He then goes round the table seven times, sprinkling it 
with the holy water and praying. Then going with other 
clergy in procession to the altar where the relics were placed 
the previous evening, he carries them solemnly to the new 
altar, with proper antiphons and psalms, and puts them in 
the sepulchre or place of deposit in the altar. Then, having 
incensed the relics, he closes the sepulchre with a stone or 
piece of wood which fits in and is made secure. The anti- 
phons refer to the martyrs whom St. John heard crying out 
under the altar of God. 3 The altar, after being cleaned, is 



THE JUBILEE 165 

incensed by the bishop, the 83rd psalm, "Quam dilecta," 
being ^.m ! with .1 Buitable antiphon. The bishop then makes 
five crosses on it with holy oil, and again incenses the altar, 
and then the Qisl psalm, "15111111111 est confiteri Domino," 
aid. The crossing and incensing being dune a second 

tmu-, the -4. 4 tli psalm, " Kructavit," is recited. The live 
are then made with chrism and the altar is again 
incensed by the bishop, and the 45th psalm, "Deus tlOSter 
refugium," is said. Holy oil and chrism are then poured 
upon the altar by the bishop, who with his right hand 
spreads them over the table, thus anointing its entire surface. 
Then after the psalm " Fundamenta ejus" and prayer, he 
makes live crosses of incense upon the altar, and these are 
then kindled and burnt up, further prayers being said. The 
ashes being cleared away, the bishop prays God to hear 
those who may mike their supplications at that altar, and adds 
a further petition in the form of a preface. He then anoints 
the front of the altar with chrism, the 67th psalm, " Exurgat 
Deus," being recited and a prayer; then likewise anoints 
the corner joints of the altar-table and its supports, and 
ends with another prayer that God would grant His heavenly 
blessing to sanctify the altar, and that those who should 
worship there might gain the eternal salvation of their souls. 
The ministers then cleanse the table of the altar, and the 
bishop proceeds to bless various ornaments and cloths for 
it. After further psalmody he incenses the altar thrice, and 
after the final prayers, goes to vest himself for mass. 

When its consecration was finished the bishop said 
mass at the new altar. Later the Blessed Sacrament, 
which had during the alterations been reserved in the 
Lady Chapel, was placed in the tabernacle of the high 
altar. 

The formal reopening took place on the follow- 
ing Sunday, October 3, which was Rosary Sunday. 
Alter the early masses pontifical high mass was sung 
by the Bishop of Shrewsbury (Dr. Singleton). Just 



1 66 ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 

before it began the bishop of the diocese entered by 
the west door, and on proceeding up the aisle to his 
throne in the chancel was welcomed with the anthem, 
" Ecce sacerdos magnus," the music of which was com- 
posed for the occasion by Prior Burge, O.S.B., of 
Grassendale near Liverpool. During the mass he 
granted an indulgence of fifty days to those who were 
present in church. He was attended by Canon Bill— 
ington and Canon Cosgrave of Preston as deacons at 
the throne, by the Rev. J. H. Seed of Seaforth as 
assistant, and by Fr. Langtree as master of ceremonies. 
Master John Hart was train-bearer. The celebrant 
had Dean Crookall for assistant priest ; Dr. Kenny was 
deacon, and Fr. Bilsborrow subdeacon, Mgr. Gillow being 
again master of ceremonies. Master John Nixon was 
train-bearer. Others present in the sanctuary were the 
preacher, Dr. Hedley, O.S. B., Bishop of Newport, who 
was attended by Fr. Stephens as chaplain ; also Fr. 
Aidan, O.S.F., and Canon Wickwar of Hartlepool. 

The singing was conducted by Prior Burge, the 
organist of the church accompanying. The music of 
the mass was an arrangement of Gounod's " Guardian 
Angels " mass. After the offertory the choir sang the 
same composer's motet, " O Salutaris." The introit, 
gradual, offertory, and communion were sung to the 
Solesmes plain-chant. The church was decorated with 
flowers and ornamental plants from Greaves House. 
There was a large congregation, and the whole service 
went on smoothly and reverently to the close. 

Bishop Hedley preached upon "Spiritual Riches" 
from a text occurring in the epistle of the Sunday : 



THE JUBILEE 167 

" I give thanks to my God . . . that in all things you 
arc- made rich in Christ Jesus." 4 He said : — 

The spirit of thanksgiving justly and rightly fills the 
air to-day in this church. The occurrence of the 
fiftieth anniversary, the golden jubilee, of the dedication 
of this beautiful church of St. Peter naturally turns the 
heart to thanksgiving, and the hearts of all Lancaster 
Catholics and their friends to the goodness and pro- 
vidence of God. You who represent the Hock that 
uhered fifty years ago to the pontifical mass of the 
Bishop of Liverpool of that day, and the sermon of 
Bishop Roskell at the first of that long series of holy 
services and Catholic instructions, naturally thank God 
for yourselves and on behalf of those who have passed 
away. You are linked with the past not only by your 
Catholic faith, but by the very streets and history of 
the town in which you live, by the continuous story of 
Catholic effort and sacrifice around this spot, by the 
names you bear, which in many instances the entries 
in the sacred registers and the inscriptions in the 
cemetery carry back to the past and even to the 
beginning. 

You thank God for the graces and benedictions of a 
permanent mission, for a Catholic church, for a Christian 
altar. The Altar is Christ Himself. The Apostle John 
saw in a vision the golden Altar which evermore stands 
before the throne of the Everlasting. That Altar is 
Christ, the healing and salvation of men ; from that 
Altar goes up the smoke of the perpetual all-sufficing 
adoration, propitiation, thanksgiving, and impetration 
which unceasingly draw down God's kindness to men 



i68 ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 

and bind the earth to heaven. That Altar is represented 
by every altar of man's erection at which a priest of the 
New Covenant stands and ministers. The Christian 
altars are the hallowed spots, terrible but beneficent, 
where the glory of heaven streams down upon earth ; 
where the faithful rather, knowing that it is good for 
them to be there ; altars which Christian faith cannot do 
without, and which Christian zeal sets up everywhere 
where there is a soul to save. To possess an altar fixed 
and permanent, with reverent sanctuary round about, 
with the ample gathering spaces of a church, with 
ministers charged to keep up the holy flame, with the 
liturgy and the sacraments and God's word streaming 
from it in fire like the fires of the Seraphim — to possess 
such an altar is to possess the treasury of the riches of 
Christ. Therefore we thank God for the fiftieth year 
of this church ; we thank Him as St. Paul did, that you 
are in all things " made rich with the riches of Christ 
Jesus." 

Spiritual riches! We believe in them, but, as we 
too well know, they are to us shadowy, unreal, unsub- 
stantial ; nay, to many merely figurative. We know 
what we mean by riches. We have visions of gold and 
precious things, of possession, of pride and of glory. 
These are real. They clothe us and feed us, they 
comfort and gratify us, they lift us up above our fellow 
men. We can handle them, hoard them, distribute 
them. All this is true. But there are also riches of 
another order. For there is another order ; and it is 
just as real as the first. It is not a figure of speech, or 
a product of the imagination, or a poetical fancy. It is 



THE JUBILEE 169 

called the spiritual order. The spiritual is as real as the 
sensible. 

What is more, you and I belong more to the 
spiritual than to the sensible. A man is a spirit ; not 
a pure spirit, but a spirit conditioned by sense and 
matter. But he is a spirit; and the senses that he has 
are not more than the ministers and the handmaids of 
his spirit ; and the material framework of him is not 
dead or inert matter like the clod and the rock, just 
because the human spirit permeates it through and 
through, and by that very intimate occupation becomes 
what it is, a human spirit, and not an angel. A man 
therefore is principally a spirit. He could cast off or 
shed the material envelope and still exist. That will 
really happen — between the hour of our death and the 
day of the resurrection. But during that time the dis- 
embodied soul will still not be a pure spirit, such as the 
angels. The body will still colour the essence of its 
life ; its movements in the absence of organs will suffer 
a certain natural incompleteness, and its knowledge will 
be supernaturally supplied in the absence of senses and 
imagination. It will be incomplete. If it is admitted 
to the bosom of God, as all the just will be, or may be 
even before the resurrection, a life, a movement, and a 
knowledge will inundate it with the Beatific Vision 
which will make the extinction of the senses absolutely 
of no moment. And then on the resurrection day, 
when the soul again assumes a body, the old earthly 
life of seeing, hearing, and feeling will go on as of old ; 
but the human spirit, though it will possess a glorious 
human life, will be so absorbed in the happy vision of 



170 ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 

the Infinite that it will hardly know it ; for as the light 
of the morning star when the sun floods the heavens is 
extinguished and yet shines on, so the natural life of the 
human being in heaven will go on in perfection, but will 
bring no addition to the joy and the happiness of the 
supernatural sight of the face of God. 

If this is true the spiritual is the only real. In 
comparison with touch, sight, bodily sensation, human 
pride, place, or possession, the spiritual is the only 
real. We have to admit it. We have to admit that 
we want words and terms such as we apply to the 
order of the sensible, to express the intense and vital 
reality of the spiritual. We have to confess that if 
we can get such words, when we use them of the 
higher order, the spiritual order, it will not be a 
figurative use of language, but it will be a real use. 
Whatever grammarians may say, it is certain that the 
word " riches," used in the spiritual order, signifies in 
all important respects — such as substance, ownership, 
permanence, well-being, and efficiency — a far more 
real thing than is signified by what we call riches 
that we can touch with our hands. 

If we could only keep that conviction clear and 
dominant in our inner and outer life ! There lies our 
probation. There lies our goodness, our merit, our 
title to eternal life, in our firm belief in the reality 
of spiritual riches, the riches of Christ Jesus. This 
is what the preachers preach to us. And if they do, 
it is only what the Master of all the preachers, our 
heavenly Father Himself, is ever using His loving 
voice to impress upon the unsteady, the half-seeing, 



THE JUBILEE 171 

the deceived hearts of the men and women He has 
made for Himself. He cannot draw away the veil, 
as yet. He cannot set human faculty face to face 
with spiritual forces. He must speak in figure and 
analogy. But we have His word — from the beginning, 
through all the ages, at this very moment ; He has 
always wanted to make us understand that the spiritual 
is the real. 

Nothing need here be said of the spiritual glory 
of our first parents in Paradise. Man fell. Christ 
redeemed the fall, and no sooner did the first created 
pair set their foot among the thorns and briars of 
the fallen world than the redemption was offered, and 
the stripped and desolated soul of man had the oppor- 
tunity of being clothed again in the riches that were 
to be won by the cross. You will not find the terms 
of modern theological science, or even the phrases 
of your children's catechism, in the Old Testament. 
But you read therein, in every chapter, that man is 
always offered spiritual riches, and that the spiritual 
is proclaimed to be the real. 

In earlier days men knew less definitely what those 
riches are. But a man's relations with his God must 
be substantially the same in every age of the world — 
repentance, love, and service on the one side, com- 
munication on the other ; and ever since the closing 
of the gates of Paradise there has gone on a progressive 
clearing and illumination of the spiritual revelation. 
We first find Almighty God impressing upon the 
Hebrews that their riches lay in this, that He was 
near. They were His people and He was their God. 



172 ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 

He placed His rainbow in the heavens, He sent 
angelic heralds, He opened the skies over Jacob's 
head, He startled Moses with the flames in the 
desert, He spoke at Sinai, He led them visibly through 
their journey, He filled the temple with His glory, 
to show that He was near. He proclaimed to them 
that He was their keeper and their helper, that He 
visited them and listened to their prayers. They were 
to love Him and serve Him with all their heart, and 
He was to be with them for ever. A servant of God 
in those times of marching and fighting, of destroying 
and building up, would feel, if he listened to the word 
of his God, that he had his God very near ; that no 
earthly protection could be relied on like His ; that 
earthly weapons and earthly treasures were weak and 
despicable compared with His right arm; and that 
the whole world that could be seen and felt mi^ht 
well be trodden under foot for the sake of serving 
Jehovah and feeling Jehovah's presence around him. 

But when we come to the Psalms it is not only 
proclaimed that the Lord is near, but that He in some 
way is within the soul. We still hear the note of 
worship, of praise, of trust in the Lord's right hand. 
This runs all through the Psalms. But we find also 
that the soul itself is the subject of mighty operations in 
the spiritual order. By God's power the heart is made 
clean and the right spirit infused within it. Sin is 
covered and forgiven. The soul is not left in death ; 
it is saved from what is called hell — another name for 
death. The soul is said to be filled with " good things " 
— that is the phrase. The splendour of the Lord comes 



THE JUBILEE 173 

to shine upon it. Salvation, light, glory, riches arc 
given to it. It is penetrated with sweetness, and made 
to wear a royal crown. It is compared to a land of 
fertility and abundance, where streams flow and even 
the desert blossoms. It lives : as the tree lives by the 
river's bank, as live the palm, the cedar, the olive, the 
lily. It is this note of a divine spiritual life which 
chielly distinguishes the teaching of the Psalms. To 
the just man is given the gift of a special life. lie 
lives "to God." His God is to him a fountain of 
life. He prays over and over again in those words, 
" Vivilic a me, secundum verbum tuum " — Make me to 
live with the life that Thou hast promised. 

All these figures and promises of spiritual riches 
are repeated and added to in the prophets. Isaias in 
foretelling the future proclaims that the mercy of God 
brings to the soul of man healing and salvation ; that 
the soul becomes holy, honourable, glorious, aud beloved 
of God. The fountains of the Saviour, of which he 
speaks, and the rivers that open in the high hills, are 
paralleled by the living waters of Zachary and the 
waters which Ezechiel saw flowing from the temple, 
bringing life to every one they touched. The soul is 
given not only this new life, but a robe of beauty and a 
diadem of glory. Zachary speaks, like the Psalmist, of 
good things and beautiful things ; and Isaias promises gold 
for brass and silver for iron — the spiritual and the super- 
natural for the natural and the earthly.' 3 It is Isaias also 
who relates the parable of the vineyard, that touching 
expression of the solicitude of God in purifying, beautify- 
ing, and protecting the soul of man. And it is in Osee 



174 ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 

as well as in the Book of Wisdom that we come upon the 
figure of the Spouse — the expression of that most intimate 
union between God and the soul which is so poetically 
developed in the Canticle of Canticles. 

Then, finally, there is the whole of the Old Testament 
teaching on the subject of Wisdom. What is the 
Wisdom of the literature of the ancient Covenant? It 
is the participation by man of the very being of God. 
It seems to be divine, for it is " a certain pure emanation 
of the glory of Almighty God," "the brightness of 
eternal light," "the image of God's goodness" ; and yet 
it "conveyeth itself into holy souls," 7 it makes them 
friends of God, and God loveth none but them who 
participate in this Wisdom. That is what they believed 
in the days of Solomon. 

And it is in such terms that they described, before 
Christ came, the riches of Christ. For all this healing 
and holiness was given, from the very beginning, by the 
merits of the Blood of Christ — that Blood which, as St. 
Peter says, was " foreknown before the foundation of 
the world." s And the illuminated men of God, the 
patriarchs, the prophets, and the singers of Psalms, to 
whom the Holy Spirit gave the office of recording those 
times of preparation, have made it clear to all who read 
that in all that time men believed in spiritual riches. 
The times were dark and dim ; there was a veil over 
human hearts, and men were permitted to make more 
account of temporal things. The nature of the com- 
munion of the soul of man, whilst still on earth, with its 
God, was only known indefinitely. But this was known, 
certainly and definitely : that God was near, that He 



mi-: juiulee 175 

Pfavc to every man who knew 1 lim a life other than the 
life of the senses, and that this life was the soul's glory 
and crown. And it was this happy participation by mail 
of the gifts of God that made him truly and substantially 
rich ; for it was the spiritual that was real. 

Then, in the fulness of time, came the clear and 
complete revelation of the significance of the riches 
of Christ, lie who had inspired the sayings of the 
patriarchs, the songs of the psalmists, and the prophecies 
of the prophets, came to the last hours of His mort.d 
life. As He rose from the Supper and went forth to 
Mount Olivet, He spoke at length of His love and His 
friendship for His chosen band, and for all those who 
through their word should believe in Him ; and at that 
moment He uttered the word which He had already 
indeed prepared them to hear, but which He now for 
the first time spoke with solemn and full emphasis. He 
said that the gift, the treasure, given to the soul of the 
just was nothing less than this — the very presence and 
indwelling of God Himself. " We will come to him," 
He said, " I and My Father, and We will take up Our 
abode within him." 9 

The indwelling of God in man! That was and is 
the dream of the human race. Every people in every 
generation has had the admonition, sometimes more 
plain, sometimes very faint, that the Creator and the 
Eternal could, and would, enter into men. Hence 
have arisen not only the strange reverence we every- 
where find for seers and sages, for prophets and men 
who seem to be inspired or spiritually possessed, but 
also that widespread Pantheism which has characterised 



176 ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 

so many philosophies and so many religions in ancient 
and modern times. It was a dream, and too often a 
dream of error and falsehood ; but it may well have 
been a faint and distorted memory of the primitive 
Paradise, when the first man and woman shone in 
splendour of supernatural visitation, like temples that 
are filled with light. And it was to be realised, without 
extravagance or falsehood, by the grace of Christ. 
Every man to whom Christ was truly a Saviour was to 
be the temple of the Holy Spirit. That which happened 
in figure to the temple which Solomon dedicated was 
to be verified in every servant of God. We read that 
on the day of dedication, as the great king prayed on 
his throne, and the priests and the multitudes thronged 
around, and the psalms resounded, and the instruments 
of music proclaimed triumph and jubilee, the glory of 
God descended on the temple and filled it, and there 
that glory remained whilst the temple lasted. 

So God comes into the soul of the redeemed. 
These terms and expressions which appear in every 
page of the inspired letters of St. Peter, St. Paul, and 
St. John ; this entering in, this abiding, this communi- 
cation of the Holy Spirit, this pouring in and diffus- 
ing of the Holy Ghost, are not a mere figure. They 
denote a physical effect or presence as real to the spirit 
as colour or shape is to a natural object. What is given 
is not the substance of the divinity itself. That would 
be impossible. But it is an effect, an impression, and 
a penetration, produced immediately by the Holy 
Spirit, and altering or transforming the soul itself. 
St. Peter says that by it we become partakers of the 



THE JUBILEE 177 

nature of God. "By Christ," he says, "God hath 
riven us great and precious promises; that by tfau 
you may he made partakers of the divine nature.' 
That is a word which no one but an apostle would have 
dared to formulate. If we arc partakers of the nature 
of God, we are in a sense made divine ; we are 
"deified"; that is the very word employed alike by 
ancient mystics and modern theologians to describe 
what takes place when regeneration and justification 
are conferred upon the weak and frail nature of man. 
The God of love cannot be content unless He 
comes down from the heavens in His light, His flame, 
and His glory, and transfigures these poor temples of 
ours with an anticipation of the glory to come. In 
the words of St. Ignatius in the " Exercises," "He 
gives not only His gift, but as far as He can, according 
to His divine ordination, He gives Himself." We are 
His creatures, His servants ; but it is no wonder if now 
He calls us His friends and His children. He beholds 
in us, not merely that nature which in itself, apart from 
sin, is so noble and so well adapted to know Him and 
love Him, but that glory of grace which is His own 
glorious inhabitation ; and instead of allowing us in 
lowliness to kiss His feet, He lifts us to His breast and 
seats us beside Him as the children of His family. 
This is the meaning of sanctifying grace. And whether 
He thus abides within us, or in addition urges and 
stimulates us with transient visitations of His solicitude, 
there is always the touch of the divine on the human, 
and the servants of God possess, through the Blood of 
Calvary, a spiritual treasure a thousand times more 

M 



178 ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 

precious, more effective, and more real than all the 
riches of all the ages of the world. 

Here, then, we have the great mystical revelation of 
the New Testament — that the riches of Christ, the re- 
demption and the grace of Christ, are nothing less than 
the indwelling within us of God Himself. And yet men 
— Christians — Catholics — live as if there were no such 
thing as the order of the spiritual. It is our loss, and 
it to many is their ruin. Say you are frail, tempted, 
preoccupied, or spiritually blind. But turn to your 
heavenly Father, turn to your Saviour, and let your- 
selves be led, taught, persuaded, to believe in that which 
is out of sight. Out of sight! Is not the Lord of 
Hosts almost visible ? Has He not set His altar in 
your very midst ? Has He not inspired His servants, 
and your forerunners, and even yourselves, to erect, by 
many a sacrifice, such an altar as this, with a noble and 
devotional church, to draw the heart even through the 
senses to the things that are out of sight ? Your 
sacrifice and your devotion He will reward. When you 
co-operate in building and adorning a church and an 
altar, you have a share in the diffusion of the riches of 
Christ, for the church and the altar are the chief means 
that He uses to bring the effects of the Blood of Calvary 
to human souls. Therefore whilst you thank Him for 
this day — for the church, the daily masses for fifty years, 
the devoted clergy, dead and living, the Word of God 
and the ever-flowing fountains of the Sacraments — pray 
that you may believe in spiritual riches, and despise 
all others. Pray that all this visible order may ever 
keep you face to face with the invisible ; that you may 



THE JUBILEE 179 

reverence the Holy Spirit in your own hearts, and 
dedicate all your life to Him; and that those riches <>f 
Christ for which you now give grateful thanks may 
turn, when the day comes, into a treasure greater and 
more glorious still — even the ecstasy of the Eternal 
Vision. 

In the afternoon there was the usual children's ser- 
vice, and the rosary was recited. 

The evening service began with the singing of 
compline. The sermon was preached by Fr. Aidan, who 
spoke of the Eucharistic presence of our Lord, the 
Remembrance and the Food which fulfilled the words of 
his text : " He has made a remembrance of His wonderful 
works, being a good and gracious Lord ; He has given 
food to those that feared Him." " That was, he remarked, 
an occasion of no ordinary joy and jubilee. Another 
page was that day added to that church's history, a 
golden page on which were recorded the preciousness 
and the unfailing continuity of God's gifts to His children ; 
a page on which were written the many munificent gifts 
of the faithful laity of that mission during the past fifty 
years, and on which were inscribed the noble deeds of 
the self-sacrificing and devoted priests who had laboured 
in that district among the flock of Jesus Christ. The 
best gifts of men harmonised with that festival, and it 
demanded the sweetest and most thrilling music. The 
sweetest joy filled their souls that day and their hearts 
abounded in gladness, but it seemed to him that the note 
they should sound was one of gratitude, of thanksgiving. 
" What shall I render to the Lord for all that He has 



1S0 ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 

rendered to me ? " That day they were celebrating two 
golden jubilees. Fifty years ago that temple was con- 
secrated to the worship of the great God. That was 
one jubilee. Fifty years ago that Living Remembrance 
was deposited with all solemnity in that church of the 
living God. That was the other jubilee. There were 
those who did not see as they saw. They had not got 
that power of spiritual sight ; whilst they in the Catholic 
Church, by spiritual discernment given to them, pierced 
the veil, the sacramental veil of the Holy Eucharist, 
and perceived behind that veil the Incarnate. Why 
did others not see it ? Because they had not got the 
power of sight. There were many who knew Christ 
and loved and served Him, but they did not recognise 
Him in His new garb, His new covering, in the Holy 
Eucharist. 

After the singing of " Faith of our Fathers," bene- 
diction of the Blessed Sacrament took place, the Bishop 
of Liverpool officiating. During it a " Te Deum " was 
sung in thanksgiving for the blessings of fifty years. 
The " Tantum ergo " was by Palestrina. At the close 
the bishop went in procession round the church, giving 
his blessing to the crowded congregation. 

The collection and offerings during the day amounted 
to ^3 19. Other sums had been given during the two 
years preceding the jubilee, and a weekly collection had 
been made in order to raise the money which had been 
spent on the alterations — between ,£4000 and ^5000. 
In addition a bazaar has been organised for February 
1910, by which it is hoped the balance still due will be 
cleared off. 



I III-. JUBILEE i i 



NOTES 

1 Three grains of incense are enclosed with the relics, together with 
the bishop's ccrtiiir.uc of consecration of the altar. An indulgence of one 
il granted to any one visiting the altar on the day of consecration, and 
one of forty days to i visit on the .mnivcrsary. 

* It is noticeable that in this service an antiphon is usually repeated in 
full after each verse of its psalm. 

1 Apoc. vi. 9, to. 

4 I. Corinthians i. 4, 5. 

' Psalm cxviiL 35. 

• Isaias Ix. 17. 

: Wisdom vii. 25 ;7. 

* I. 1'eter i. 20. 

• John xiv. 23. 
" II. Peter i. 4. 
" Psalm ex 4. 



VIII 
MISCELLANEA 

The Schools 

At the little school in Friars' Passage there were in 1847 

between sixty and seventy children in attendance. For 

each 3d. a week was paid for being taught to read and 

to write on a slate ; for any further subject there was an 

additional charge. Catechism was taught on Friday. 

It was determined to make an improvement alike in the 

building and the instruction, and after some years of effort 

the new schools were built on the present site, and in 

February 1S51 they were opened. After high mass in 

the church in Dalton Square, a procession was formed 

of priests, children, and congregation ; and all marched 

with band and banners to the new building. Here the 

children, about 200 in number, sang the " Ave, Maris 

stella," and an address was given. Afterwards they had 

cake, &c, distributed to them. In the following January 

an infant school was opened. 1 The cost of the land and 

schools was over ^3300, and it was many years before it 

was paid off. 

The buildings then erected are still in use, though 

they have been added to and altered in many respects. 

The plan was T-shaped. The boys had the part re- 

182 



Mls< ELLANEA 183 

presented by the Stem, and the girls the cross-piece at 
the top, with an extension southwards for the infants. 
There were two class-rooms, and boys and girls entered 
by separate porches. A considerable addition was made 
to the boys' school in 1878-9 at an expense of £753 ; a 
girls' class-room also was provided. This sufficed for 
nearly twenty years, but then, owing to the growth of the 
Catholic p ipulation and the more exacting requirements as 
to space made by the Government, it became necessary to 
build a new boys' school in 1 895-6. Land was purchased 
to the south-east of the existing school buildings, in 
Balmoral Road, and the new building, designed by 
Austin and Palcy, was opened in 1S97. The total cost 
was ^4700.- It consists of a large, well-lighted school- 
room, with class-rooms at one side and a cloak-room at 
the other, and has accommodation for 332 children. 
Part of the playground is covered. As the boys occupied 
their new school, their former room was given to the 
girls, and the girls' room to the infants. 

The Middle School, which has never been under the 
control of the Government, occupies part of the premises. 
It is intended for the earlier education of children who 
are afterwards likely to be sent to boarding-schools. 
It was started in one of the class-rooms about 1871, 
and has occupied its present room adjoining the convent 
since 1S79. The Sisters of Mercy have always had 
charge of it. 

The Sisters of Mercy have likewise had charge of 
the girls and infants since 1S53, but they have been 
assisted by lay mistresses. 

The boys have been taught by a master, with a 



1 84 ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 

staff of assistants, male and female, which has increased 
with the increase of the school ; at present there are 
five assistants. The following have been the head- 
masters : 3 — 

— — Keene. 
1852. Michael Henry. 4 

1867. — Keenan. 

1868. Matthew Dawson. 5 
1880. Francis M c Cabe.« 
1898. Edward M c Manus. 7 



In 18S4 there was nominally accommodation for 740 
children in the three schools, boys, girls, and infants ; 
the number on the roll was 530, and the average 
attendance only 390. The grant earned, under the 
system then in use, was ,£362. In 1888 the nominal 
accommodation was for 709 children ; the average attend- 
ance had increased to 413 and the grant to ,£388. 
The nominal accommodation was reduced to 650 in 
1893, but the average attendance had grown to 535 and 
the grant paid to ^505. The schools usually lost part 
of the grant earned under the system by which a certain 
amount of subscriptions was required ; so that a poor 
school well taught suffered for its want of wealthy 
patrons. 

At the present time there is accommodation in the 
elementary schools for 332 boys, 214 girls, and 242 
infants, or 788 in all. The following figures will be of 
interest : — 

1895 1902 1909 

Number on registers . . 653 — 749 

Average attendance . . 584 661 650 



MISCELLANEA 185 

At the present time, the end of 1909, there arc 27 S 
boys "a the registers, 1S7 girls, and 284 infants, with 

average attendances of 259, 173, and 218 respectively. 
There arc 25 non-Catholics among the boys, 2 among 
the infants, and none among the girls. 

Dean Brown objected to Government interference 
with education, holding that it was a matter for the 
parents ; but for a time he placed the schools under in- 
spection, and then withdrew them again. After his death 
and after the passing of the Education Act of 1870 a 
change became necessary, and from January 1, 1872, 
St. Peter's schools, except the Middle School, have been 
carried on as public elementary schools under the 
Government system, and since 1902 under the local 
Education Authority. 



St. Walburga's Convent 

Soon after the schools were opened it was decided 
to introduce religious to teach the girls and infants. By 
a gift from Mr. Thomas Coulston it was possible to 
begin the convent building, and on April 25, 1853, 
Sisters of Mercy came from St. Ethelburga's, Mount 
Vernon, Liverpool, to take the work up. The chapel 
was then built, and was opened on July 12 in the 
following year ; it was a gift from Mr. Gabriel Coulston, 
of Great John Street, and his family. The building 
remains almost unchanged to the present time. Its 
main line is from west to east, with a garden on the 
south side. The rooms are pleasant and convenient, 
and the house is connected with the schools by a covered 



1 86 ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 

passage. The chapel, at the western end, is at right 
angles to the community block, and now looks north 
into the chancel of the church through a large window 
guarded by screen-work. This window was not made 
till the church was built ; previously the chapel altar 
stood at that end. The nuns' stalls are ranged round 
the other three sides. On the east side are two two- 
light windows, and originally two others matched them 
on the west side ; but these were closed when the church 
was built, and the stained glass in them was removed 
to the Lady Chapel. There is a small rose window in 
the south gable. The chapel is used for the community 
prayers, the office of our Lady being recited there every 
day. The convent cost ^1800, and the chapel .£526. 

The order was founded in Dublin in 1827 by Miss 
Katherine M c Auley, who consecrated herself to God, 
and her fortune to the instruction and relief of the poor. 
The scope of the institute includes all the corporal and 
spiritual works of mercy. At Lancaster the teaching 
in the schools is the work undertaken ; they have also 
assisted in the instruction of converts and the formation 
of guilds and confraternities, and at one time held a 
night school. In 1909 they were asked to visit the 
prisoners at the castle- 

The name of St. Walburga was chosen for the 
Lancaster house in accordance with a promise made on 
the recovery of one of the sisters of St. Ethelburga's, 
through the application of St. Walburga's oil, that the 
next house founded should be dedicated to her. The 
mother superior, Mary Liguori (Gibson), 8 brought with 
her from Liverpool Sister Mary of the Cross (Dunn), 



MISCELLANEA 187 

who \v;is made sister superior, and three other choir 
sisters ; also two lay sisters. They were cordially 
welcomed by Fr. Brown, and their work has been 
maintained continuously down to the present time. 
The number in residence has varied from time to time ; 
at present there are five choir sisters and two lay sisters. 
They do not form an independent community, but are 
part of the Liverpool one, being governed by a sister 
superior nominated by the rev. mother of St. Ethel- 
burga's. The following have been superiors : — 

1853. Mary of the Cross (Dunn). 
1858. Mary Ignatius (M c Quoin). w 
1862. Mary de Sales (Butler). 
1865. Mary Clare (Bosher). 
1867. Mary Walburga (Pickering). 
1 s j 1 . Mary Berchmans (Liglitbound). 
1873. Mary Ethelburqa (Hewson). 
1876. Mary Magdalen (Gardner). 

1881. Mary Gonza^a (Pickering). 

1882. Mary Magdalen (Gardner). 11 
1887. Mary Imelda (Smythe). 
1902. Mary Evangelist (Storey). 
1908. Mary Borgia (Collins). 

As the house was large enough to accommodate a 
sufficient number of sisters, it was decided that one of 
the annual retreats should be held in it, the first taking 
place in August 1S53. Except on this occasion, the 
nuns went to Dalton Square chapel for mass until their 
own chapel was ready, and at first they had to endure 
some rudeness in the streets. Of the numerous sisters 
who have taken part in the good works of the house, 
only one has actually died at St. Walburga's ; this was 
Sister Mary Evangelist (Storey), who died on July 11, 



i88 ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 

1 907, being at that time the superior. She is buried in 
St. Peter's Cemetery, near the cross. 



Nazareth House 

The work of the Poor Sisters of Nazareth is well 
known, the blue-edged cloaks and veils of the sisters 
being familiar in the streets and railway stations. The 
order was founded in France in 185 1 , and undertakes 
the care of orphans, of children suffering from incurable 
diseases, and of aged men and women. The children 
must be Catholics, but the older persons may be 
Protestants. The sisters settled in Dalton Square in 
1S99, in a house now pulled down to make way for the 
new Town Hall, and in 1902 entered the new house 
built for them in Ashton Road, on land procured from 
Miss Margaret Coulston by an arrangement with Canon 
Billington. 

There are eleven sisters resident. They are not 
an independent community, but connected with Nazareth 
House, Hammersmith. They depend on the alms of 
the charitable, and have care of 83 poor children who 
attend school, of 16 infirm and sick ones, and 26 babies ; 
also of 10 old men and 21 old women, who spend their 
last days in this home. 

Sisters of St. Catherine 

These sisters came to Lancaster in 1 90 1 . They belong 
to an order founded in East Prussia, formerly part of 
Poland, as far back as 1583, for the instruction of children 



MISCELLANEA 

principally, but for other good works also. In iS;S, 
during the Kulturkampf, the Prussian Government 

expelled them from their schools, and they then under- 
took nursing. They were invited to Liverpool in 1896, 
their first house in England. There are three sisters at 
Lancaster, living in a hired house in Dumbarton Road, 
close to the church, and for support they are dependent 
on the efforts of Canon Billington. The work of these 
devoted women is very laborious, and the spiritual and 
temporal good effected by them is wonderfully great 
They attend the sick poor gratuitously, and instruct 
many who are to be received into the Church. 

For a short time, from 1902 to 1905, some French 
Carmelite nuns from Carcassonne, victims of the perse- 
cution now carried on in their country, found a home in 
Dalton Square in the house formerly occupied by Miss 
Coulston ; its site was required for the new Town Hall, 
and the house has therefore disappeared. 



The Registers and Church Accounts 

The earliest register, a thin paper-covered book, 
records the baptisms from April 1784 to February 1799, 
and some marriages, very few in number, between 17S5 
and 1798. An abstract of the contents is printed below 
in Appendix VII. 

A more substantial volume was acquired for entering 
the baptisms, &c, from the opening of the Dalton 
Square chapel. It contains the baptisms from 1799 to 
1S25, the marriages from 1S00 to 1837, and the deaths 



190 



ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 



from 1799 to 1S41. As there was no burial-ground, 
though a few persons, including Dr. Rigby, were buried 
in the chapel itself, 12 the last-named section of the register 
is headed "Dormientium in Domino Catalogus " ; it gives 
date, name, residence, and cause of death, and Dr. Rigby 
often added a short personal note. The places include 
Lancaster, Aldcliffe, Stodday, Bulk, Quernmore, Caton, 
Skerton, Heaton, Oxcliffe, Ovangle, Bolton, and Halton. 
One or two died in the West Indies ; another in a ship- 
wreck on Hoyle Bank, near Liverpool ; another (1837) 
was " a negro from the West Indies long resident in the 
town." Several ages over ninety are given. 

The baptisms from 1819 to 1855 are contained in 
another book, the entries 18 19-1825 being repeated ; 
and in a separate book are the marriages from 1837 
to 1855. At the beginning of 1856 a new form was 
introduced, and fresh volumes provided. The registers 
are complete to the present time. 

The number of baptisms affords an indication of the 
growth and size of the Catholic population, so that the 
following figures are of interest : — 



Year. 


Baptisms. 


Year. 


Baptisms. 


Year. 


Baptisms 


1785 


23 


1830 


26 


1870 


"3 


1790 


iS 


1835 


29 


1875 


102 


1795 


28 


1840 


35 


1880 


x 53 


1800 


30 


1845 


45 


iS8 S 


144 


1805 


32 


1850 


55 


1890 


177 


1810 


43 


1855 


61 


189S 


1S4 


1815 


35 


i860 


73 


1900 


171 


1820 


25 


l86 5 


72 


1905 


180 


1825 


25 











Only one or two converts are recorded in the 
early registers; one of them, in 1826, was a Quaker. 



MISCELLANEA 19] 

Other lists arc those of persons confirmed and 
making their first communion. In 1793, 14° f rorn 
Lancaster were confirmed and S from Yealand ; a note 
is added : " Marched them up in two rows without 
confusion." Ten years later the numbers were 133 
from Lancaster, 47 from Thurnham, and 9 from 
Yealand; and in 1813 there were 136 from Lancaster, 
1 )r. Rigby having "attended them a fortnight and twice 
given public instructions in the chapel." Later numbers 
are: 1821, 59; 1825, 72; 1831, 106; 1835, 81; 1S39, 
64 from Lancaster and 6 from Hornby; 13 1844, 107; 
1853, 183; 1856, 144; 1S60, 147. 

The numbers of Easter communions show similar 
fluctuations. In 17S5 there were 295 with Thurnham, 
and in 1786, 269 without it ; and there were in 1793, 340; 
1800,434; iSio,390;and 1830,370. Lists of the names 
ill 1799 and 1S45 will be found in the appendices. 

There are also preserved books showing the 
attendances at church. On Easter Sunday 1S65 there 
were 255 at the 8.30 mass, 642 at 10.30, and 33S at 
vespers at 3 p.m. ; or 1235 in all, many persons of course 
being present more than once. In some more recent 
years the gross totals have been : — 



Year. Attendance. 
1870 . 1364 
1878 . 1304 



Year. Attendance. 
1888 . 1582 
1894 . 1307 



Year. Attendance. 
1900 . 1667 
1909 . 1540 



The variations in the numbers are to some extent 
accounted for by fluctuations in the prosperity of the 
town, by the influence of missions, and by the separation 
of Skerton and Morecambe from St. Peter's district. 



i 9 2 ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 

The weather also has its influence. On Easter Sunday 
there is no children's service, so that that day shows 
a much smaller total of attendances than an ordi- 
nary Sunday. Some further details will be found in 
Appendix XVI. 

The New Parishes 

The growth of Morecambe, both as a place of per- 
manent residence and as a summer resort, demanded 
the attention of the clergy of St. Peter's. Jeremiah 
Parkinson of Bare, who died in 1880, and his wife 
Margaret, who died in 1888, left .£2356 for establishing 
a church at Morecambe ; this was used for purchasing 
the land, and by July 1891 a little over ^816 was in 
hand for a church. Provost Walker, Mr. William 
Smith, Miss Coulston, Alderman T. Preston, and Mr. 
John Leeming each gave ^100 to it, and other gifts 
were added ; but the chief assistance came from ^1000 
offered in December 1891 by Miss Helena Leeming 
on her profession as a Carmelite at Lanherne (Sister 
Mary Joseph). A beginning was made on April 21, 
1895, when the Bishop of Liverpool blessed the founda- 
tion-stone. The work was pushed on rapidly, and the 
church was opened on December 1 2 the same year. 

The church, dedicated to St. Mary, under the title 
of her Seven Dolours, was designed by Pugin and 
Pugin in the Early Decorated style. It consists of 
chancel and nave, with an aisle on the gospel side. 
There is a gallery at the west end, and a bell turret on 
the gable. Its length is 72 feet; the nave is 24 feet 



MISCELLANEA 193 

wide and 32 feet high. There was accommodation f>r 
270 people. The cost amounted to .£3670, which 
includes the co i of benches and heating apparatus. 
This money wis provided almost entirely by members 
of St. Peter's congregation, who also gave many 
presents for the sacristy and altar. In [896 a priests' 
house was built at a cost of -^ 1 545- 

For a short time the church was served fri im 
Lancaster, but in 1896 the Rev. John Smith, then at 
Notre Dame, Liverpool, was placed in charge. He 
saw to the erection of a school in 1897. In 1900 he 
was transferred to Pilling, and his place at St. Mary's 
was taken by the Rev. Charles Reynolds, who was 
succeeded in 1907 by the Rev. Thomas Kiernan from 
Waterloo, the present pastor. 

The history of the place has been uneventful. In 
August 1907 there was a sale of work to provide the 
cost of cementing the school yards and passages. A 
successful fortnight's mission was conducted by Fr. 
Alexander, O.F.M., in 190S. 

Skekton grew with the recent rapid growth of 
population in Lancaster. The distance from school 
was a great, inconvenience to Catholic parents residing 
there, and through Miss Coulston's benefaction a school 
chapel was provided. 

On November 10, 1895, the bishop blessed the first 
stone of a building to contain a central hall, two large 
class-rooms, and an infants' class-room. There was to 
be accommodation for about 250 children. The archi- 
tects were Pugin and Pugin. The bishop in his address 

N 



i 9 4 ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 

said, " The name of Miss Coulston would always be 
held in benediction by the Catholics of Skerton, and 
the congregation of St. Peter's would not forget her in 
their prayers." The new school chapel, which cost 
.£4618, was opened in September 1896, and the Rev. 
P. A. O'Bryen, one of the clergy of the church of the 
Sacred Heart, Liverpool, was appointed to the charge 
of the new mission. The Sisters of Mercy at first 
taught in the schools, but in 1899 lay teachers took 
their place. 

Miss Coulston next determined to build a permanent 
church of St. Joseph and a priests' house. The founda- 
tion-stone of the church was blessed on May 6, 1900, 
by the Bishop of Liverpool. The architects were 
Pugin and Pugin ; the building consists of nave with 
side aisles, chancel, vestry, south-west baptistery, and 
western tower. There are three entrances at the west 
end. The style is perpendicular. The house was 
completed in 1899, but Miss Coulston retained this 
for her life, making it her residence, and dying there 
in 1909. The church was completed in little more than 
a year, and was consecrated on July 3, 1901 ; it was 
opened on the following July 7. Electric light was 
installed in 1902. 

In the same year Fr. O'Bryen was transferred to 
the charge of Our Lady of Mount Carmel's church at 
the south end of Liverpool. His successor was the 
Rev. Thomas P. Murphy, then of Ince Blundell, but 
previously one of the curates of St. Peter's, Lancaster 
(1888-98). He still continues the pastor of St. Joseph's. 
A hall for the Young Men's Society was opened in 1904. 



MISCELLANEA 195 

ScOTFORTH, like Skerton, has grown considerably in 
;.t yean owing to the advance of Lancaster. Mi 
Coulston on conditions transferred land in 1897, partly 
for missionary purposes ; this is now mostly occupied 
by Nazareth House. In 1901 land on the Preston 
road was purchased for £1600 for a new church, to 
be called St. Andrew's, but no building has been 
commenced. 

NOTES 

1 This account is from notes by Dean Brown. 

3 The thief subscribers were members of the Lceming family, ,£1000 
in all; Mr. William Smith, who gave .£500 to match the ,£511 raised in 
one year by a weekly collection ; .£420 came from rent, and ,£354 from a 
sale of work. Other subscribers of ,£100 or more were Mr. Henry Wells, 
Mr. Richard Smith, Mr. Robert Preston, and Mr. Thomas Preston. 
Weekly subscriptions soon paid off the remaining debt. 

* At the school in Friars' Passage Mr. Frederick Paul was master. 

4 He was a successful teacher, and left the school to conduct a private 
school in the town near the Castle Station. Eventually he sold this, and 
died in Liverpool a few years ago. 

' He afterwards had a Catholic Repository in Penny Street, and wrote 
an "official guide" to St. Peter's Church in 1894. 

* He came as assistant, and as head-master worked the school up 
to a high state of efficiency, dying on June 3, 1898. He is buried in the 
public cemetery. 

' Educated at Hammersmith, 1882-3; assistant at the English Martyrs', 
Preston, 1884-7 ; master at The Willows, Kirkham, 1887-98. 

* Sister of Dr. Michael Gibson, vice-president of Ushaw. 

' One of these lay sisters was sent to the army in the Crimea as a 
nurse, and died there Oct. 22, 1855. 

10 One of the first sisters ; she was afterwards on the Australian mission. 

" Of Lancaster birth ; now mother superior of Mount Vernon. 

'• Helen Beetham, Nov. 9, 1827 ; Alice, widow of Robert Worswick, 
Oct. 24, 1828 ; Jane Beetham, Aug. 8, 1831 ; also some others. The 
remains were removed to St. Peter's Cemetery in January i860. 

" On this occasion "the appearance of the children was very neat ; 
their behaviour devout and very edifying." 



O Mary, Virgin, Mother, Queen, 
In thee our a;_;c-long hope hath been; 
Thy Son, Who our transgressions bore, 
Would have us hope through thee still more ; 
With Him for England intercede, 
And for thine ancient Dowry plead. 

The charge at Calvary's Cross received 
Anew thine anguished heart hath grieved ; 
From Christ's true fold how many stray, 
Nor will His vicar's call obey ! 

Yet succour England in its need ; 

Our parted brethren homeward lead. 

By faith in good works fruitful, pray 
That all may climb the narrow way, 
Till joining thee in heaven above, 
We see and praise the God we love ; 
Oh ! now for England intercede, 
That then it prove thy Dower indeed. 



196 



APPENDICES 



THE VICAR'S EXPENSES, 1440 

THE following are the charges of the parish church of 
Lancaster which the vicar has to bear, according to the 
petition of Mr. Richard Chester, vicar there, dated April 20, 
1440. Taxed by the parishion 

The vicar is bound to continual residence and the main-. ~ q £ ^ 
tenance of hospitality j for which is required 

lie is hound to maintain six chaplains (as in text) and find 

them a house, for they are bound to reside ; the stipend J.40 o o 
of each is 10 marks -J 

1 1 must send a chaplain to Overton on Sundays and chief J 

s; as the chapel is three miles off a horse must,- 6 13 4 
be kept for this chaplain I 

Often, in Lent especially, he has to pay priests or friars j 

(Jratres) to minister the sacraments at various places.- o 13 4 
in the parish . . . • • • • -J 

He has to pay for bread for chaplains wishing to celebrate "1 Q 6 3 
in the church ...■■••■) 

Also for wine for the celebration of masses . . .100 

lor wax for mass on feasts and ferial days and at the\ q q 

purification of women ; also at Christmas and Easter .) 

For the maintenance of a lamp 100 

Foi frankincense in the church and for the ploughs in-) , 4 
censed (uusnand') at the Epiphany . 

For breads for the communion of the parishioners atj 

&C, in the church, and the churching of,- o 6 8 



women 



197 



1 98 



ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 



s. d. 

i o 

o o 

o o 



I o 

6 o 

6 8 



o 13 4 



For wine at the Easter communion ..... 
For breads, wine, wax and candles in four chapels 
For the clerk or sacristan in the church .... 
For the food, &C, of the man attending the three horses 

(see text) — ^3; his wages — 13s. 4d. ; straw, oats, and J- 7 13 4 

hay— £4 

For rushes strewn in the chancel ..... o 

For the washing and mending of the surplices . . .0 
For the washing and mending of vestments and altar \ 
cloths, &c. . . . . . . . •' 

For the expenses of the archdeacon's official, &c, at the I 
synod . . . . . . . • .•* 

For each synod 2s. 6d. ; in all . . . . . .0 

For Peter's pence ........ 1 

For the collector at the chamber of the Apostolic See . o 

For the apparitor ........ o 

For the carriage of the holy oil and chrism from York . o 
For a whole tenth to the king (when granted) . . . 4 
For the repairs of the chancel, the windows and glass, the 
porch, the hall, the kitchen, four chambers and cloister, 
the grange, the granary above the gate with two houses 
adjacent, the house for malt, the house in which are I 
the mill, bakery and brewery, the house for hay and f 
stable, the house where beasts are kept, three rooms 
for the chaplains, the walls of the priory or vicarage, 
and the dove house ....... 

For the expenses of proctors in the meeting of the clergy at\ 

York J 

He often pays 6s. 8d. 
For the expenses of proctors going to the (Roman) court) 
or a general council — taxed at . . . . ./ 

For the expenses of a chaplain several times a year riding) 

to the chapter at Garstang or at Preston . . ./ 

For the repairs of three chapels, Stalmine, Gressingham,) 

and Caton ......../ 

For repair (? omission). In addition the vicar is bound to' 
discharge all the ordinary burdens, of all sorts, and 
new impositions. The parishioners, who are liable by 
the York constitutions, place (on him) the expense of H 
new books, surplices, &c. The amount is hard to 
estimate, because chalices and books are often stolen 
and are worn out by frequent use .... 



6 8 



3 4 

6 o 

6 8 

o o 



APPENDICES 199 



Summary 

£ >■ d. 

Stipends of chaplains and sacrist 5° "3 4 

Repair of four chancels and the priory or vicarage house . 16 6 8 

Other payments as abovi . . ■ • • . 24 7 io 

Hospitality Co o o 

Purchase and repair of books, &c. . . . . 10 o o 

Total (as in MS.), .£163 2 2 



II 
JOHN GARDINER'S WILL 

In the name of God, Amen. The Twenty-first day of 
June in the year of our Lord One Thousand Four hundred 
and Seventy-two, I, John Gardyner, being of perfect mind 
and sound memory, do make a will alter this manner. 

Imprimis, 1 bequeath my soul to Almighty God, to the 
Blessed Mary and all His saints, and my body to be buried 
in the parish church of the blessed Mary of Lancaster 
near the altar of St. Thomas of Canterbury on the south 
side. 

Also I will and appoint that a certain chaplain shall be 
there to celebrate mass for ever; provided always never- 
theless that the said chaplain be of good conversation and 
virtuous conduct, otherwise the aforesaid chaplain may be 
expelled from the said service and another proper priest 
may by the advice of my executors be elected to serve there. 
Also I bequeath to the same altar a certain vestment em- 
broidered with gold, a white vestment, a stole, a maniple, 
and a girdle, with cloths suitable for the altar. Also I 
bequeath to the said altar one silver-gilt chalice with a 
silver-gilt paten, with a corporal and a silk veil for the 
same. Also I will that the chaplain serving in the said 
oltice may receive and have annually from the mill of 
Newtoune a hundred shillings by the hands of my ex- 
ecutor^. 

Also I will that a certain grammar school within the 



200 ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 

town of Lancaster be supported freely at my own proper 
charges. And tli.it the grammarian keeping the said school 
may have per annum six marks to be received from the 
said mill by the hands of my executors. And that William 
Baxetonden shall keep the said school for the term of his 
life, viz. so long as the said William shall be able to 
instruct and teach the boys. Also I will and assign my 
water mill aforesaid in the vill of Newtone situate upon 
the water of Loyne to remain in the hands of my executors 
with one close containing one acre and adjoining to the 
said mill ; for which mill and close my said executors 
shal' pay annually to the said priest and grammarian 
keeping the school aforesaid a hundred shillings and six 
marks as is above written. Also I will that the residue 
of the annual income of the said mill be reserved for the 
support and repair of the aforesaid mill. 

Also I bequeath all my lands and tenements with their 
appurtenances for the support of my almshouse which I 
have ordered to be built anew and for the support of the 
poor persons therein contained and of one chaplain in 
the parish church of Lancaster aforesaid to celebrate at 
the same altar where the other priest shall celebrate ; 
provided nevertheless that the said priest if there shall 
be occasion shall by turns celebrate mass within the said 
almshouse if there shall be any poor persons therein who 
are not able to go to the said church. And that the said 
Chaplain shall levy out of the said lands and tenements 
by the advice of the said feoffees and pay to each one of 
the said poor persons . . . per annum. Also I will that all 
my jewels be taken into the hands of my executors and 
be disposed of for the finishing of my almshouse and my 
chantry, for procuring a licence from our lord the King 
for the same and obtaining other things necessary to the 
completing of the same. 

Also I will that Isabella my wife may have all the 
effects of my house at Hollesholde contained in my house 
on the day of my decease, so that my aforesaid wife shall 
not disturb my executors in the disposal of the residue 
of my goods for the accomplishment of my will. Also I 
will that my aforesaid wife may have and receive five 



APPENDK l 201 

marks by the hands of John Bowet, bo thai my aforesaid 
wife shall make an acquittance to my executors from 
henceforth not to claim any parcel ol the residue of my 
goods debts "r my farm rents. 

Also 1 will that Ralph Elcoke chaplain have the 
choice of my two chantries above written ; and that 
Christopher Leye chaplain may occupy the other chantry 

1: he pleases. 

Also 1 will that John Bowet may have the residue of 
my terms of the grange of Beamonde together with the 
Bshery and other appurtenances to the said grange and 
the said Bshery pertaining and to me by indenture grai ted. 
And th.it the sud John may have the residue of my terms 
oi' Loynes Mill by my indenture specified. Also I will 
that Nicl Grene may have the remainder of my terms 

Udcliffe to me by indenture granted by paving to the 

abbess of Syon the rents therefrom accustomed. Also 1 

will that the said Nicholas may have the remainder of my 
terms of Thurnham to me by indenture granted. Also I 
will that John Bowet may have the corn tithes of Newtounc 
and Honlke lately in the occupation of John Southworth by 
paving thereout to the abbess of Syon four marks a year. 
And that the said John may have the herbage of Rigiis 
by paying thereout to the abbess of Syon yearly forty 
shillings. Also I will that Richard Bowet may have the 
corn tithes of Skeiitoun by paying thereout annually to the 
abbess of Syon ten pounds. 

Also I will that a Bag called "a throughe " of marble be 
put over my L^rave. Also I bequeath for the building of 
a choir where my body shall lie by the direction of my 
executors. 

Also I will that five marks be forgiven to Matthew 
Southworth which the said Matthew owed to me, so that 
he may be complying and not contentious in the fulfilling 
of my will. Also 1 will that if Ralph Elcoke aforesaid 
and Christopher Leye shall die, or one of them shall die, 
or he or they shall refuse to occupy the chantries aforesaid 
then it may be lawful for my executors to elect other proper 
sts or one other proper priest to perform divine service 
in the chantries aforesaid. Also I bequeath to Sir Thomas 



202 ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 

Broughton knight ten marks out of my effects to fortify 
my executors in the fulfilling of my will. And the residue 
of my goods above unbequeathed I leave to the discretion 
and disposal of my executors. 

And for the executing and fulfilling all and singular 
the premisses I make, ordain, and constitute Ralph Elcoke 
chaplain, Christopher Leye chaplain, Nicholas Gardiner, 
and John Bowet my executors. Moreover I most earnestly 
entreat Prince (Richard) Duke of Gloucester to become sole 
superintendent in all and singular the premisses. 

In witness whereof to this my present will I have set 
my seal. Dated the day and year aforesaid, &c. 

And if any one of my executors aforesaid shall make any 
release or acquittance without the counsel and advice of 
his brethren 1 will that he be expelled from his executor- 
ship and such release or acquittance be deemed null and 
void. 

This will was proved in the minster church of York 
on the twelfth day of the month of September 
in the year of our Lord One Thousand Four 
hundred and Eighty-three before Ralph Faucet 
Bachelor of Decrees, official of the reverend 
master John Shirwod Doctor of Divinity arch- 
deacon of Richmond ; and the administration 
of all the goods of the said deceased within our 
jurisdiction was committed to Nicholas Gardyner 
of Newton, executor in the will named, in due 
form of law sworn according to the legatine con- 
stitution ' in this behalf set forth. 

Note. — The chantry priest, schoolmaster, and almshouse 
chaplain were considered as distinct persons, though the first 
and second offices were to be held by the same person. Hence 
the school was not destroyed with the two chantries, and 
the corporation, who had been made trustees by Gardiner's 
surviving executor, kept the school going, and revived it in 
some way after the revenue from the Newton mill ceased 
through decay. 

1 Constitution of Othobon, xiv. 



UTHNDICKS 20; 



ALDCLIFFE, DOLPHINLEE, AND PARK. HALL 

The following account of the missionary centres at AldclifTe 
H.tll, Dolphinlee in Hulk, and I'. irk Hall in Qnernmore, all 

.1 dated with each other and with Thurnham, is due to 
Mr. Joseph Gillow, whose work has been frequently utilised 
in the text of the present volume, and who is the recog- 
1 authority on the history of English Catholicism in the 
Dark Age. 

Dolphinlee, early in the seventeenth century, was occupied hy the 
Copelands, who were for a long period stewards to the Daltons of 
Thurnham Hall for their estates in Bulk, Aldcliffe, and the vicinity. 
Over the door is still to be seen a stone inscribed with the date 1623 

and the initials L ^ E, standing for I-awrence Copeland and his wile. 

He was steward to the Daltons, and died at Dolphinlee in 1651. 
Administration to the estate of his son Robert Copeland of Dolphin- 
lee was granted in 1670, and to those of Thomas Copeland in 1676 
and John Copeland in 1697, both of Dolphinlee. Other members 
of the family resided at Aldcliffe, where Thomas Copeland made his 
will, which was proved in 1697. The latter's widow Mary registered 
her estate as a Catholic Non-juror in 1717, as also her son Henry 
Copeland, whose will was proved in 1 746. 

One of this family, John Copeland alias Street, took the College 
oath at Douay on Sept. 13, 1638, and probably came to serve the 
mission in this neighbourhood. Mass was said in the little old 
chapel at Dolphinlee from a very early period, and the house 
was provided with the usual hiding-place and means of escape for 
the priest in case of a sudden raid by the pursuivants — a not 
infrequent occurrence in times of political agitation. The pre- 
Reformation chalice from the parish church of Caton ' was the one 

1 The chalice has under the foot the words, rudely cut in a style much later 
th.in itself, Riitore met to Caton. This may naturally be understood, as in this 
place and on p. 71 above, to refer to the ancient parochial chapel of Caton, the 
sacred vend having l>ccn saved from the spoliation of Edward VI. by some devout 
person. But it may also be understood of some secret chapel at Caton or Claughton 



204 ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 

in regular use till the service at Dolphinlee was discontinued, when 
it was handed over to the priest serving Claughton Hall and Robert 
Hall by the Balls, who succeeded the Copelands in the tenancy of 
Dolphinlee. 

On October 16, 1716, upon the outburst of persecution following 
the unsuccessful rising in favour of the legitimate heirs to the throne, 
Thomas Nicholson, high constable for the South Side of the Hundred 
of Lonsdale, in his return to the Commissioners for Forfeited Estates 
{Forfeited Estates Papers, L 2, P.R.O.) reported "the estate of Mr. 
Dalton of Thurnham, said to be of the value of ^1000 per annum " ; 
and " a reputed Popish Priest," one " Thomas Taylor, formerly living 
with the aforesaid Mr. Dalton, and is thought to have made his escape 
from the Battle of Preston." In a previous " Report," dated Preston, 
August 29, 1 7 16, " from William Kinaston to the Hon. Commissioners 
relative to the Reall and Personal Estates of the Traytors convicted or 
outlawed, co. Lancashire," appears the name of John Hoghton Dalton, 
Esq., of Thurnham, with real estates lying in Cockerham, Thurnham, 
Quernmore, Lancaster, Heaton, Charnock, and Ditton, of the com- 
puted annual value of ^1300, Mr. Benison being his attorney, Mr. 
Morley his steward for Thurnham, and Robert Foster and John 
Felton his stewards for the ancient Hoghton estate of Park Hall in 
Charnock Richard. 

The Rev. Thomas Taylor was the resident chaplain at Thurnham 
Hall at this time. He is frequently mentioned by Squire Tyldesley in 
his Diary, 1712-14, and it is evident that he occasionally served at 
Lancaster, Dolphinlee, Aldcliffe Hall, and Park Hall in Quernmore. 
Tyldesley on October 5, 171 2, records that he went with his wife in 
the evening " to Young Cos. Carus, where I was to be godfather," the 
baptismal ceremony being by Mr. Taylor. Mr. Carus apparently 
resided in Lancaster at this time. 

Aldcliffe Hall, belonging to the Daltons, is famous as the residence 
of "The Catholic Virgins" who scorned to change with the times, 
and boldly set up a stone inscribed to that effect in 1674. In the old 
oak ark formerly belonging to the Abbot of Cockersand, and now or 
recently at Thurnham Hall, is still preserved " A brief relation of some 
particulars touching the gentlewomen of Oldcliffe their estates, set 

(for Claughton was sometimes regarded as joined to'Caton), and in this case the 
chalice may have been the property of a missionary priest. There is a pre- 
Reformation chalice also at Claughton-on-Brock, brought from Mains I Ia.ll, a well- 
known Catholic centre; and another at Leyland. The last has the inscription 
in a late seventeenth century hand, Restore me to Leyland, which probably in- 
dicates that it belonged to the secret chapel at Leyland Mall. It was afterwards 
at Weld Bank, and was restored to Leyland on a Catholic church being opened 
there. 



APPENDICES 205 

down by me Lawrence Copland, No* 1 i, [641." This referred to 
t l„. . . of i ' lonel Thoma 1 1 talton, 

who n the roj ' : '- "' N> wbury in 

bei p. ii- Upon the death ol Charles U. in February 1685, bul 
two ui the d •■ were alive • athi rine and l leanor 

Dalton. About live years before this, the Rev. 

1 from 1 • II. ill to Aldcliffe, where he established in the 
historical mansion, as we arc informed by his unworthy relative 
Richard Hitchmough, the apostate priest, spy, and pursuivant, 
"a sort of academy or little seminary lor educating of youth, who 

afterwards suit to Popish colleges abroad to be trained as 
priests." Mr. Gooden died at "The Catholic Virgins," by which 
name Aldcliffe Hall became known, December 29, [694, and was 
buried two days later at the parish church in Lancaster. The 
name of his immediate successor is not recorded, but about 1707 
the eminent theologian, the Rev. Edward Hawarden, D.D., came 

1:0m Douay College, and took charge of the mission. On 
Sunday, June 6, 1714, Tyldesley in his diary recon to Mass 

at Aldcliffe Hall, and there finding Dr. Hawarden assisted in the 
service by Mr. Taylor. 

In 1677 the then owner of the Quernmore estate, Sir Th 
Preston, Bart, of The Manor, Furoess, settled ^10 per annum for 
the use of the priest serving l'ark Hall and the neighbourhood, to be 
paid in trust for that purpose to Robert Dalton of Thurnham Hall, 
At that time, apparently, the priest in charge was the Rev. 
Peter Winder a/ias Bradley. He was the son of William Wind 
Caton and his wife Alice, daughter of Peter Bradley of Little Eccles- 
ton-cum-I^irbreck. He went to Douay College at the age of siv 
in the capacity of servant to Dr. Matthew Kellison, the president, who 
died there in January 164 1-2 ; but before the president's death he was 
admitted as a student, and on December 17, 1640, took the col 
oath. Thence he was sent to the English College at Lisbon, wl 
he was admitted June 9, 1642, and after being ordained priest came 
to the English mission, March 6, 1 644. He is the earliest priest on 
record as serving the chapels at Dolphinlee and Park Hall. In 16S2 
he resided at Quernmore, and was still alive and probably serving the 
joint missions" in 1697. Park Hall in 1717 was tenanted by the 
Widow Walmesley, whose first husband, Mr. Taylor, had leased it 
from the Prestons, and in her return as a Catholic Non-juroi 
mentions her sons Richard and Thomas Taylor as being sub-tenants. 

two brothers are both referred to by Tyldesley under date De- 
ll, 171a, and on June 25, 1713; the diarist says, "Called of 
Mr. Taylor at Parke Hall." Richard lived with his wife Eleanor at 



2o6 ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 

Aldcliffe, and was likewise a Catholic Non-juror in 1717. Thomas, 
the priest, having finished his studies at the English College, Valla- 
dolid, was ordained February 22, 1701, came to the mission in his 
native county, and (if not immediately) was soon afterwards placed 
at Thurnham Hall, as previously related. 

Meanwhile the Balls had become the tenants of Dolphinlee, and 
in 1 7 17 Robert Ball of Dolphinlee, yeoman, in registering his estate as 
a Catholic Non-juror stated that he held it for the lives of his sons 
William, George, and Robert. Mr. Ball, who had previously lived at 
Scale Hall, had a brother George, born in 1678, who was ordained at 
the English College at Rome in 1704, and in 17 16 was reported by 
Richard Hitchmough, the infamous informer, as being a missionary 
priest in this neighbourhood. Tyldesley, the diarist, records going to 
" prayers,'' that is Mass, at Bulk in 17 12, and it is very probable that 
Mr. Ball was serving the mission at Dolphinlee at the time. After the 
Rising of 17 15, and the consequent wave of persecution, priests all 
over the county had either to seek temporary safety in hiding or to 
change their mission for some remote part of the vicariate. It is most 
likely, therefore, that Mr. Ball left Dolphinlee in 17 16, and took the 
place of the Rev. Hugh Tootell alias Hesketh, the author of the 
celebrated " Dodd's Church History," at Mossborough Hall, the seat 
of Robert Molyneux, Esq. Thence he removed in 1728 to Moor 
Hall, the seat of Mrs. Wolfall, where he seems to have died in Novem- 
ber 1734. Mr. Ball's brother Robert, the Non-juror, of Dolphinlee, 
married Winefred, daughter of the Mr. Taylor of Park Hall, already 
mentioned, and sister to the Rev. Thomas Taylor. His eldest son, 
William Ball, succeeded to Dolphinlee, and two other sons, George 
and Edward, born respectively in 1703 and 1717, became priests, 
and no doubt in later years frequently said Mass in the old chapel 
at Dolphinlee when they were visiting their parents and relatives. 
William's son Robert continued the tenancy of Dolphinlee after his 
father's death, and the family gave several more priests to the Church 
during the nineteenth century. 

In June 1774 the Right Rev. Bishop William Walton, Vicar 
Apostolic of the Northern District, gave confirmation to seventy-two 
persons either in the chapels at Lancaster and Dolphinlee or in that 
of the latter only, the wording of the record being somewhat doubtful. 
When the chapel ceased to be used is uncertain, but it was probably 
towards the close of the eighteenth century. 



Mr. Gillow has kindly allowed us to reprint the following 
article by him, which appeared in the Catholic Nezvs of March 



APPENDICES 207 

o, iS8q. The interest of the matter renders it unnecessary to 
apologise for any little repetition there may be. 



THE CATHOLIC VIRGINS 
(aldclikke hall) 

We are Catholic Virgin* --worn 
To live and die in Christ's great cause ; 

All bribes to change our Kaith we scorn, 
And brave the force of Penal Laws. 

Hitherto the mists of prejudice have enveloped the lives of our 
Cull.. lie forefathers, and the beautiful traditions connected with 
them have rarely been treated by historians. But the veil is now 
lilting, and the almost romantic effect of light and shade lends 
enchantment to the looming scenes. Such is the picture pro- 
duced by original documents bearing upon the history of Aldcliffe 
Hall. 

The combined townships of Aldcliffe and Bulk principally be- 
longed to the Benedictine Priory of St. Mary at Lancaster, and 
passed at the dissolution of the alien priories to the Bridgettine 
Abbey of Syon in Middlesex, to which it was annexed in the time 
of Henry V*. Upon the suppression of the monasteries in the 
reign of Henry VIII., the two manors became private property, 
and the people were arbitrarily deprived, without any compensa- 
tion, of the ancient rights and interests they indirectly possessed in 
these estates, of which the monastic proprietors were the adminis- 
trators, according to the rule of their order and the provisions imposed 
by the original donors. In like manner, under the pretence of sup- 
pressing abuse, the poor people throughout the length and breadth 
of the land were robbed of their interests in hospitals, educational 
establishments, rights of relief in case of distress, and benefits of 
.is kinds, and the lands from which they derived were divided 
amongst courtiers and the wealthy classes by grant or purchase from 
the Crown. Subsequently, in the reign of Philip and Mar)', the 
manors of Aldcliffe and Bulk were acquired by the Daltons of 
Thumham Hall. 

Like the majority of the Lancashire people, especially the gentry 
and educated classes, the Daltons declined to adopt the new religion 
imposed upon the country by the arbitrary government of the Virgin 



2o8 ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 

Tudor Queen. They consequently fult the full pressure of the Penal 
Laws framed to enforce the change of religion. Robert Dalton, of 
Thurnham and Aldcliffe, Esq., married Elizabeth, daughter of William 
Hulton, of Hulton Park, whose family were, and so remained for a 
considerable period, staunch recusants, the name given to those who 
refused to take the sacrament as established by Parliament, and 
thereby renounce the ancient faith. Two sons and ten daughters 
were the issue of this marriage. Of the sons, Thomas, the eldest, 
born Sth July 1609, succeeded to the estates, and when the civil war 
broke out was foremost, like all Catholics throughout the country, in 
showing his loyalty to his Sovereign. He raised a regiment of horse 
for the service of King Charles, of which he was appointed colonel, 
and not long afterwards sacrificed his life in the royal cause, being 
mortally wounded at the second battle of Newbury, October 27th, 
1644, whence he was carried to Marlborough, and died six days later. 
His younger brother, Robert, died unmarried. The names of their 
ten sisters were — Margaret, Elizabeth, Anne, Jane, Catherine, Ellen, 
Dorothy, Catherine, Eleanor, and Penelope. Of these, the first 
Catherine died in infancy, and perhaps one or more eventually became 
nuns in one of the English convents on the Continent, but this im- 
pression requires verification by reference to the conventual records. 
Anyhow, at the time of their father's death, in 1626, eight of them 
were alive, and in 1633 were residing at Aldcliffe Hall, at which period 
they were enduring bitter persecution and suffering heavy penalties 
on account of their faith. Their names were — Margaret, Elizabeth, 
Jane, Anne, Ellen, Dorothy, Catherine, and Eleanor. Their attitude 
is expressed in the words of an old poem : — 

" Fortitude taught us to bear 

Less misfortunes, worse to fly ; 
A-short death we did not fear, 
Lest we should for ever die." 

Later, it would appear that the number of these maiden ladies was 
reduced to seven, by the marriage of Jane with William Claxton, of 
Calton Hall, in Craven, in the county of York. Gradually, death 
released them from their sufferings, and when the general exaction of 
the heavy penalties for recusancy ceased during the more humane 
rule which prevailed towards the close of the reign of Charles II., 
who died February 6th, 16S5, there were but two of the courageous 
virgins alive — Catherine and Eleanor. Ten years previous to the 
cessation of the annual recusant rolls in 1684, the remnant of 
this noble band of persecuted virgins boldly set up a stone against 



APPENDICES 209 

the outer wall of the old hall at Aldclifie, bearing the following 
inscription : — 

Catholii • **• 

Virtues iv's 

Samoa ! Mutarei 

V<l tempore 
Spernimu ■ ijl 

Aiio ►£« DSi 
I I 

"We are (two?) Catholic Virgins, who scorn to change with the 
times." 

When the mansion was pulled down, in 1^17, this stone was rc- 
moved to Thurnham Hall, where, about two years ago, the present 

ti88g] representative of the family, Sii Gerald Dalton-Fitzgerald, 
tart., pointed it out to the writer of the ials, insetted into a 

blocked-up Brat-fiooi window at one end of the Hall. Unfortunately, 
the word which should appear in the space marked by the asterisks is 
too far obliterated to he deciphered from below, but most probably it 
should be " due.'' Through this stone, and the publicity given to the 
sufferings of the brave maidens, Aldcliffe Hall became locally known 
Catholic Virgins." In the old oak ark, formerly belonging 
to the Abbot of Cockersand, but now at Thurnham Hall, is still 
rved — " A Brief Relation of some particulars Touching the gentle- 
women of 'Oldcliffe,' their estates, set down by me, Lawrence Cop- 
land. Nov. [3, 1641." This was just about the commencement of the 
Civil Wars, when the Virgins were pressed with the full force of the 
penal laws and their property sequestrated ; yet, unassailable in their 
faith, with the poet they exclaimed : — 

" No suits, no noise of war, 
Our quiet minds will fright : 
No fear to lose, nor care to keep, 
What justly is our right." 

During the reign of James II., Sir Richard Allibone, a Catholic 
judge, came to open the assizes at Lancaster in August 1687. I>r. 
Thomas Cartwright, Bishop of Chester, who was very favourably dis- 
posed towards Catholics, and in constant association with them, says 
in his diary, under date August 12th, "I went with Judge Powell 
[Allibone's colleague] to the church ; Sir Richard Allebone and the 
( atholics went at the same time to the school-house, where they had 
Mass and a sermon ; we [in the Protestant church] had none of the 
best ; it was preached by Mr. Turner, whom 1 chid for his ex- 
temporary prayer and sermon, of both of which he promised amend- 

O 



2io ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 

ment for the future. I heard Sir Richard Allebone give the charge 
[to the jury], in which he took notice, that no Protestants but myself, 
my Lord Brandon, and Sir Daniel Fleming, came out to meet them 
[the judges], which was a great disrespect to the King's Commission." 
This is indicative of the bigotry of the Protestant gentry, who were 
probably, moreover, in a minority in the neighbourhood of Lancaster 
at this period. 

On the following day, the Bishop notes : — "I wrote to Dr. John- 
son, dined with the Judges, went after dinner to the ' Catholic Virgins,' 
where Mr. Gooden lives, with the Lady Allebone and her friends, and 
supped at the vicarage. Mr. Tildesley [Thomas, the diarist], whose 
grandfather, Sir Thomas, was killed at Wigan, sent me half a fat buck ; 
Mr. Molineux, Mr. Braithwaite, Mr. Townley, Sir William Gerard, 
Mr. Poole, Mr. Labourne, &c, visited me." 

The Rev. Peter Gooden, to whom the Bishop had sent his horses 
to be put up when he came to Lancaster on the ioth of August, was 
the missioner at Aldcliffe Hall, or, as his lordship calls it, " The 
Catholic Virgins," whither he had removed from Leighton Hall about 
1680. In this historical mansion, as we are informed by his unworthy 
relative, Richard Hitchmough, the apostate priest, spy, and pursuivant, 
he " kept a sort of academy or little seminary for educating of youth, 
who were afterwards sent to Popish colleges abroad to be trained as 
priests." He acquired considerable fame by the able manner in which 
he publicly confuted some of the most learned Protestant controversial- 
ists of the day, including Dr. Stillingfieet and Dr. Clagett. He died 
at "The Catholic Virgins," December 29th, 1694, and was buried two 
days later at the Parish Church of Lancaster. 

The other gentlemen mentioned by Bishop Cartwright all be- 
longed to well-known Catholic families, one of them, George Ley- 
burne, of Nateby Hall, Esq., being half-brother to his lordship's 
intimate friend, Bishop John Leyburne, at that time Vicar-Apostolic of 
all England, having been so created by Pope Innocent XI. in 1685. 

Apparently the last priest stationed at " The Catholic Virgins " was 
the celebrated Dr. Edward Hawarden, who has left a great memory 
behind him for his theological learning ; and his eloquence in the 
pulpit is evidenced by Tyldesley, Bishop Cartwright's generous friend, 
who notes in his diary, under date Christmas Eve, 17 13, "About n at 
night went to Aldcliffe, where Doctor Hawarden preached gloriously." 

The last two Dalton Virgins probably passed away between 1682 
and the Bishop of Chester's visit to Aldcliffe in 16S7, having con- 
veyed a moiety of the manor in trust for the support of the Lancashire 
secular clergy. The other moiety reverted to their nephew, Robert 
Dalton, of Thurnham, who died February 4th, 1704, having settled it 



APPENDICES 2ii 

upon his VOUnget daughter and co heiress, Dorothy, at the time of hd 
marriage m 1693 with Edward Riddell, of Swinburne Castle. The 
elder daughter and co-heiress, Elizabeth, married William Hoghton, 
ol Park 11. ill, in Charnock Richard, whose son John a turned the name 
ami arms of Dalton, and bu to Thurnham Hall, Cockersand 

Abbey, Ridge Hall, and Dolphinlee in Hulk, besides extensive pro 
perries and fishery tights at Preston, Lancaster, ("rook, and otbei 
places. Both Edward Riddell and John Hoghton Dalton were loyal 
to die rightful heirs to the throne, joined the I Ihevalier dc St. < ; 
in his gallant attempt to recover Ins rights in 1715, and were, in 
consequence, attainted of high treason by the government of the 
Hanoverian usurper. Bui they were pardoned, and though their 
estates were confiscated they managed to recover the bulk of them 
on payment of large sums. The commissioners for forfeited estates, 
how. 1 d upon the moiety of the Aldcliffe Hall estate which 

had been settled upon the secular clergy, under the plea of its being 
devoted to " Popish or Superstitious Uses," leased it to the Dawson 
family, and finally, in 1731, sold it to them. In 1817, Edward Dawson 
pulled down the venerable mansion, and erected in its place the 
present Aldcliffe Hall. He also acquired the other moiety of the 
manor by purchase from Ralph Riddell, of Swinburne Castle. Thus 
ceased to exist, in 17 16 or 1717, the ancient chapel at Aldcliffe Hall, 
where those found solace who refused to fall in with the new religion, 
established in the reign of Elizabeth, in their old parish church at 
Lancaster. The lives of the learned and distinguished chaplains read 
almost as romantic as the history of the little chapel they served 
during more than a century of relentless persecution. Countless times 
did they experience hairbreadth escapes, concealed in the ingeniously 
contrived hiding-places in the Hall, from the prying eyes of the blood- 
paid pursuivants, permitted and encouraged by unjust laws to break 
into the houses of Catholics at will in order to apprehend priests, and 
drag them and their harbourers to what was frequently but a formal 
trial, to receive sentence of death or imprisonment, according to the 
temper of the times and the previous instructions of the Council to 
the judges. 

Within those walls did holy peace 

And love with conrord dwell : 
There troubled conscience found its ease 

And passions used to quell. 



The following communication from Mr. William Hewit- 
son of Bury affords some particulars of the Rev. Peter 



2i2 ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 

Gooden's activities outside what may be considered the 
Lancaster district : — 

There is still in existence a pocket-book containing entries in the 
handwriting of Thomas (son of I^ancelot) Dowbiggin, yeoman, of 
High Winder, Roeburndale (in the ancient parish of Melling), who 
married a daughter of Gilbert Thornton (son of Richard Thornton), a 
neighbouring yeoman and Catholic. Among the entries are these : — 

Nov. ye 29, 1684. Joan Thornton and I were married at Thurlaine 

[Tliurland] Castle by Mr. Goodin. 
December ye 15, 1684. Then I obtained a license from Leonard 

Townson [of Hornby] for marrying of Joan Thornton of Harter- 

beck [Roeburndale]. 
December ye 17, 1684. Then Joan Thornton and I were married 

againe by Mr. Thomas Kay in Hornby Chappell he being then 

Rector of Melling [Thomas Kay was vicar of Melling 1677-89]. 
April 15, 1685. Upon that day I was converted from the Protestant 

religion by Mr. Peter Goodin and did goe unto confession the 

Sunday following being Easter Sunday. 

He also records that his first daughter was born May 25, 1693, 
" being holy Thursday and was baptised by Mr. Parker upon Sunday 
following att home " : and that his next child, also a daughter, was 
born September 1, 1694, "it being Saturday in the morning about 
sunrising and Baptised tuesday next following by Mr. Edward Gibson 
att Lower Salter" (Roeburndale). 

Thomas Dowbiggin died August 9, 1695, and was buried at 
Melling Church, his wife surviving and dying in December 1732, at 
the house of their son-in-law, Henry Faithwaite, yeoman, Pott Yeats, 
Littledale (whose wife, Elizabeth, born Sept. 1, 1694, as afore-men- 
tioned, was their second daughter). Thomas Dowbiggin had a niece, 
Ann Winder Dowbiggin (daughter and heiress of John Dowbiggin, 
solicitor, Westminster: John died in Oct. 1712, and was buried at 
St. Margaret's, Westminster), who, having lost both parents, went to 
live with her widowed aunt, Mrs. Thomas Dowbiggin, then at High 
Winder. The name of " Ann Winder Dowbiggin, of Winder, spinster," 
appears in the 17 15 list of Catholic Non-jurors. 

This Ann Winder Dowbiggin married a leading Lancaster attor- 
ney's son, Thomas Benison the younger ; of this marriage there was 
issue an only daughter, Ann Benison, who in 1753 became the wife of 
John Fenwick of Burrow Hall (whose father was M.P. for the borough 
of Lancaster 1734-47), and difficulties she experienced in regard to her 
property resulted in the passing of a private Bill which was the pre- 
cursor of the Catholic Relief Act of 177S. John Fenwick was accident- 



APPENDICl S 



2 I 



ally killed in the hunting field about four yean after his marriage. 
Fenwick lived out her widowho td at the Hall in Hornby which 

ln-t lather luiilt, where she provided a Catholic chapel and chaplain, 
and where she died 2SU1 April 1777, her remains 6 tnj laid by the 

ol hei parent, at the foot of' 1 m Milling Church. 

Mrs. Thomas Do fa family that had been for many 

rations identified v. I tholic faith. One of her ancestors, 

I ["homton, of Eiarterbeck, who died about the year 1576, 

man d Margaret Rigmaden, wb [ed to the staunch Call 

family then living at U'e<|,i, re, near Garstang. A near relative ol 
Dowbiggin's, Dorothy Thornton, became the wife of John Sergeant of 
l.llel, yeoman, whose name is in the Non-jurors' list of 1715. 



IV 



SUBSCRIBERS TO DAI/ION SQUARE CHAPEL 



From Dk. RlCBY'S A'. I (-book 



Oct. 



Nov. S , 



R. R. Wm. Gibson . 

Mr. Mannock 

Mr. Dalton 

Mr. Bachelet . 

Sir J. I^awson . 

Mi-s Gillow 

T. Worswick & Sons 

R. Gillow & Sons . 

J. Caton 

Root. Croskell 

Henry Kirkham 

Jos. Mountain 

John Cock 

H. Trafford . 

Rev. J. Foster 

Mr. Maire 

John and Thos. Noble 

Thos. Verity . 

Miss Mellon . 

Robert Ball . 

Simon Myerscough . 

Thos. Weld, E 



I 


1. 


.:. 


20 








10 








20 








5 


5 


O 


10 


10 


O 


10 


10 





200 





O 


■5° 





O 


5 


5 


O 


5 


5 





10 


10 





1 


1 





10 


10 





2 


2 





5 


5 





5 


5 





2 


2 





3 


3 





1 


1 





10 


10 





S 


5 





. 









2I 4 



ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 



1797 










£ 


S. d. 


Nov. 11. Ed. Kilshaw .10 


IO O 


John Carter . 










1 


I O 


John Ball and Sisters 










1 


10 6 


Win. Croft . 










3 


3 


25. Robt. Gillow, London 










5° 





Dec. 3. Richd. Singleton 










2 


2 


Mrs. Bayley 










10 


10 


Rowl. Bclasyse 










10 


10 


Jm. Andrade . 










10 





A. B., per do. 










5 





Thos. Wright, London 










5 


S 


Wm. Rigby 










1 


1 


Robt. Westby 










10 





15. Mr. Heatley . 










5 


5 ° 


Mrs. Jones 










10 


10 


Two collections 













10 6 


Dr. Slaughter . 










5 


5 


John Tomlinson 










5 


5 


26. Jas. Morton . 










2 


2 


Wm. Gardner . 










2 


2 


31. John Westby . 










3 


3 


1798 














Jan. Hornby by Bachelet 













11 


10. Mr. Taylor 










5 


S 


18. Messrs. Dunn & Morgan 










5 


5 


23. T. Coulston . 










2 


2 


■ Feb. 3. John Harvey . 










5 


5 


Rd. Worswick, 2nd subs. 










5° 





14. per J. Dalton, ,, ,, 










10 





Mch. 20. Mrs. Robt. Worswick 










10 


10 


Apl. 11. Mrs. Rimmer . 













5 


May 1 1 . Dr. Bew . 










S 


5 ° 


Rev. T. Potts . 










2 


2 


13. Jas. Orrell 










5 


5 ° 


24. Miss Harvey . 










1 


1 


23. Rev. P. Everard 










5 





June 4. Collection at Preston 










19 


16 


22. Wm. Lupton . 










1 


1 


July 7. Mrs. Croft 










1 


1 


14. Mr. Thos. Heneage 










5 


5 


2-'. Bishop Gibson, 2nd subs 










10 





Mrs. Townley and Bloun 


t 








•y 


2 



APPENDK l 3 



»S 



1798 

Jul] 

Aug. ''. 
28. 


Mr. ThomptOIl, London 

r.y Root Gillow, deed (by will) 

By Rev. J. Chadwii k . . . . 


1 

• 5° 
•t 


». 

1 





J. 







Sept 17. 

Oct. 6. 


John Walmsley .... 

M.iiv 1 l.irvey ..... 


20 
5 




5 




a 




Ann Harvey ..... 


2 


2 





i. ( . 


[1 . Blount ..... 


5 


5 





Dei -.'. 


Sir. Andrade, 2nd subs. . 


10 





a 


'799 
Feb. 3. 


P. Townley ..... 
Win. Morton ..... 


t 

5 


1 

5 






J 3- 

Nov. 26. 


Mrs. Bryer ..... 
Mr. Wheble, London 


5 
• 5° 












The amounts add up to £974, 4s., but Dr. Rigby appears 
to have received only I 4s. His "General view of 

Receipts and Expenses" shows: — 



Subscriptions ....... 

rty in Leonardgate 
Small sums paid in by Messrs. Worswick & Gillow 
Lent of my own ...... 

I ' r I >alton, Brockholcs donation . 
Per Chadwick, Bp. Petre's „ ... 

Per Worswick on J. Parkinson's trust 
Subscribed specially for painting and finishing 
l'er James Moore, half of gable end 





14 





610 








70 


5 


a 


IOO 








200 








200 








50 








89 


9 





18 


'4 






^2268 



Dr. Rigby makes the total £2263, 2s., and adds " balance 
paid by me, £48, 5s." 

The expenditure shows a first total of £2204, 17s., to 
which was added, Dec. 26, 1803— Paid Baldwin's bill of 
ars standing, Xn, 5s. 2d.; and painting and finishing, 
£95. 12-., making £2311, 7s. in all. 

'The principal contractors for the work were Thomas 
Taylor, the mason, £614; T. Standen, .£196; Wren and 
Corry, joiner's work, £514; William Corry, £200; Atkinson, 
the paintei, £57; Tomlinson and Heaton, £$()\ Overend, 



2i6 ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 

£38 ; Seward, £"66. Various small sums paid to the workmen 
(or drinks mounted up in the end to £12, 14s. 6d. 

The above statement does not quite agree with that in 
the text, which is taken from what seems to be a later 
account. 

The principal subscribers to the building of the school in 
1805 were the Gillows, father and son, £60; Miss Gillow, 
■£10; J. Walmsley, £10; Lord Fauconberg and sister, 
£10, 10s. ; Alexander Worswick, £30; Richard Worswick, 
£30; Henry and Alice Kirkham, £10 ; Miss Kirkham, £10; 
George Kirkham, £20. Dr. Rigby himself gave £5, 5s., as 
did Mrs. Robert Worswick. 



V 

LICENCE FOR DALTON SQUARE CHAPEL 

County Palatine oH HT^HESE are to certify that at the General 
Lancaster, to wit J A Quarter Session of the Peace, held 
at Lancaster in and for the said County, 
the sixteenth Day of July in the 

thirty-ninth Year of the Reign of his present 
Majesty King George the Third, that a certain Chapel 

situate in Lancaster in the said County 

was certified to the Justices here assembled as a Place of 
Congregation or Assembly for Religious Worship ; and 
that the same was recorded at this Session pursuant to an 
Act of Parliament made in the Thirty First Year of the 
Reign of his present Majesty, entitled, "An Act to 
"relieve, upon Conditions and under Restrictions, the 
" Persons therein described from certain Penalties and 
" Disabilities to which Papists or Persons professing the 
" Popish Religion are by Law subject." 

J A TAYLOR 
Deputy Clerk of the Peace for Lancashire 



APPENDICES 2.7 

VI 

The following is a list of presents made to Dr. Rigby, as 
recorded in his note-book : — 

Marble chimney piece in the tea room and lamp in the lobby — 
Mrs. Robert Worswick, 

1 ' > 1 11 of new hair-bottomed chairs — Mr. Richd. Worswick. 

Altar floor cloth — Miss Worswick and Mrs. Robert Worswick. 

Two new albs, corporal, glass cruets, vestments, and many things 
else for the altar — Miss GUlow. 

I uiumnion cloth and several lavabos — Miss Alice Gillow. 

Floor cloth for lobby — Mrs. Rt. ( '.illow. 

Glass girandoles in tea room — Mr. Gillow. 

Alb, trimming by Miss Jane — Miss Iiethani. 

Red morocco missal — Dr. Thos. Rigby. 

Silver altar bell — Miss Belasyse. 

Silver cruets and stand — Mr. Rd. Worswick. 

Alabaster candlesticks — J. Rigby. 

Some of the above, e.g. the silver altar bell and alabaster 
candlesticks, are still at St. Peter's. 

VII 

THE FIRST REGISTER BOOK 

A thin folio book, 62 pages (some blank), baptisms at one 
end and marriages at the other. On a detached sheet in 
the cover is a late copy of baptisms (by the Rev. Richard 
Edmundson, when not otherwise stated) in the interval be- 
tween the death of Mr. Tyrer and the coming of Dr. Rigby, 
as follows : — 

1784 
- April. — James, s. John and Emma Park ; godparents, John Roger- 
son and Jane Cornthwaite. 
Bom 19, bapt. 23 May. By Thomas Caton 1 — Eliz., da. Richard 
Tilling and Cath. (Whitehead) his wife; godmother 
Eliz. Machal. Lancaster. 
1 Triest at Cottam 1812-26: Gillow, Haydfrk fafcrs, 2IO. 



218 ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 

1784 

Born 24, bapt. 25 May. By same — Samuel, s. Edward Exley and 
Hannah (Smith) his wife ; godparents, Barnabas Peacock 
and Mary Verity. Skerton. 

- May. — Frances Thecar. 

- Aug. — Mary, da. Robert and Eliz. Hardacre ; godparents, Thomas 

and Eliz. Hardacre. 
8 Aug — By — Mawdesly 1 — N. Nightingale. 

- Aug. — By R. E. — John, s. John and N. Townshend ; godfather, 

Robert Townshend. 
22 Aug. — Eliz., da. James and Eliz. Park ; godparents, William 

Walker and Anne Askew. 
26 Sept. — Richard, s. John and Eliz. Anderton; godparents, Richard 

Poulton and Mary Baines. 
29 Aug. — Mary, da. Robert and Izabel Harrison ; godparents, Henry 

Finch and Jane Wilkinson. 
5 Sept. — Joseph Edrington, s. Matthew Fisher and Mary Edrington, 

unmarried ; godparents, Richard and Dorothy Green. 

- Aug. — John, s. Jonathan and Mary Winder; godparents, James 

Cornah and Frances Lupton. 
16 Sept. — Margaret, da. James and Eliz. Copple; godparents, 

William Copple and Mary Newby. 
16 Sept — Hannah Park, da. Peter Baskow and Jane Park, un- 
married ; godparents, Joseph Foster and Anne Askew. 
10 Oct. — Robert, s. James and Anne Cornah; godparents, John 

Rogerson and Mary Mercer. 
6 Oct. — William, s. Marmaduke and Helen Ball ; godparents, 
Christopher Newby and Anne Askew. 
Izabel, da. Thomas and Frances Calvert ; godparents, 
James Park and Mary Cotton. 

26 Sept. — Anne, da. Hugh and Jane Green; godparents, Thomas 

Green and Jane Parker. 

Added in a different hand : — 

27 July, 1787. — Thomas, s. John and Jane Ball; godparents, John 

Carter and Mary Cornthwaite. By Eliz. Cornthwaite. 

"As Elizabeth Cornthwaite was not present I did not 
baptize Thomas Ball under condition, but only supplied 
the ceremonies till the matter could be fully inquired 
into. — John Lindow. 2 July 29, 1787." 

1 Probably the Rev. James Carter, known as Mawdesley, who was priest at 
Newhouse near Preston 1762-1814 : ibid., 73. 

2 For this priest (1729- 1806), see Gillow, Bibliographical Diet, of English 
Catholics, iv. 242. 



APPENDICES 

The register proper ia beaded thus : " Lancaster Chapel 
B ok. Baptisms under Dr. Rigby. 17*1." Each enh 
signed (. Rigby unless otherwise stated. The first entries are 

n in lull to show the form ; the rest are abbreviated. 



BAPTISMS 

1784 Nov. 3 . Baptisavi Elizabethans Poulton. J. Rigby. 

E. Pontoon. Patrino Thomft Snape- Matrina . . . Poulton. 

21 . Baptizavi Jacobum redder, filium Jacobi Pedder 

J. Fedder. >\ r.r.iti.e Pedder — Patrino Jacobo Standen ; Matrina 

Anna Bateman. J. Rigby. 

24°. Baptizavi Saram Lupton, filiam Caroli Lupton & 

S. Lupton. Manse Bell, Patrino Gulielmo Goarncl, & Matrina 

Martha Roneson. J. Rigby. 

Dec. 12. — Anne Rogerson; godparents, Charles Lupton & Alice 

llaresnape. 
17S5 

Jan. 14. — Sarah, illeg. da. Eliz Bateman, widow; godparents, James 
Stand and Anne Cornah. 
., 22. — Dorothy, da. Richard and Ellen Shuttleworth ; god- 
parents, Robert Hardicrc and Eliz. Shiers. 
Feb. 6. — James, s. James & Mary Sharpies ; godparents, William 
Gomel and Margaret Salisbury. 
„ 23. — Jane, da. James Cornthwaite and wife; godparents, 

Richard Poulton and Anne Snape. 
„ 27. — Eliz., da. William Joyce and Eliz. (Simpson); godparents, 
James Pemberton and Mary Tomlinson. 
„ Henry, s. William Ball and Eliz. (Cock); godparents, 
John Kay and Ellen Wilkinson. 
March 6. — Richard, s. Andrew Garner and Anne (Mitchel) his 
wife; godparents, Jerome Parkinson and Dorothy 
Garner. 
„ 13. — Thomas, s. John Baines and Anne (Browne) his wife; 

godparents, John Foster and Anne Melling. 
,, 16. — James, s. John Snape and Mary (Valentine) his wife; 

godparents, James Standen and Anne Snape. 
., 20. — Richard, s. Thomas and Mary Tomlinson ; godparents, 

Thomas and Dorothy Singleton. 
,, 27. — Robert, s. John and Eliz. Wells; godparents, John Parke 
and Anne Kilshaw. 



220 ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 

178s 

May 20. — George, s. John and Mary Wainhouse ; godparents, John 

Foster and Martha Gomel. 
June 5. — Martin, s. James Mascough and Jane (Martin) ; god- 
parents, Thomas Wilkinson and Anne Melling. 
,, Isabel, da. John and Mary Mawdesley ; godfather, Robert 

Townson. 
„ Eliz., da. John Rogerson and Mary (Kitchin) ; godparents, 

George Rogerson and Anne Cornah. 
„ 8. — William, s. William and Margaret Forrest ; godparents, 

John Forrest and Anne Bateman. 
„ 12. — Thomas, s. John and Ellen Kaye; godparents, Henry 

Cock and Anne Wells. 
„ 19. — James, s. James and Elizabeth Pemberton ; godparents, 

Edward Axley and Eliz. Simpson. 
,, 27. — Ellen, da. Robert and Eliz. Townson; godparents, John 
Foster and Anne Melling. 
June 10. — Mary, da. Richard and Catherine Pilling ; godparents, 

John Pilling and Cath. Preston. 
Nov. 10. — James Bradshaw Cotton, illeg. s. Mary Cotton; god- 
parents, Eidsforth and Calvert. 
Dec. n. — Thomas, s. Hugh and Jane Green; godparents, William 
Lund and Anne Green. 
,, 26. — Anne, lawful da. Catherine Preston, herself the godmother. 
1786 
Jan. 29. — Mary, da. Edward and Ellen Ducketh ; godparents, Henry 

Wells and Eliz. Maskay. 
Feb. iS. — Oliver Haydock, legitimate; godparents, William Ball and 
Alice Harsnap. 
March 18. — John, s. Thomas and Sarah Simpson; godparents, John 
Carter and Eliz. Ball. 
,, 24. — Alice, da. John and Agnes Neville; godparents, Marma- 
duke Ball and Anne Askew. 
April 7. — Anne, illeg. da. Mary Brisco ; godparents, Peter Brisco 
and Mary Verity. 
„ 27. — Margaret, da. Thomas and Jane Butcher; godparents, 
John Rogerson and Alice Bradley. 
June 7. — Mary, da. John and Mary Tomlinson ; godparents, Robert 

Townson and Margaret Singleton. 
Aug. 22. — Ellen, da. John and Amy (Amata) Park; godparents, 

Robert Shepherd and Mary Park. 
Sept. 8. — Peter, s. Peter and Anne Dickinson : godmother, Margaret 
Kimmins. 



APPENDICES 

Anne, da. James and Buz. Coppelj godparents, Thomas 
and Kllcn CoppeL By James Foster. 1 
,7. — Elizabeth, da. James snd Jane Mierscough; godparents, 
Edward Exley and Eliz. Mierscough. 

Oct. 1. — Ellen, d.i. John and Ellen Kaj irents, Alice 

11 nd (for 1 lenry Cork) Dr. Rigby. 

\ v . it.— William, s. James and Ellen Cornthwaite; godpan 
William Walker and Alice Hothersall. 

„ 23. — William, 8, and M.iry Bayly ; godparents, William 

and Elizabeth Cock. 
„ 26. — John, s. William and Winifred Whittle; godmother, Alice 

Rigby. 

— Anne, da. Thomas and Eliz. Gregson; godparents, James 
Comay and Mary Verity. 
1787 

Feb. 25. — Ellen, da. James Oraveson ; godparents, Joseph Moun- 
tain and Jane Wilkinson. 
March 8. — Isabel, da. Jane Rimmcr (married) ; godparents, James 
Cornthwaite and Eliz. Coppt 1. 
,, 18. — Mary, da. James and Anne Comay; godparents, Charles 

Eidsforth and Mary Stephenson. 
„ ,, Helen, da. James and Ellen Sharpies; godparents, Edward 
Hardman and Mary Wainhousc. 
April 10. — John Corlas, s. Thomas and Elizabeth Rogerson; god- 
parents, John Rogerson and Mary Forrest. 
,, 15. — John, s. John and Mary Mawdesley; godparents, Edward 

Shannon and Mary Blundell. 
„ 22. — Margaret, da. John and Anne Baines ; godparents, James 
Copple and Alice Hothersall. 

„ 29. — Elizabeth, da. and Jane Ellet ; godparents, John 

Rave and Dorothy FUherington. By James F'oster. 
May 16. — John, s. Thomas and Anne Hatton ; godparents, William 
Cock and Mary Bayly. 
„ 28. — Thomas, s. John and Mary Rogerson; godparents, James 
Comay and Mary Morton. 
June 10. — Edward, s. William and Elizabeth Ball; godparents, John 
Croskell and Mary Ball. 
„ 12. — Mary, da. Richard and Eliz. Poulton ; godparents, Robert 

Hardicre and Anne Askew. 
,, 30. — Anne, da. William and Mary Morton; godparents, Thomas 
and Elizabeth Ecdes. 

1 Priesi at Truirnham, 1785 on. 



222 ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 

1787 

July 8. — Richard, s. Richard and Ellen Shuttle-worth ; godparents 
Richard Poulton and Ellen Wilson. 
„ 15. — Mary, da. William and Margaret Forrest; godparents, 

Henry Bell and Mary Bateman. 
„ 16. — Mary, illeg. da. Mary Baines of Stodday ; godparents, 

James Dickinson and Eliz. Baines. 
,, 27. — Thomas, s. John and Jane Ball ; godparents, John Carter 
and Mary Cornthwaite. By Elizabeth Cornthwaite, in 
danger of death. The ceremonies were afterwards sup- 
plied by John Lindow, priest. [See above.] 
' Aug. 2. — Margaret, da. Thomas and Anne Lynass ; godparents, 
Thomas Verity and Anne Bateman. By James 
Foster. 
,, 19. — John, s. Andrew and Margaret Fox; godparents, Robert 

Townson and Margaret Singleton. 
,, 22. — Ellen, da. John and Mary Wainhouse; godparents, Peter 
Briscoe and Eliz. Townson. 
Oct. 6. — Anne Pilling, in danger of death. Oct. 12 — the cere- 
monies supplied ; godparents, Henry Cock and Mary 
Foster. 
„ n. — Thomas, s. Charles and Mary Lupton ; godparents, 
John Kaye and Frances Lupton. 
Nov. 1. — Jane, da. Robert and Elizabeth Hardicre ; godparents, 
Richard Poulton and Amy Parke. 
,, 12. — George, s. George and Alice Hayhurst ; godparents, 
Thomas Winstanley and M. Mountain. 
Dec. 16. — James, s. James and Elizabeth Parke; godparents, James 

Dickinson and Grace Kirkham. 
1788 

Jan. 27. — Elizabeth, da. John and Margaret Noblet ; godparents, 
Andrew Cornthwaite and Eliz. Hardicre. 
,, 28. — Elizabeth, da. Marmaduke and Eleanor Ball; godparents, 
Peter Brisco and Anne Askew. 
March 15. — Thomas, s. Edward Ducketh ; godparents, Eccles and 
Bateman. 
,, 16. — James, s. Edmund and Alice Bradley; godparents, John 
Rogerson and Mary Morton. 
April 6. — Mary, da. John and Mary Snape ; godparents, Henry 
Kirkham and Anne Pemberton. 
,, 22. — Anne Theresa, da. Thomas and Mary Mason; god- 
parents, John and Agnes Caton (in place of Henry 
Hitchcock and Eliz. Knock). 



APPENDICES 223 

1788 

June 1.— William, s. — and — Pemlierton; godparents, Henry 
Kirkham and Anne Tomlinaon. 

„ 32.— Ceremonies supplied foi Elizabeth, da. Thomas and 

Sarah Simpson, baptised earlier by Ellen 1'oulton in 
danger of death ; godparents, William and Jam ( roll 
J u |y ,j. — AgneB, da. James and Eh/.d- 'I' I 'omthwaitej godparents, 
Anthony Kew and Agnes Morton. 

„ ,, Thomas, s. Edward and Mary Richardson; godparents, 

liiMph Mountain and Rachel MeDnnnald. 

,, 12. — Barbara, da. James and Anne Austin; godparents, I '1- 
ward Eidsforth and Cath. Rowlandson. 

Dec. 20.— Elizabeth, da. James and Elizabeth Copple ; godparents. 
James Cornthwaite and Anne MelUng (in place of 
Peter Newby ami Mary Maston). 
21. — Thomas, s. James and Anne Cornah ; godparents, Charles 
Eidsforth and Mary Cotton. 

Jan. 3. — John, s. John and Jane Rimmer; godparents, James 
Copple and Mary Tomlinson. 
„ 25. — George, s. John and Mary Rogerson ; godparents, Thomas 
Rogerson and Mary llateman. 
Feb. r. — Mary, da. Brian and Elizabeth Cornthwaite; godparents, 
James and Mary Cornthwaite. 
„ 8. — Richard, s. Thomas and Alice Hodgkinson ; godparents, 
Thomas Foster and Mary 1 lixon. 
March 2. — Joseph, s. James and Jane Mierscough; godparents, 
Simon Mierscough and Anne Wilkinson. 
„ 15. — Ellen, da. John and Mary Tomlinson ; godparents, Joseph 

Mountain and Margaret Fox. 
,, iS. — Elizabeth, da. William and Margaret Forrest; godparents, 
John Harrison and Eliz.abeth Bateman. 
April 7. — Mary, da. Thomas and Mary Mason; godparents, John 

and Mary Caton. 
May 15. — Prudence, da. James and Anne Dickinson; godparents, 

Richard Kellam and Eliz. Copple. 
June 2. — John, s. John and Jane Ball; godparents, William Swar- 
brick and Elizabeth Ball. 
,, 21.— Margaret, da. Bartholomew and Mary Billington ; god- 
parents, John Slater and Anne Wilkinson. 
July 5. — Peter, s. Edmund and Alice Bradley; godparents, 
William Morton (in place of William Gamer) and 
Dorothy Garner. 



224 ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 

1789 

July 19. — Mary, da. William and Margaret Dunbobbin ; godparents, 
Thomas Dunbobbin and Catherine Pemberton. 
,, 26. — Henry, s. John and Mary Wilson; godparents, William 

and Dorothy Garner. 
,, 30. — Anne, da. Thomas and Anne Hatton ; godparents, Henry 

Cock and Anne Melting. 
,, „ Catherine Hatton, twin sister of last ; godparents, John 
and Elizabeth Cock. 
Sept. 13. — Margaret, da. John and Agnes Nevil ; godparents, Charles 
Dwyer and Rachel Macdonald. 
,, 26. — Margaret, da. John and Margaret Slater ; godparents, 
Joseph Mountain and Elizabeth Baines. 
Nov. 22. — Thomas, s. Thomas and Jane Addison ; godparents, 

Anthony Billington and Elizabeth Waterhouse. 
Dec. 27. — Mary, da. Alexander and Mary Rule — the father a soldier 

and the mother a beggar ; no godparents. 
1790 

Feb. 14. — Mary, da. Charles and Mary Dwyer ; godparents, Henry 
Wells and Esther Balshaw. 
,, 27. — Mary, da. Edward and Ellen Ducketh ; godparents, 
William Garner and Mary Morton. 
April 11. — Sarah, da. Richard and Sarah Simpson; godparents, 
William Swarbrick and Anne Baldwin. 
,, 18. — William, s. Charles and Mary Lupton ; godparents, Henry 
Bell and Anne Tomlinson. 
May 18. — Henry, s. William and Elizabeth Ball, the father 
lately dead ; godparents, Henry Kirkham and Sarah 
Ball. 
June 8.— Thomas, s. John and Margaret Atkinson; godparents, 
Thomas Baines and Eliz. Croft. 
,, 20. — Ceremonies supplied for Henry, s. William and Elizabeth 
Finch, previously baptized by the father ; godparents, 
H. and Mary Finch. 
,, 27. — William, s. John and Anne Garner: godparents, Thomas 
(in place of George) Eccles and Winifred Eccles (in 
place of Ellen Dugdale). 
Sept. 23. — John, s. James and Ellen Cornthwaite ; godparents, 

Richard Morton and Esther Bradley. 
Oct. 3. — Richard, s. Andrew and Margaret Fox ; godparents, 
Robert Townson and Margaret Singleton. 
,, 26. — Thomas, s. William and Alice Whiteside; godparents, 
Robert and Agnes Gillow. 



APPENDICES 

1790 

Oct. 36. Margaret, da.' Patrick and Ellen McLoakey; godparents, 
ncis Kennedy and Mary Richardson. 

Nov. 20.— Ellen, da. Marmaduke and Ellen Ball] godpar 
Thomas Kilshaw and Anne Aski w. 

net, da. William and Mary Morton ; godparents, 
I V, ilv Eccles. 
D '. i-'. — Anne, da. John an I Man I ninlinson of Scot forth ; god- 
parents, Henry Slater and Joan Addison. 
1791 
Feb. 3. — Edward, s. Anthony and Jane Billington; godparents, 
John Dunbobbin and Anne Pemberton. 
Sarah Billington, twin sister of above; godparents, John 
Dunbobbin and Mary Waterhouse. 
13. " , da. Joseph and Anne Osbaldeston ; godparents, 

Thomas Snapeand Margaret Harrison. 
March 13. — William, s. James and Anno Hardicre: godparents, William 
Hardicre and Anne Harrison. 
Interlined — "Thomas Sharpies was baptized this same 
day by I'. Thomas." ' 
15.- — Mary, da. John and Elizabeth Gravestone; godparents, 
James Gravestone and Alice Hothersall (in place of 
Mary Porter). 
,, 27. — Anne, da. Charles and Mary Dwyerj godparents, Richard 
Killam and Martha Gomel. 
June 12. — John, s. Thomas and Eli/.. Verity; godparents, John Cock 
and Catherine Mountain. 
„ 26. — William, illeg. s. Elizabeth Hardicre ; godparents, John 
and Mary ( "ock. 
July 31. — Marv, da. William and Catherine Townson ; godparents, 

William and Ellen Hall. 
Sept. 4. — Richard, s. John and Jane Ball; godparents, James Ball 

and Mary Carter. 
Oct. 11. — Thomas, s. John and Mary Wainhouse ; godparents, James 
Valentine and Eliz. Layfield. 
,, 14- — Elizabeth, da. Charles and Eliz. Gordon, wayfarers; with- 
out sponsors. 
,, 16. — Ellen, da. James and Mary Huddlestone ; godparents, 
Thomas Dunbobbin and Eliz. Waterhouse. 
Nov. 12. — Richard, s. John and Margaret Slater; godparents, 
William Earnshaw and Elizabeth Slater. 

1 The Rev. Thomas Butler was priest at Hornby; he d. 1705. 

r 



226 ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 

1791 

Dec. 8. — James, s. John and Winefride Mierscough ; godparents, 
Simon .Mierscough and Ellen Ducketh. 
1792 

Jan. 25.— Elizabeth, da. James and Mary Graveson ; godparents, 
Thomas Foster and Anne Osbaldeston. 
,, 27. — William, s. John and Mary Cock; godparents, Thomas 
Verity and Anne Cock. 
Feb. 5. — Edward, s. Thomas and Elizabeth Hodskinson ; god- 
parents, Michael Jones and Alice Ball. 
,, 12. — William, s. Edmund and Elizabeth Hest; godparents, 
William Hardman and Mary Carter. 
March 5. — Mary, da. Thomas and Anne Hatton ; godparents, John 
Davies and Mary Cotton. 
,, 25. — Anne, da. John and Jane Rimmer ; godparents, John 
Harrison and Mary Bailey. 
April 1. — Peter, s. James and Ellen Sharpies; godparents, William 
and Mary Earnshaw. 
„ 8. — Elizabeth, da. John and Mary Carter ; godparents, James 
Carter and Elizabeth Croft. 
May 6. — Jane, da. Thomas and Sarah Simpson ; godparents, John 

Carter and Elizabeth Croft. 
June 10. — Richard, s. Richard and Sarah Sandwell; godparents, 
Thomas and Mary Dunbabin. 
,, 21. — Thomas, s. Alexander and Mary Worswick ; godparents, 
Robert (for Thomas) and Alice Worswick. 
(July) 17. — Margaret, da. William and Catherine Whiteside; god- 
parents, John and Margaret Smith. By James Foster. 
Aug. 24. — Jane, da. Richard and Dorothy Ball ; godparents, Richard 

(for George) Ball and Anne Croskell. 
Sept. 1. — (Blank), da. Thomas and Eliz. Verity, by Agnes Caton ; 
she died soon afterwards. 
,, 15. — William, s. Thomas and Elizabeth Rogerson ; godparents, 

Henry Kirkham and Anne Wilkinson. 
,, 16. — Alice, da. John and Anne Garner; godparents, Thomas 
Eccles (in place of Thomas Garner) and Winefride 
Mierscough. 
,, „ Margaret, da. John and Sarah Carter; godparents, William 

Croft and Mary Carter. 
Oct. 7. — Anne, da. John and Mary Wilson ; godparents, William 
and Mary Morton. 
„ ,, William, s. John and Mary Tomlinson ; godparents, 
Robert Townson and Cath. Slater. 



APPENDICES 227 

1792 

Nov. 8. — Charles, s. Charles and Maty Dwyer; godparents, William 

I rnshaw and Annr Shanm in, 

Dec. 5. — Piter, s. Edward and Mary Rjt hardson; godparents, John 
Wilkinson (in place of Edward Gamer) and Mary I.ight- 
bourne. 
,, 16. — William, s.William and Anne I.ynass; godparents, Hi nry 

Ut'll and Mary Jones. 
,, 23. — Robert, s. James and Anne Dickinson. 

,, Jane, da. Anthony and Mary Billington ; godparents, 
William Earnshaw and Ellen Dixon. 

'793 
Jan. 8. — Alice, da. Thomas and Mary Morton ; godparents, 
William Garner and Anne Tomlinson. 
,, 20. — Elizabeth, da. James and Mary Huddlestone; godparents, 

Joseph Wilson and Dorothy Tindal. 
„ ,, John, s. William and Margaret Forrest; godparents, James 

Taylor and Anne Cornah. 
„ 27. — Margaret, da. John and Mary Snape ; godparents, Edward 

Ducketh and Margaret Baincs. 
„ ,, Elizabeth, da. John and Mary Brotherton ; godparents, 
Thomas Dunbobin and Mary Tindal. 
Feb. 17. — Elizabeth, da. Edward and Sarah Kimmis; godparents, 
Thomas Gomel and KHz. Townson. 
,, 22. — Anne, da. Edward and Ellen Ducketh; godparents, Richard 
and Winefride Myerscough. 
March 10. — Richard, s. Andrew and Margaret Fox; godparents, 
Richard Singleton and Mary Slater. 
April 14. — Joseph, s. John and Margaret Atkinson; godparents, 
Robert Townson and Dorothy Ball. By T. Caton. 
,, '25. — Thomas (born 20), s. Marmaduke Ball and Helen (Hodg- 
son) his wife, father Cath., mother not ; godparents, 
William Briscow and Anne Askew. 
,, '28. — Mary, da. Charles and Mary Lupton ; godparents, John 
Lupton and Margaret Carter. 
'May 1. — Jane, da. William Oldcorn and Anne (Heaton) his wife; 

godparents, Stephen and Jane Oldcorn. 
June 1. — Mary, da. Richard and Anne Forrest ; godparents, 
William Dickinson and Eliz. Hardicre. 
,, 6. — Mary, da. N. and Anne Perks ; without godparents. 
,, 24. — Agnes, da. William and Mary Swarbrick ; godparents, 
John Carter and Eliz. Croft. 

1 In a different hand ; no signature 



22S ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 

1793 

July 1 4. — William, s. Edward and Anne Gardner ; godparents, 

Richard and Mary Myerscough. 
„ „ Mary, da. Richard and Sarah Sandwell ; godparents, 

Thomas Dunbabin and Mary Dixon. 
Aug. 24. — Mary, da. Thomas and Eliza Verity ; godparents, Thomas 

Foster and Mary Caton. 
Oct 18. — Anne, da. Peter and Sarah Briscoe; godparents, William 

Briscoe and Margaret Townson. 
,, 20. — Mary, da. Ellen Fox; godparents, John and Jane 

Ball. 
Nov. 10. — John, s. Thomas and Sarah Simpson ; godparents, 

William Swarbrick and Anne Harrison. 
Dec. 26. — Elizabeth, da. John and Jane Ball ; godparents, John 

Swarbrick and Mary Carter. 
„ 29. — George, s. John and Margaret Slater; godparents, Edward 

Gardner and Anne Dickinson. 

!794 
Jan. 5. — James, s. Andrew and Mary Cornthwaite ; godparents, 

James Cornthwaite and Dorothy Lawrenson. 
Feb. 9. — John, s. William and Catherine Whiteside ; godparents, 
James Snape and Anne Smith. 
,, ,, Jane, da. Charles and Mary Dwyer ; godparents, William 
Walker and Mary Mally. 
March 2. — John, s. William and Margaret Walker; godparents, 
James Pool and Mary Pilling. 
,, 8. — Ceremonies supplied for Mary, da. Michael and — Cross, 
already baptized ; godparents, Patrick Carter and Mary 
Myerscough. 
„ 30. — Thomas, s. Thomas and Anne Hatton ; godparents, John 
Lupton and Anne Cock. 
April 13. — William, s. John and Mary Carter; godparents, John 
Ball and Elizabeth Croft. 
„ 19. — Jane, da. John and Jane Rimmer; godparents, John 

Kaye and Anne Foster. 
,, 2S. — Richard, s. Henry and Anne Wells ; godparents, Henry 
Kirkham and Anne Wells. 
May 20. — John, s. James and Elizabeth Macnamara, without god- 
parents. 
„ 25. — William, s. William and Alice Dickinson; godparents, 
Henry Herdman and Anne Dickinson. 
July 6. — John, s. Hugh and Mary Smith ; godparents, John 
Mooney and Mary Myerscough. 



APPENDICES 229 

■7<M 
July 11. — William, s. Charles and M. Eidsforth; godparents, Jam-, 

Cornah and Anne llattnn. 
Aug. 3. — I lenry, s. John and M.uy Cock; godparents, Charles 
Luptoo and Jane (Jock. 
,, 10. — Thomas, s. John and .M.uy Tomlinson; godparents, 
Rob 11 Townson and Mary Nightingale. 
17. Elizabeth, da. Anthony and Jam- Billington; godparents, 
Richard Laj Swai luick. 

Oct. 5. — Alice, da, James and Mary Huddlestone; godparents, 
Thomas Dunbabin and Mary Earnshaw. 
,, „ Anne, da. James and Margaret Sudell ; godparents, 

William Croft and Margaret Harrison. 
,, 7. — Richard, s. John and Winifred Myerscough ; godparents, 

Richard Myerscough and Anne Gardner. 
,, 19. — Anne, da. William and Anne Oldcorn ; godparents, 
Joseph (in place of John) Oldcorn and Jane Cock. 
;6. — Roger, s. William and Esther Charnley ; godparents, 
Richard Singleton and Anne t'roskell. 
„ „ Mary, da. John and Mary Gravestone; godparents, 
Robert and Jan<- Hard 
Nov. 15. — Peter, s. Thomas and Elizabeth Rogerson. 
Dec. 25. — Thomas, s. Gregory and Elizabeth Walker; godparents, 
James Ball and Dorothy Shepherd. 

'795 
Jan. 16. — William, s. William and Anne Hayes; godparents, Joseph 
Mountain and Sarah llardman. 
„ 23. — Jane, da. Gavin and Ellen Shannon ; godparents, John 
Harrison and J. Winder. 
Feb. 1 (Jan. 29). — James, s. James and Anne Dicconson ; god- 
mother, Alice Huddersall. By Nicholas Bachelet. 1 
,, 15. — John, s. Robert and Anne Harrison; godparents, John 

Harrison and Mary Walker. 
„ „ Richard, s. Jane Soye, widow, in gaol ; ceremonies omitted. 
March 20. — Jane, da. William and Anne Thompson; godmother, 

Jane Thompson. 
April 26. 2 — Cecily, da. William and Mary Swarbreck ; godparents, 
John Procter and Cath. Rowlandson. By J. Worswick. 3 

1 A Krench emigre priest living in Lancaster ; Afiscellarua (Catholic Record 
iv. 323, where he is called Bachelier. He taught French, and supplied the 
I [oraby mission till his death in 1799. 

3 In margin : Maria OistleOet. 

■ Probably John Worswick, at Hornby 179&-1808; Misttltanca (Catholic 
Record Society), iv. 523. He had a brother James (d. 1843) a priest. 



2 3 o ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 

1795 

May 3. — John, s. John and Eliz. Dutton ; godfather, Thomas 
Dutton. By Nic. Bachelet. 
10. — James, s. John and Alice Gardner; godmother, Mary 

Drinkwell (for Alice Cross). 
„ Christopher, s. George and James (Georgii et Jacobi) 
Thompson ; godparents, William and Anne Old- 
corn. 
14.— Mary, da. Edward and Anne Gardner; godparents, 

William and Alice Hall. 
15. — Matthew, s. Peter and Mary Richardson; godparents, 

James Dicconson and Mary Ripley. 
24. — Marian, da. William and Anne Lynass ; godparents, 

George Kirkham and Anne Wilkinson. 
27. — Isabel, da. Richard and Eliz. Myerscough ; godparents, 

Edward Ducketh and Winifred Myerscough. 
31. — Thomas, s. Richard and Dorothy Ball ; godparents, James 
Ball and Eliz. Verity. 
June 4. — John, illeg. s. Sarah Stevenson. The ceremonies were 
supplied afterwards ; godparents, Robert Townson and 
Anne Cornah. 
„ 14. — Ceremonies supplied for Peter, s. Thomas and — Roger- 
son, already baptized ; godparents, Henry Kirkham 
and Mary Tomlinson. 
„ 19. — Mary, da. Bernard and Eliz. Mooney ; godparents, John 
Mucclevanny and Eliz. Shiers. 
July 19. — Martha, da. Richard and Anne Forrest; godparents, 
Edward Gardner and Martha Baines. 
,, „ Henry, s. John and Grace Omelvanny (?) ; godmother, 
Anne Dixon. 
Aug. 9. — Mary Melicent, da. Andrew and Eliz. Cornthwaite ; god- 
parents, William and Mary Earnshaw. 
„ 16. — Ceremonies supplied for Anne, da. Richard and Anne 
Tomlinson, already baptized ; godparents, Marmaduke 
Ball and Anne Askew. 
Sept. 13. — John, s. Henry and Anne Wells; godparents, Thomas 
Gomel and Susanna Wilkinson. 
„ „ Sarah, da. Edward and Sarah Kimmis ; godparents, 
Thomas Snape and Margaret Kimmis. 
Oct. 25. — Ceremonies supplied for Thomas Verity, already baptized ; 
godmother, Marian Walmsley. 
,. 26. — Elizabeth, da. Peter and Sarah Brisco; godparents, 
Thomas Gomel and Eliz. Ball. 



APPENDICES 231 

179s 

X,, v _ 8.— Alice, da. Tbomu and Sarah Simpson; godparents, 

John Smrbrick and Dorothy Shepherd. 
D . 1".- James, s. Catherine Wright, in gaol ; without sponsors. 

Jan. 31. — Thomas, s. Andre* ind Mai aret Fox; godparents, John 

I l.irriscin and Mary Slater, 
I b. a8.— Mary, da. John and Jane Ball; godparents, Thomas 
Noble and Anne Croskell. 
March 20. — Robert, s. Robert and Jane Addison; godparents, John 
,, Ball and Mary Nightingale. 

,, „ Elizabeth, da. Charles and Mary I.upton ; godparents, 

I Catherine 1'arke. 
„ 25. — William, s. Michael and Margaret Cross; godparents, 

John Mooney and Marg. Kinimis. 
„ „ Christian, s. Edward anil Anne Lennon ; godparents, 

John Henway and Mary Smith. 
„ 27. — Apollonia, da. Thomas and Mary Davies ; godmother, 
Mary Slater. 
April 17. — Charles, s. Charles and — Eidsforth ; godparents, James 

Taylor and Eliz. Pool. 
May 5. — Sarah, da. Henry and Rebecca Finch; godmother, Anne 
Gomel. 
„ S. — John, s. John and Jane Rimmer ; godparents, Joseph 

Mountain and Ellen Comthwaite. 
„ „ Anne, da. Thomas and Mabel Dutton ; godparents John 

Dutton and Jane Thompson. 
„ 22. — Thomas, s. Richard and Ellen Arling ; godparents, 

William Ball and Dorothy Shepherd. 
„ „ Margaret, da. James and Cecily Baines; godparents, John 

and ElK-n Swarbrick. 
,, 31. — John, s. John and Mary Carter; godparents, James 
Comthwaite and Jane Croft. 
June 5. — Ellen, da. William and Margaret Walker; godparents, 
Robert Threlfal and Eliz. Walker. 
„ 19. — James Philip, s. James and Margaret Taylor ; godparents, 

Henry Whiteside and Anne Cornah. 
„ „ Thomas s. William and Alice Dickenson; godmother, 
Anne Hardicre. 
July 18.— William Cuvin, s. N. and N. Parke; godmother, Ellen 
Mally. 
., 24.— Mary, da. John and Mary Tomlinson ; godfather, Robert 
Townson. 



232 ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 

1796 

July 24. — Richard, s. William and Catherine Whiteside ; godparents, 
Henry Whiteside and Ellen Wilding (in place of Mary 
Higham). 
Aug. 6. — Mary, da. James and Elizabeth Pool ; godparents, Thomas 
and Jane Pilling. 
,, 21. — Sarah, illeg. daughter of Ellen Sharpies ; godparents, John 
Blackburn and Margaret Walker. 
Sept. 18. — John, s. James and Mary Machel ; godparents, Thomas 
and Susanna Wilkinson. 
,, ,, Isabel, da. Henry and Eliz. Walker ; godparents, William 
and Mary Walker. 
Oct. 11. — Anne, da. John and Margaret Slater; godmother, Eliza- 
beth Marshall (Pennington, interlined). 
,, 16. — Anne, da. Bernard and Elizabeth Mooney ; godfather, John 
Mooney. 
Dec. 4. — John, s. Philip and Mary Macguire; godmother, Sophy 
Leonard. 
,, 18. — Anne Dyvrier (?), da. Charles and Mary Dwyer; god- 
parents, John Harrison and Eliz. Pool. 

1797 
Jan. 8. — Christopher, s. George and Jane Thompson ; godparents, 

John (in place of Stephen) and Judith Oldcorn. 
Feb. 5. — Mary, da. Edward and Anne Gardner ; godparents, William 
and Anne Gardner. 
„ 19. — John, s. John and Mary Cock; godparents, Francis and 
Catherine Mountain. 
March 5. — Joseph, s. William and Anne Oldcorn; godparents, John 
and Mary Oldcorn. 
April 5. — Marmaduke, s. Marmaduke and Ellen Ball ; godfather, 
Robert Townson. 
„ 9. — Sarah, da. John and Sophy Leonard : ceremonies sup- 
plied on the 1 6th ; godmother, Mary Macguire. 
May 7. — Thomas, s. John and Winif. Moscow (Myerscough inter- 
lined) alias Eccles ; godparents, Thomas Moscow 
(Myerscough) and Anne Gardner. By J. Worswick. 
,, 28. — Ann, da. William Campbell and Mary (Myerscough) ; god- 
parents, John and Ellen Myerscough. By J. Worswick. 
July 2. — Ceremonies supplied for Jane, da. Richard and Ellen 
Hading, previously baptized by Ellen Poulton; god- 
parents, John and Eliz. Ball. 
„ 9. — James, s. Henry and Rebecca Finch ; godparents, Robert 
Townson and Anne Harrison. 



APPENDICES 

'7'- 7 
luly 23. — William, s. William and I'.. Kidsforth ; godparents, Robert 

Townson and Alice Kirkham. 
Sept. 3. — Ceremonies supplied for Henry, 1. Thomas and Elizabeth 
\ 1 rity ; godparents, Joseph Mountain and Sarah (lock, 
the latter having baptized him when in dangei ol d 
,, 14. — Elizabeth, da. Edward and Mary Richardson ; g< 

James 1 lickensi in and Eliz. < • 
Oct 1.— Edward, s. Gavin and Ellen Shannon ; godparents, James 
Sharpies and Mary Windei . 
„ 8. — Mary, <la. Thomas and Sarah Simpson; godparents, 

onus Carter and Eliz. ' lornthwaite. 
.. 16. Mary, da. Peter and Sarah Briscoe; godparents, William 

,, 30. — Elizabeth, da. William and Margaret Forrest ; godparents, 
Joseph Lambert and Elizabeth Bateman. 
N i\. 1 a.— Elizabeth, da. Richard and Dorothy Ball; godparents, 

William Ball and Ellen Poulton. 
Dec 14. — Thomas, B. Richard and Dorothy Ball ; godfather, Richard 
Ball. By N. Bachelet. 
,, 24. — Robert, s. Robert and Anne Harrison; godparents, 

Robert Townson and Anne Harrison. 
„ 26. — Richard, s. Thomas and Ellen Sharpies ; godparents, 

William Gornal and Mary Wainhou 
1798 
Ian. 28. — Mary, da. George and Mary Joyce; godparents, James 
Millington and Ellen Wildman. 
„ „ Ellen, da. Henry and Elizabeth Walker ; godparents, 
William Walker and Anne Jackson. 
Feb. 25. — John, s. William and Grace Hetherington ; godparents, 
George and Jane Ball. 
March 23. — Christopher, s. William and Margaret Walker; godparents 
(subsequently), Henry and Eliz. Walker. 
April 1. — Anne, da. Andrew and Margaret Fox; godmother, Mary 
Slater. 
„ „ Anne, da. John and Anne Gardner; godparents, William 

Gardner and Mary Eccles. 
„ 8. — Catherine, da. Patrick and Mary Lennon ; godparents, 

John Morgan and Ellen Dixon. 
„ 29. — Thomas, s. Thomas and Margaret Davies ; godmother, 

Margaret Lee. 
„ „ John, s. William and Mary Swarbrick ; godparents, Robert 
Leeming and Alice Slater. 



234 ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 

1798 

May 6. — Agnes, da. John and Jane Ball ; godparents, John Noble 

and Elizabeth Carter. 
„ 13. — Anne, da. Richard and Anne Fox; godparents, Thomas 

Pilling and M. Pool. 
,, 25. — George, s. John and Elizabeth Mattersby ; godparents, 

John Ducketh and Ellen Myerscough. 
„ 26. — William, s. William and Catherine Whiteside. The cere- 
monies were supplied later, with godparents Edward 

Whiteside and Jane Lupton. 
„ ,, James Whiteside, twin brother of above. The ceremonies 

were supplied later, with godparents William Lupton 

(in place of George Kirkham) and Catherine Kirk- 
ham. 
June 3. — Robert, s. Richard and Margaret Herdman ; godparents, 

Robert Townson and Ellen Herdman. 
,, 22. — Christopher, s. James and Margaret Taylor; godparents, 

Charles Eidsforth and Anne Cornah. 
July 1. — James, s. James and Sarah Standen ; godparents, Thomas 

Standen and Eliz. Croft. 
„ -. — Catherine, da. Bernard and Eliz. Mooney ; godparents, 

Peter Mooney and Margaret Kellam. 
,, 22. — Sarah, da. John and Mary Carter; godparents, William 

Croft and Agnes Cornthwaite. 
„ „ Denis, s. Edward and Agnes Leonard ; godparents, John 

Morgan and Eliz. Dobson. 
,, 23. — John Redman, s. Giles and Alice Bateman ; godparents, 

Thomas Noble and Eliz. Bateman. 
Aug. 30. — Thomas, s. Alexander and Eliza Worswick ; godparents, 

Richard Worswick (in place of Joac. Andrade) and 

Agnes Andrade. 
Sept. 9. — Ellen, da. Henry and Anne Wells ; godparents, Thomas 

Noble and Anne Croskell. 
,, „ Charles, s. Charles and Mary Dwyer ; godparents, Thomas 

Gomel and Ellen Beetham. 
,, 19. — Margaret, da. Robert and Anne Gillow ; godparents, 

Richard Gillow and Margaret Stanwith. 
Nov. 4. — John, s. James and Alice Ball ; godparents, Henry Ball 

and Eliz. Carter. 
„ 7. — James, s. James and Martha Dickenson ; godparents, 

Richard Dickenson and Mary Richardson. 
„ 18. — John, s. William and Mary Ball; godparents, Thomas 

and Alice Layfield. 



APPENDICES 235 

1798 

15, Mary. da. Thomu and Mary Ripley; godparent 
ward Richardson and I'.li/. Can. 
Dec. 14. — Thomas, s. James and Eli/.. Pool; godparents, Henry 
Whiteside and Mary Pilling. 
,, 18.— Alice, d-i. Anne Johnson; godmother, Elizabeth Myer 

scough (in place of Dorothy Gardner). 
1799 
Jan. 11. — Jane, da. Thomas and Eliz. Coulston ; godparents, Charles 
Lnpton and Ellen Wilding. 
.. 19. — Henry, S. William and Ann' l.ynass; godparents, John 
Cock and Susanna Stand' in, 
Feb. 3.— Mary, da. George and Eli/.a Ball ; godparents, Henry and 
Jane Ball. 
t6. — Jane, i\i. Th. and E. Dickenson (Harrison crossed out). 
17. Mary, da. Richard and Eliz. Cass; godparents, Charles 

Lupton and E. Capstick. 
;o. — Ceremonies supplied for Mary, da, Charles and Mary 
l.upton, already baptized; godparents, Thomas Coul- 
ston and I'riscilla Capstick. 



MARRIAGES 

1785 

Jan. 16. — I married Cuthbert Girdwell and Alice Pennington in 
the Presence of Richard Pennington and Frances 
Michell (mark). John Rigby. 

Jan. 17. — I underwritten Priest at Lancaster married John Ball and 
lane Comthwaite In presence of Robert Cornthwaite, 
Mary Ball, Agnes Cornthwaite. John Rigby. 

»7 8 7 
June 11. — I underwritten Priest at Lancaster married Wm. Croft 

and Jane Carter In presence of Joseph Foster, Ann 

Melling. John Rigby. 

(The remaining entries have been abbreviated.) 

Sept. 29. — Richard Simpson and Ann Bateman. 

1788 
Sept. 29. — James Dickinson and Anne Hardicre. Witnesses: Robert 

Hardicre (mark), John Harrison (mark), Ann Harrison. 
Dec. 1.— John Garner and Ann Eccles. Witnesses: Thomas 

Eccles, Elling Duckett. 



236 ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 

1789 

Feb. 9. — Charles Dwyre and Mary Hurd. Witnesses : Andrew 
Cornthwaite, Alice Hothersall (mark). 

Oct. 13. — Joseph Mountain and Margaret Poulton. Witnesses: 
Thos. Verity, Alice Hothersall (mark). 

1790 
April 12.— Thomas Hodgskinson and Elizabeth Dixon. Witnesses : 
Thomas Foster, Alice Hothersall (mark). 

May 10. — Gregory Walker and Elizabeth Ball. Witnesses: T- Ball, 

Jane Ball, G. Ball. 
Sept. 11. — Thomas Verity and Elizabeth Cock. Witnesses: Henry 
Cock, Ann Hatton. 

Nov. 28. — Anthony Billington and Jane Dixon. Witnesses : Wm. 
Earnshaw, John Towers, Betty Waterhouse. 

1791 

Jan. 10. — Joseph Osbaldeston and Ann Brown. Witnesses : J. 
Foster, Mary Harrison (mark). 
March 6. — John Cock and Mary Verity. Witnesses: Joseph Moun- 
tain, Catreane Mountane. 

May 2. — Joseph Shepherd and Margaret Edmundson. Witnesses: 
Richd. Kirkham, Ann Kirkham. 

May 16. — John Mierscough and Winifred Eccles. Witnesses : 
Thomas Eccles, Betty Mierscough (mark), K Myerscough. 

June 13. — John Carter and Mary Cornthwaite. Witnesses: Ed- 
ward Noble, Agnes Cornthwaite. 
(None in 1792.) 

1793 
1 May 6. — — Charnley and Esther Bradley. Priest : T. Caton. 

Witness : T. Hennikar. 
1 April 8. — George Corbesley and Eliz. Croskell. Priest : T. Caton. 

Witnesses : John Roskay, Agnes Ball. 
May 22. — Thomas Shaw and Margaret Bramwell. Witness : Rob. 

Croskell. 
July 7. — Henry Gregson and Mary Cornthwaite. Witnesses : James 

Cornthwaite, Dorothea Lawrenson. 
Aug. 3. — Henry Wells and Ann Wilkinson. Witnesses : Henry 

Kirkham, Susanna Wilkinson. 
Nov. 23. — Robert Johnson and Mary Brand. Witnesses: John 

Kay, Jane Cottam. 

1794 

Nov. 2. — Robert Moore and Elizabeth Myerscough. Witnesses : 
Richard Myerscough (mark), Mary Myerscough (mark). 
1 The witnesses' names are written in the same hand as the entry. 



APPENDK I 
179S 

May «4.— Richard MyerSCOUgh and Elizabeth Ward. Witnesses: 

John Ducketh (mark), EUen Myerscough (mark). 
Oct. 13.— Henry Kirkham and Alice Hothersall. "In presence of 

kirkham." ' 
Kov. 16.— Randolph Penswick and Dorothy Ball. Witnesses: Cath. 

oswick, Kola. Gillow. 
1796 
July 24. — Richard Pennington and I-aU-1 Walker. Witnesses: 

William Walker, Robt Townson. 
Nov. 6.— Robert Hirst and l Snape. Witnesses: Jam.-, 

Hirst (mark), Mary Dilworth (mark). 
1798 
Jan. 29.— James Dickinson and Martha Haines. Witnesses: Edward 

Richardson, Margaret Dickinson. 
April 16.— John Mattersby and Elisabeth Ducketh. " In presence 

of John Ducketh Ov Ellen Myerscough." 
April 28. — George Kirkham and Catherine Parke. Witnesses: 

I [enry Bell, Helen Wilding. 
"Sept. 29. — I underwritten priest of Lancaster, privately married 

William Kail and Mary Layfield, who had before been 

married according to the law of the Land. J. Rigby." 
Nov. 25. — Thomas Standen and Susan Rogerson. Witnesses : James 

Standen, Ellen Wilding. 

Though the new chapel was not opened till March 1, 1790, 
the next volume of registers begins in January that year. 
The first marriage did not take place till April 26, 1800, when 
Robert Threlfall was united to Sarah Cock. 



VIII 

COMMENDATIONS, 1799 

A list of those for whom mass was said or prayers desired 
extends over several years, 1799 to 1823. The first year is 
given as a specimen, but unfortunately the exact meaning 
Of the several entries is lost; some are names of deceased 

1 All in Dr. Ri(;hy's hand. 



2 3 8 



ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 



benefactors and others of persons recently dead, but others 
no doubt were living. The date is usually that of the Sunday 
on which the notice was read out. Crosses and other marks 
are added in many cases. 



Jan. 



Feb. 



March 



6 


. Alice Walmsley. 


March 28. 


Revd. Edwd. Jones 


20. 


Ellen Parr. 




Wm. Croskell. 




G. Harsnap. 




Ann Smith. 




Edmd. Bullen. 


3°' 


Marg. Standen. 




Wm. Ball. 


Apr. 7. 


Eliz. Walmsley. 


27' 


Robt. Abram. 


14. 


Wm. Ball. 


3- 


Agnes Fell. 




Dor. Roe. 




Agnes Nowell. 




J aS- I Foster 




Jane Pemberton. 




Wm. f 




Alice Harsnap. 




Richd. Clarkson. 


10. 


Ann Swarbrick. 




Wm. | 




Alexr. Worswick. 




Alice/ Morton. 




Rd. Singleton. 




Rev. Mr. Wyke. 




Revd. M. Cliffe. 


21. 


Edwd.) .. .. 
Elean.) Molmeux. 


i7- 


Thos. Watt. 






Mary Morton. 




Edwd.) „ . 
Robt. ) Parker - 




Nancy Dobson. 






T. Hardicre. 




Prud. Dickenson. 


24. 


Alice Worswick. 




Eliz. Watt. 




Robt. & Dor. Holme. 


John Smith. 


1. 


Magdalen Green. 




Alice 1„ , 
Edwd.) Gar dner. 




Ann Croskell. 






Revd. Mr. Apedale. 


28. 


John Guest. ) 
Jas. Case. , x 
John McFullin. ) 




Robt. Gillow. 






Thos. Davies. 






Eliz. Forrest. 




Edwd. Coiney. 


7- 


Marg. Kirkham. 




Barb. Roe. 


10. 


Jane Morton. 


May 5. 


Thos. Sharpies. 




Marg. Morton. 




Agnes Gillow. 




Isab. Corbishley. 




Alice Kirkham. 




Eliz. Hardicre. 




Jas. Green. 


■5- 


Jas. Cornah. 




Edmd. Gartside. 




Thos. Haddock. 1 
Eliz. Haddock. ) 


12. 


John Corless. 






Thos. Holme. 




Jane Wilkinson. 




Dor. Townson. 


24. 


Ch. Stapleton. 




Edd. Singleton. 




Mary Bailey. 

1 


19. 
Executed. 


Ann Kirkham. 



APPENDICES 






M.IY 


, li '" v ] Watcrhousc. 
J. me ) 


A ;. 


1 1. Jas. Kellam. 

13. Robert Worawick. 


June 


2. Francial 

Marg. Gate. 

Ann 




18. John Myerscough. 






Ann Downham. 






Jas. Forrest. 




Ellen Parkinson. 




25. John Taylor. 




George Rogerson. 


Sept. 


1. John [ogilby. 




Mary < lock. 




John Charnl y 




Revd. Robt Johnson. 




Jane Croft. 




9. Nicholas Smith. 




1 5. John Parkinson. 




John Swarbrick. 




Mary Ward. 




Wm. ll.ill. 




Eliz. Kaye. 




Q Smith. 




23, Robt. Gillow. 




,6 ' J" J Parker. 

Marg. J 




Christopher Jenkin- 
son. 




Wm. ) Swarbrick. 




Mary Jenkinson. 




1 Irnry 1 




Jane Latus. 




;o. Revd. Thos. Wright. 




29. Mary Standen. 




23. JohnHawthornthwaite, 




Ann Snape. 




J" mi \ Roe. 


Oct. 


6 - it;} Ball- 




Thos. J 






Thos.1 Whiteside. 
Mary ) 




Matthias Holme. 






8. Ann Taylor. 


July 


'' \Vm.) IlQ g hton - 




Jas. Myerscough. 
Mary Murphy. 




3. Thos. Melling. 




20. Eliz. Leeming. 




7. Revd. Robinson Ger- 




Jane Croft. 




rard. 




Eliz. Osbaldeston. 




Revd. Jas. Appleby 




Kliz. Croskell. 




14. IVter Yaillant. 




Ch. McCarthy revd. 




Agnes Morton. 




27. Pope Pius VI. Died 




Thos. Brotherton. 




Aug. 29. 




Thos. Martin. 




Rd. Singleton. 




21. Amy Foster. 




Mary Chichester. 




25. Mary Croft. 




Ann Parke. 




28. Thos. Walmsley. 




Ann Kirkham. 




Thos. Atkinson. 




Jane Shaw. 




Wm. Comthwaite. 




Ellen Shiers. 




Robt. Gardner. 




Peter Forrest. 




Eliz. Myerscough. 


Nov. 


3. Henry Croft. 


Aug. 


2. Jas. Snape. 




J. Sulyard. 




M >rtha Walling. 




Jas. Caton. 




Ann Eccles. 




7. Thos. Worswick. 



2 4 o ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 

Nov. 7. Revd. S. G. Boardley Dec. 3. Jas. \ Scarisbrick. 

10. Edwd. Shannon. Richd. J 

Alice Whiteside. 15. Christr."! 

Henry Pemberton. Rich. J- Poulton. 

12. Thos. Pilling. Win, 

17. Mary Mountain. Jane Ducketh. 

24. Dor. Copeland. Thos. Standen. 

Eliz. Fitzherbert. 22. Sarah Gillow. 

Dec. 1. Robt. Gillow. George Ducketh. 

Eliz. Pemberton. 29. Jane Cornah. 

8. J. B. Telliet. Agnes Bullen. 



IX 

LIST OF COMMUNICANTS, 1799 

This list in Dr. Rigby's hand has been augmented by 
him, so that some few names may not be quite so early 
as 1799. 

Jane Addison, Nancy Askew, Margaret Atkinson, Nanny Alston, 
Mary Alston, Lydia Allison, John Armstrong, Mary Armstrong, Mar- 
garet Armstrong. 

Mr. Belasyse (Ld. Fauconberg), Miss Belasyse, Jane Beetham, 
Mr. Beetham, Miss Beetham, Jos. Blount, Ellen Beetham, Jas. Black- 
burn, John Brownrigg, Henry Bell, Ruth Bell, Thos. Briscoe, Mary 
Briscoe, Polly Briscoe, Ann Briscoe, Esther Balshaw, Thos. Baines, 
Betty Baines, John Baines, Jos. Baines, Richd. Baines, Henry Baines, 
Thos. Baines, Wm. Baines, Thos. Bailes, Jas. Baines, Robt. Ball, 
Mrs. Ball, Agnes Ball, Sarah Ball, Alice Ball, Thomas Ball, Betty Ball, 
John Ball, Jane Ball, Wm. Ball, Richd. Ball, Wm. Ball, Marm. Ball, 
Sally Ball, Thos. Ball, Richd. Ball, Dor. Ball, Jas. Ball, Henry Ball, 
George Ball, Mary Ball, Dor. Ball (2), Jas. Brotherton, Alice Bleasdale, 
Nancy Brown. 

Betty Croft, Mrs. Croft, Wm. Croft, Jane Croft, Mrs. Cornah, 
Robt. Cornah, Ann Cornah, Ally Cornah, Thos. Coulston, John 
Chadwick, Robt. Croskell, Nancy Croskell, Thos. Croskell, Mrs. Carter, 
Jas. Carter, Mrs. Cooper, Betty Cooper, Jas. Cornthwaite, Ellen Corn- 
thwaite, Brian Cornthwaite, Brian Cornthwaite, jun., Agnes Corn- 



APPENDICES 341 

thwaite, Betty Comthwaite, John Carter, The I ter, Betty 1 arter, 
[ohn Caton, Mrs. Caton, 1 iron, Maria Caton, Mi I 

Henry » !» k, John Cock, Mai Mary ( | I 

I itick, Richd Crumbleholme, fa , Comthwaite, junr., 
D thy Carter, Robert Corlass, Mrs. ( Win. Corlass, Jas. 

( lorla is, Mary • lorl 

Dicconson, Anne l>i<conson, Jas. Dicconson, 
Richd Dicconson, Marj Dio inson, Alice Dunbabin, Charles Dwyer, 
Mary Dwyer, Edwd. Ducketh, Ellen Ducketh, John Ducketh, Eliz. 
Ducketh, Mary Ducketh, Betty Dobaon, Ann Dewburst, Mary Danaon 
(? Dauson), Ann Dickenson, Alice Ducketh, Ellen Dunbabin, Matty 
1 ticconaon, John Dale. 

\\"m. Etherington, Mr. Exley, Mrs. Exley, Saml. Exley, Win. 
Eamshaw, Mary Earnshaw, Ch. Eidsforth, Mrs. Eidsforth. 

Henry Finch, Peggy Vo\. Ellen Fox, Alice Fox, Ann Fox, Thos. 
Foster, \\'m. Forrest, Betty Fox, Dor. Fox. 

Mr. Gillow, Miss Gillow, Robt. Gillow, Mrs. Gillow, Agnes Gillow, 
Alice Gillow, John Goss, Wm. Gomel, Ann Gomel, Ann Green, 
Ann Grim, junr., Richd. Green, Thos. Green, Betty Green, Wm. 
Gardner, Ann Gardner, John Gardner, Dor. Gardner, Alice Gardner, 
Thos. Gardner, Win. Gardner, junr., Ann Gardner, junr., Ann Gillet, 
Thos. Graystone. 

— Harling, Ellen Harling, Robt. Hardicre, Betty Hardicre, Betty 
Ilardicre, jun., Ann Hardicre, Mary Holme, Mary Huddlestone, Mary 
Huddlestone (Caton), Peggy Harrison, John Harrison, Ann Harrison, 
Nancy Hatton, Thos. Hornby, Ann Hornby, Ellen Hardman, Edwd. 
Houland, Thos. Harrison. 

Juliana Immison. 

Mrs. Jones, Miss Jones, Constantia Jones, Edwd. Jones, James 
Jones, Catharine Jones, Mary Jackson. 

C. Kirkham (deaf), Henry Kirkham, Alice Kirkham, George Kirk- 
ham, Cath. Kirkham, John Kaye, Ann Kvllam, Fdwd. Kilshaw, 
Fdwd. Kimmis, Peggy Kimmis, Barnaby Kelly. 

Q 



242 ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 

Margaret Lupton, Ann Lynass, Wm. Lupton, Fanny Lupton 
Charles Lupton, Jane Lupton, Sarah Lupton, Thos. Leeming, Cath. 
Leeming, Robt. Leeming, Marg. Leeming, Jas. Leeming, John Item- 
ing, Dor. Lawrenson, Mary Lawrenson, Thos. Layfield, Marg. Lee 
(Westby's). 

Thos. Melling, Mrs. Melling, A. Morton, Ann Morton, Richd. 
Morton, Thos. Morton, Jas. Morton, Wm. Morton, John Mattersby, 
Eliz. Mattersby, Simon Myerscough, Jas. Myerscough, Ellen Myer- 
scough, Thos. Myerscough, Richd. Myerscough, Jas. Myerscough, junr., 
Betty Myerscough, John Myerscough, Jos. Myerscough, junr., Mary 
Myerscough, Simon Myerscough, junr., Wm. Myerscough, Jas. Mawley, 
Jos. Mountain, Mary Mountain, Francis Mountain, Jane Mally, Ellen 
Mally, Arthur McDonald, Rachel McDonald, Mrs. Marshall, Ann 
McKay, Ellen Makerell, Jas. McNamara, Betty McNamara, Mary 
Machel. 

John Noble, Thos. Noble, Miss Noble, Fanny Nichol, Christ. 
Nicholson. 

Jos. Oldcorn, Ann Oldcorn, Bella Oldcorn, Ann Oldcorn, Judith 
Oldcorn, Wm. Oldcorn, Thos. Oldcorn, John Oldcorn. 

Jas. Parke, Betty Parke, Betty Parke, junr., John Parke, Henry 
Parke, Mary Parr, Edwd. Pemberton, Jane Pemberton, Richd. 
Pemberton, Jas. Pemberton, Ellen Pemberton, — Pemberton, 
Andrew Pemberton, Jas. Pool, Mrs. Pool, Richard Poulton, Ann 
Poulton, Ellen Poulton. 

John Rowlandson, Cath. Rowlandson, Mary Ripley, Jane Rimmer, 
Edwd. Richardson, Mary Richardson, John Robinson, Captain 
Rogerson, Jas. Rigby, Thos. Rimmer (Coulston's), Wm. Rogerson. 

— Smethies, Betty Shiers, Jas. Standen, Thos. Standen, Susan 
Standen, Richd. Standen, Sarah Standen, Mary Standen (crossed 
out — "dead"), Robert Sumner, Richd. Snape, Cath. Southworth, 
Thos. Sharpies, Jas. Sharpies, John Sharpies, Grace Swarbrick, Isab. 
Swarbrick, Wm. Swarbrick, Betty Shannon, Henry Slater, Ann Slater, 
John Slater, Mary Slater, Dor. Singleton, Richd. Singleton, George 
Sitgreaves, Mrs. Shaccleton (?), Cecily Swarbrick, John Swarbrick, 
Betty Simpson, Ellen Sharplass, Jas. Snape, Henry Slater, junr., 
Nancy Shannon, John Snape, Thos. Snape, George Salvage. 



APPENDH ES 243 

Robt. Townson, Kin. Townjon, Jane fawn on, Ellen Townson, 
Alice Townson, Peggy Townson, John Tomlinson, Mary Tomlinson, 
John Tomlinson, Ann Tomlinson, Ellen Tomlinion, Mary Tomlin- 
sort, Mary Tomlinson, John Tow. is, Betty Towers, I. is. Taylor, Mrs. 
it, Mary ["hornton, Betty Taylor, Marj Thornton, Robt. Threlfall, 
U m. Turner, Geo. Thompson, Jane Thompson. 

Thus. Verity, Mrs. Verity, Mud""' Valliant 

Mr. Worswick, Mrs. Worswick, Robt. Worswick, Mrs. Rt. Worswick, 
Alexr. Worswick, Mrs. Alexr. Worswick, Miss Worswick, Richd. 
Worswick, Mary W 'crswick, Mary Worswick, Robt. Westby (erased), 
W'm. Waterhouse, Betty Waterhouse, Henry Whiteside, Edward White- 
side, Win. Whiteside, Cath. Whiteside, John Wilson, Mary Wilson, 
-e Wilson, Polly Wainhousc, Betsy Wainhouse, Henry Wells, 
Ann Wells, Ann Wells, Mrs. Winder, Mary Winder, — Winder, 
John Walmsley, Miss Walmsley, Marian Walmsley, Jos. Walmsley, 
Robt. Wells, J as. Wilkinson, John Wilkinson, Betty Wilkinson, Susan 
Wilkinson, Win. Walker. Mary Walker, Henry Walker, Betty Walker, 
Ellen Wilding, Ellen Wilson, John Worswick, John Weaver, Bella 
Worswick. 



LIST OF COMMUNICANTS, 1845 

Anthony Abbott, Bulk ; John Ainsworth, Queen Sq. ; Eli/. 
Anderson, Green Area ; Eliz. Anderton, Dolphinlee ; Wm. Aspinal, 
Sulyard Str. ; Winefride Atkinson, Leonardgate ; Jane Atkinson, 
Skerton. 

Richard Ball, Queen Sq. ; W T m. Ball, Thos. Ball, Richard Ball, 
Robert Ball, Margaret Ball, Elizabeth Ball, Jane Ball, all of Heaton ; 
Jane Baines, Brewery yard; Edmund Baines; Wm. Baines, Storr 
Bank, Wyresdale ; Richd. Baines, Common Garden Str. ; Thomas 
Baines ; Anne Baines ; Jane Baines, Green Area ; Eliz. Baines, 
Church Str. ; Mary Barrow, Quay ; Martha Bayles, Church Str. ; 
Thos. Bamber, Cheapside; Alice Bamber, Spring Garden Str. ; Margl. 
Billington, Well House ; Eliz. Billington, Skerton ; Eliz. Bleasdale, 
Skerton : John Bolland, Betsy Bolland, Fanny Bolland, all of Stodday ; 
Peter Bradley, Dorothy Bradley, Edward Bradley, Helen Bradley, 
Dorothy Bradley, jr., all of Heaton ; Jane Bradley, New Street ; Eliz 



244 ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 

Bradley, Castle Park ; Alice Bradley, Carr House; Hesther Bracken, 
Sun Str. ; Alice Bradshaw, Church Str. ; James Bretherton, Quarry- 
Cottage ; Margaret Bretherton ; Mary Bretherton ; Edward Briscoe, 
Dispensary ; Margt. Briscoe ; Anne Briscoe, King Str. ; Richard 
Gregory Brown, Church Str. ; Jane Brown ; Jane Brown, Well House ; 
Isabella Brown, Leonardgate ; Isabella Brown, jr. ; Isabella Butler, 
Dolphinlee; Jos. Bushell, Dolphinlee. 

Jane Carter, Mary Str. ; Thos. Carter, jr., Moor Str. ; Alice Carter ; 
Anne Carmichael, Workhouse ; Wm. Chorley, Heysham ; John Chorley, 
Well House; Wm. Chorley, Golgotha; Betty Chorley ; Margt. Clemin- 
son, Plum Ct. ; Eliz. Cleminson, Swan Ct. ; Thos. Cornforth, Bridget 
Str. ; Margt. Cornforth ; John Jas. Cornforth ; Wm. Cornthwaite, 
Queen Str. ; Eliz. Cornthwaite ; Wm. Cornthwaite, jr. ; Thomas 
Cornthwaite ; Jane Cornthwaite ; Mary Cornthwaite ; Robert Corn- 
thwaite, Anne Str. ; Anne Cornthwaite ; Mary Cornthwaite, Sun Str. ; 
Hester Cornthwaite ; Anne Corbishley, Ualton Sq. ; Eleanor Connolly, 
New Str. ; Thomas Connolly, Market Str. ; John Cottam. Quay; Mary 
Cottam ; Thomas Coulston, Well House; Anne Coulston: Thos. 
Coulston, jr. ; Gabriel Coulston, John Str. ; Anne Coulston ; Mary 
Coulston ; Anne Coulston, jr. ; George Coulston ; John Coulston, 
Bowerem ; Margt. Coulston ; Alice Coulston ; Margt. Coulston, jr. ; 
Elizabeth Coulston ; Joseph Coulston ; Jonathan Coulston, Nicholas 
Str. ; Jonathan Coulston, jr., King Str. ; Eliz. Coulston, Nicholas Str. ; 
Eliz. Coulston, jr. ; Jane Coulston ; James Coupe, Rosemary Lane ; 
Charles Coupe ; — Croft, Castle Hill; John Croft, Eliz. Croft, Helen 
Croft, all of Bulk ; Laurence Crook, Bank Hall, Heysham ; Wm. Crook, 
jr., Ann Crook, Helen Crook, Anne Crook, jr., Bridget Crook, all of 
Heysham ; Edward Crook, Penny Str. ; Gabriel Croskell, Sulyard Str. ; 
Margaret Croskell ; Joseph Cross, Common Garden Str. ; Henry Crowe, 
Cable Str. ; Harriet Crowe. 

Robert Davis, Skerton ; Catherine Davis, Skerton ; Helen Davis, 
Castle Park ; Denise Deaudesville, Castle Hill ; Henry Dickinson, 
Dolphinlee ; Jos. Dickinson, Dolphinlee ; Helen Dickinson, Bridge 
Lane ; Joseph Dickinson ; Thomas Dickinson ; Michael Dornin, 
Damside Str. ; Thomas Driver, Bulk Str. ; Margt. Driver ; Anne Duck, 
Castle Park. 

Jane Eastwood, Skerton. 

Mary Fagan, Skerton ; Anne Farmer, Common Garden Str. ; John 
Fenning, Leonardgate ; Frances Fell, Queen Str. ; Edward Forshaw, 
Moor ; Anne Forshaw. 



APPENDIC1 S 245 

Joseph Gaily, Brewery Yard ; Mary Gaily; Jaa. Gardner, 
Thus. Gardner j Fraa. Gardner ; AnneGardnei ; Robert Gardner, Mile 
stone Cottage; Thoa, ( ". .ir. ln< i , Jane Gardner j Edward Gardner, W< U 
Him: I Gardner I ' Iner, Quay; Eliz. Gardner ; John 

Gardner, Parliament Str. ; H len Gardner, Parliament Str. ; William 
Gardner, White Lund; Robert Gardner; Richard Gardner; Anne 

■ 1 1 tton ; John Garth, I dispensary . 1 1 
Garth; William Gennings, Henry Sti ; Mary Gibson, Church Str.; 
Agnes Gibson, Bulk Str.; Isabella Gillow, King Str.; Anne Gillon ; 
( rreenwood, Mooi I one : l lliz. * rreenwood, jr., < lhapel Str. 

Matt Hardman, Nicholas Str. ; Helen Hardman ; Nancy Harrison, 
Bowerem; Matthew Hirst, Quay; Anne Hirst, Church Str.; Eliz. 
Hirst, China Lan< H I t Hirst: Michael Hockey, Church Str.; 
\\'m. Hethington, Halton; Edwd. Hodgskinson, Quay; Wm. Hodgs- 
kinson, Scotforth ; Sarah Hodgskinson; Thos. Hodgskinson; John 
Hodgskinson; Mary Agnes Hodgskinson, Parliament str.; Jane 
HolliwelL Brewery Yard; Mary Horman; Thos. Hollinhurst, Hulk; 
Thos. Hollinhurst, jr. ; Margt Hollinhurst; Margt Holden, Leonard- 
. Mary Hoi. !'ii : Frances Holden ; Jane Holden ; Margt. Hornby, 
King Str. ; Helen Hunter, Henry Str. ; John Hunter. 

Thomas Jackson, Bulk; John Jarkson ; Mary Jackson, Sulyard 
Str.; Charles Jackson, Cable Str.; Mary Jackson; Mary Jackson; 
Wm. Jennings, Henry Str. ; Anne Johnson, Green Area. 

Richard Kay, I.eonardgate ; Mary Kay; Catherine Kelly, Spring 
Garden Str. ; Patrick Kelly : James Keily, Gage Str. ; Bridget Keily ; 
K.-llet, Queen Sq. ; Wm. Kirkham, Chapel Str. ; Anne Kirk- 
ham ; Eliz. Kirkham ; Thomas Knowles, Lconardgate ; Mary Knowles. 

James Lamb, Mary Str. ; Jane Lamb ; Bridget Lamb, China 
Lane; Mary Lancaster, Skerton ; John Layfield, Golgotha; Sarah 
Leeming, Queen Square ; Jane Leeming, Spring Garden Str. ; Eliz. 

ling ; Mary Leeming ; John Leeming, Ridge ; Thomas Leeming ; 
John Leeming, jr. ; Robert Leeming ; Wm. Leeming ; Jane Leeming ; 
Eliz. Leeming; Margaret Leeming, Queen Sq. ; Richard Leeming; 
Wm. Leeming ; Catherine Leeming ; Margery Leeming ; Anne Lcem- 

Brock Str.; Eliz. Loyndes, Bulk Str.; Susan Loyndes ; Helen 
Loyndes ; Mary Loyndes; Eliz. Loyndes, jr. 

John McGuire, Workhouse; Eliz. Macharel, Parliament Str.; 
Henry McLarnen, Asylum; Alice McLirncn, Castle Park; Patrick 



246 ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 

McAuley, China Lane ; Rose McAuley ; Eliz. McDonald, Moor Lane ; 
Joseph Mitchell, Bulk ; Mary Maid, Bridge Lane ; Anne Moore, 
Halton ; Margt. Morand, Brewery Yard ; Hugh Murray, Leonardgate ; 
Anne Murray ; Wm. Myerscough, boatman on canal ; Sarah Mawdes- 
ley, King Str. 

Pat. Naughten, Penny Str. ; Anne Naughten ; Stephen Nelson, 
Golgotha ; John Nelson ; Thos. Nixon, Monmouth Str. ; Agnes 
Nixon; George Nixon; Cuthbert Nixon; Richard Nixon; Robert 
Nixon ; Margaret Nugent, Spring Garden Str. ; Bridget Nugent. 

Francis O'Byrne, Castle Park ; Mary Agnes O'Byrne, Castle Park ; 
Anne Oldcorne, Skerton ; Elizabeth Ord, Green Area. 

John Park, Bulk ; Anne Park ; Thos. Park, James Str. ; Thos. 
Parkinson, Bulk ; Grace Parkinson ; George Parkinson ; Jane Parkin- 
son ; Thomas Parkinson, Cable Str. ; John Parkinson, Common 
Garden Str. ; Hannah Parkinson ; John Parkinson, jr. ; Jeremiah 
Parkinson, Asylum ; Frederick Paul, Bridget Str. ; Mary Paul ; Wm. 
Pennington, Barrowgreaves, Ellel ; Margt. Pennington ; Alice Pen- 
nington ; Jane Pennington ," James Pennington ; Lawrence Pennington, 
Hest Bank ; Mary Pilling, Castle Hill ; Thomas Preston, Cable Str. ; 
Richard Preston. 

Bridget Quigley, Church Str. 

Alice Redhead, Halton ; Richd. Redshaw, Skerton ; Anne Red- 
shaw, Skerton ; Peter Ribchester. Quernmore ; James Ribchester, 
Quemmore ; James Ribchester, Newlands ; George Ribchester, Bulk ; 
Mary Ripley, Skerton ; Mary Ripley, Hillside ; Frances Rose, Cable 
Str. ; Mary Robinson, Queen Sq. ; Eliz. Robinson, Thurnham Str. ; 
Richd. Robinson, Bulk Str. ; Anne Rogerson, Stonewell ; Mary Roger- 
son, Dyehouse Lane. 

George Sergeant, Bathhouses ; Sarah Sergeant ; Dorothy Sergeant ; 
Alice Sergeant ; Julia Sergeant ; Sarah Sergeant, jr. ; Mary Sharpies, 
Tames Str. ; James Shaw, Penny Str. ; Mary Shaw ; Henry Shaw ; 
Maria Shepherd, Market Str. ; Eliz. Shepherd ; Helen Shrigley, Sun 
Str. ; Edward Singleton, Carr House farm ; Alice Singleton ; James 
Seed, Heaton ; Joseph Seed ; Henry Seed ; Thomas Seed ; Helen 
Seed ; Anne Seed ; Helen Seed, jr. ; Anne Helen Seed, White Lund ; 
Jas. Seed, jr., Nicholas Str. ; Margaret Seed, Capemwray ; Joseph 






APPENDII ES 

Simpson, Stonewell impaon; James Smithies, Golgotha ; Anne 

Smithies; fane Smithies, Mooi I mi Thomas Smithies; Mary 
Markel s tr .; Alice Smith; Nicholas Smith, James sir., 
Eli*. Smith, Common Garden Str. ; Eliz. Smil Garden Str. ; 

Ann.- Smith, Spring Garden Str.; Mary Smith; Winefride Smith; 
li Smith I Smith; Ralph Smith, Skerton; Dorothy 

Smith. Eli*. Speddy, Moor Lane; Eliz. Stephenson, Bulk Str.; 'I'hos. 
Stan . I rch Str.; Agnes Standen; Thos. Parkin Standen; J 
! snor Standen; Richd. Swarbrick, Golgotha ; Jai 
Elizabeth Swires, Cable Sir. ; Hannah Sv 

Mary Taylor, Spring Court; Jane Taylor; Eliz. Taylor; James 

Thistleton, Skerton; \\ m. Tomlinson, Brewery Yard; Wm. Tomlin- 

Anne Tomlinson ; Robert Thompson, Common Garden Str. ; 

Mary Thompson; George Thompson, Workhouse; Neile Trainor, 

t ina Lane; John Turner, Longsettle, Kendal. 

Robert Varey, Moor I.ane; Mary Varey ; James Varey; Henry 
Verity, Penny Str.; Margaret Verity. 

James \\ '.ulsworth, Hulk : Mary Wadsworlh J Edward Wainhouse, 
King Str.; George Wainhouse; Helen Wainhouse, King Str.; Eliz. 
Wainhouse, Brid| Lane; Gregory Walker, Castle Park; Eliz. 
Walker, Caton ; Anne Walton, Spring Garden Str. ; Sarah Walmesley, 
Eorton ; Barbara Walmesley, Common Garden Str. ; Helen Walmesley, 
Brock Str. ; Sarah Walmesley ; John Walmesley, Common Garden 
Agnes Walmesley, Dalton Sq. ; Matthew Waterhouse, Quay; 
Mary Waterhouse; Cath. Waterhouse; Agnes Waterhouse; Agnes 
Waterhouse, jr. ; Thomas Waterhouse, Bulk Str. ; Anne Waterhouse ; 
John Weardon, Leonardgate; Barbara Weardon; Richard Wells, 
Wood Str. ; Anne Wells'; Helen Wells ; Eliz. Wells ; John Wells, 
Heaton; Mary Wells, Heaton; Jane White, Stonewell; Wm. White- 
head, New Street ; John Whitehead ; James Whiteside, Stonewell ; 
lohn Whiteside, Anne Street ; Barbara Whiteside ; Thos. Whiteside ; 
Richd. Whiteside; Robt. Whiteside; Helen Whiteside, Bridget Str.; 
Eliz. Whiteside, Dalton Sq. : Sarah Whiteside, Skerton ; Eliz. White- 

. Market Str.; Mary Whiteside, Cheapside ; Richard Wilden, 
ham; Barbara Wilden, Heysham ; John Wilkinson, Asylum; 
Anne Wilkinson ; Barbara Wilkinson, Caton ; George Wilcock, Moor 
Lane; Bella Wilcock; Jonathan Wilson, Church Str. ; Anne Wilson; 
James Wilson ; Hester Wilson ; Helen Wilson ; Lucy Wilson ; Robert 
Wilson, Gage Str. ; Anne Wilson ; Joseph Wilson ; Helen Wilson ; 
Thomas Wilson, Bulk Str. ; Mary Wilson ; Eliz. Wilson ; Anne 



2 4 8 ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 

Wilson, Queen Str. ; Mary Wilson, Bolton ; Anne Woodhousc, New 
Str. ; Helen Woodhouse. 

James Yates, Moor Str. ; Jane Yates. 

The following are added : — 

Thos. Bolland, Anne Str. ; Martha Cornthwaite, Chapel Str. ; 
Matthew Derome, Skerton ; Mary Meade, Bridge Lane ; Eliz. Pilling, 
Castle Hill ; Alice Pilling ; Thomas Slater, Leonardgate ; Patrick 
Smith, Spring Garden Str. ; Wm. Walmsley, Dalton Sq. ; Thos. 
Waterhouse, jr., Quay. 



XI 

SUBSCRIBERS TO THE BUILDING OF ST. PETER'S 
CHURCH, 1855-61 

The following list is drawn up from two made by Dean 
Brown ; there were additional sums given, of which the 
record has been mislaid — for example, the gift for the spire 
is not recorded. There were anonymous gifts to the amount 
of £8, igs.jd. ; the school children gave or collected £6, 17s. 
(id.; other collectors obtained £12, is. 3d.; and the sales of 
old things yielded £12. The total amount is about £i3.4 00 - 

Mrs. Lucy Abbott, .£27, 10s. ; Lucy Abbott, her daughter, £6, 10s. 

Thomas Baines, butcher, ^20; Anne Baines, £1 ; Margaret 
A. Baines, £1 ; Thomas Baines, Bigforth, .£5 ; Baines and Oldham, 
Morecambe, .£10 ; T- Baines, tailor, 10s. ; Mrs. Margaret Ball, Heaton, 
and family, ^30 ; John Ball, Penny Street, ^5 ; Mrs. Blackburne, 
Ulverston; 10s. ; Agnes Bolland, £1 ; William Boulton, Caton, £1 ; 
Jane Bradley, £2 ; Margaret Briscoe, £$ ; Helen Brown, Preston, 
deceased, ^50; Margaret Brown, .£10; George Barns, 15s.; John 
Byrne, Liverpool, ^10; Rev. Richard Brown paid various sums for 
extras and improvements, £91, 10s. 

Patrick Carney, 10s. ; Mrs. Carroll, 10s. ; Hugh Charnock, £2; 
Henry Clarkson, Bolton, £5 ; John Clarkson, Broughton, £1 ; Miss 



APPENDICES 349 

Connolly, £t; A. I. in.- Cornthwaite, ;s.j Esther Cornthwaite, . 

nthwaite, £2; Thomu Coulston, deceased, ;£aooo ; Mary 

1 50OJ Annr ( 'uulslon, / 5< 5 I CouUtOD, 

; Monica Coulston, ^£1 00; Mar) tl lulston, ^155 ; Elizabeth 
Coulston, £isSi Joseph Coulston, ^550; Rev. Gabriel Coulston, 
^50; Mi Well House, j£qo; Rev. John Coulston, ,£20 ; 

■ 1 ulston, Bowram, £$0 j Mrs. Gabriel Coul ton (for 
the altar), ,/ .;oo ; Betty Coulston, 5s. ; Bdward Crook, Heysham, ^to ; 
Lawrence Crook, Heysham, £i ; V . k v. 1'rovost Croskell, £5. 

Miss i H abeth lult<>n, .£1050; Matthew Derome, £2; Arthur 
and William Dewhurst, Hazlerigg, ^10 ; John Dewhurst, J\\a \ Joseph 
Dickinson £y, Thomas Dickinson, plumber, £24; Mary Doolan, 
5s. ; Mary Drinkall, £i. 

Ellen Etherington, Eccleston, 10s. ; Robert Etherington, £3. 

Robert Farmer, £a, 4s. ; Thomas Fitzherbert-Brockholcs (for an 
cast window in chancel), ,£175, 12s. 

Mary and Lewis (".ally, £y iSs. 3d.; Jackson Gardner, ,£10; 
William Gardner, White Lund, £io\ Sarah Gardner, £1 • John 
Gardner, £$', Rev. Henry Gibson, £1 ; James Gibson, £$; Mi^s 
Sarah Gillow, Clifton Hill (for an east window), .£170, 10s. ; Richard 
Ciillow, Leighton Hall, .£10; Rev. Henry Gradwell, .£10; Rev. 
Robert Gradwell, .£10; Edward Green, 5s.; Thomas Green, Bulk, 

£*s- 

Matthew Hardman, jfioo ; Rev. \\illiam Henderson, ^5 ; Michael 
H<nry, ,£15: John Hewitt, jC.io; Anne Hey, 12s.; Sergt. -Major 
Hook, £1 ; Thomas Hughes, a mason at the church, £1. 

Elizabeth Jackson, Freehold, 5s. ; Margaret Jackson and mother, 
10s. ; Thomas Jackson, 10s. ; 11. K. James, Manchester, £3, 3s.; 
Elizabeth jenkinson, £1 15 ; Mrs. Johnson, 5s. 

Mary Kay, £1 ; Nicholas Kearns, £\ ; Henry Knowles, ,£5. 

James Lamb, £5; John Lamb, 10s. ; William Lamb, 10s. ; 
Thomas I 5s.; Richard Leeming, ^600; William Leeming, 

^650; Richard and William Leeming, ^20 ; Mrs. William Leeming, 
£1:.; Cal '' ■ rine Leeming, ^50 ; Margery Leeming, ^73 ; Elizabeth 
Leeming, Ridge, £3, 10s. ; John Leeming, Ridge, £zo\ Thomas 



2 5 o ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 

Leeming, Bulk, £$ ; Mary Seas. Leeming, ios. ; Mrs. Jane Leeming, 
5s. ; Mary F. Leeming, 10s. ; Jane F. Leeming, 5s.; Helen Loyndes, 
10s. ; Helen (Wells) Lynch, 10s. 

Agnes MacGregor, £1 ; Henry MacKeon, 10s. ; Henry Mercer, 
10s. ; Mary Millar, Hornby, jQi. 

Cuthbert Nixon, jQ 1 ; George and Mary Nixon, jQ\, 10s. ; Thomas 
Nixon, jQi, os. 6d. ; Richard Nixon, £1 ; William Nixon, 5s. 

Fanny Onion, Mount Vernon, j£io. 

Jeremiah Parkinson, ^50; Mrs. Helen Parkinson, jQi ; Robert 
Pedder, Halton, £5 ; Thomas Pennington, £4 ; William Penning- 
ton, ^29; Thomas Preston, ^200; Richard Preston, ^200; Mrs. 
Thomas Preston and children, ^50. 

John Ripley, jQi ; Christy Robinson, £1. 

Laurenz Schmitz, £3 ; Anne Helen Seed, White Lund, £1 ; 
Dorothy Sergeant, ]£\ ; George Sergeant, £1 ; George Sergeant, 
junr., £1 ; Julia Sergeant, £1 ; Margaret Sergeant, 10s. ; Sarah 
Sergeant, £1 ; Mrs. Shuttleworth, 10s. ; Esau Slater, 5s.; Jacob 
Slater, 5s. ; John Slater, £1 ; Thomas Slater, 5s. ; Joseph Smith, 
;£8o ; Edward Smith, ^70 ; Misses Smith, Queen Square, £50 ; 
William Smith, £1 ; Lizzy Smith, £1 ; John Standen, £2 ; S. N. 
Stokes, £2 ; Elizabeth Swainbank, ^'5 ; John Swarbrick, 10s. ; 
Richard Swarbrick, ^5 ; Mrs. Alice Swarbrick, ^£5. 

Helen Talbot, £2, ios. ; Jane Taylor, £2 ; John Tomlinson, ^6 ; 
Mrs. Troughtcn, £2 ; Rev. Robert Turpin, £$. 

Miss Isabel Valentine, £2; Henry Verity, ^70; Thomas Verity, £2. 

James Wadsworth, jQio ; Miss Barbara Walmslcy, Well House, 
.£10; Mary (Smith) Walmsley, £$; Mary (Taylor) Walmesley, ios. : 
Thomas Weld-Blundell, ^5; Henry Wells, .£15; Mary Whitehead, 
5s.; John Whiteside, deceased, ^2000; James Whiteside, ^1200; 
James Whiteside, by will, ^1000; Ellen Whiteside, Brock Street, 
_£i3 ; Henry Whiteside (son of Edward), £1 ; Thomas Whiteside, 
£1, is. ; Phoebe Whittle, £4 ; Richard Wilding, ios. ; Helen Wilson, 
Gage Street, £1 ; Anne Wilson, St. I^eonardgate, £2, ios. 



APPENDICES 



25' 



XII 



II NDERS FOR HUH. DING THE CHURCH 



>iry — 



Church I" G tin spire 

Spire 
I .ady Chapel 
Chantries 
I'resbylery . 



Join. 



Church to G >n spur 

Spire 
I .ady Chapel 
Chantries 
Presbytery . 



Dnekett 

£ 

1290 
380 

Xoo 

150 

K. Wilson 

1&4 

37 
19 

21 

450 

^2211 



Slating ami Plastering — 



Church 
I .ady Chapel 
Chantries 
Presbytery . 



Plumbing and Glazing- 



Cross 

£ 

364 
16 

16 

»34 
;£53° 



ll.inison 

2030 
440 

■ 

Tairclough & Son 

£ '■ d. 
1605 o o 

1900 

.'.; IO o 

47 1 4 4 

^2119 14 4 



Walker 

£ 

449 

'7 

7 

114 

/587 



Cooper & Tullis 

, £ •■ 

o 
2020 o 

763 10 

o 

7 ; p. 

,£'°.7i5 o 
C. nia.les 

£ '■ d. 
1604 ia 3 



1800 

24 11 i. 

475^f_ 6 
6 9 



Church. &c, to G 
Lady Chapel . 
Chantries 
Presbytery 



Iiickinson 

£ '• 
40s 

15 

u 

'75 



4 




o 



Walmsley 

£ '■ 

34 s 15 
17 15 
21 S 

153 15 



1 lows n 

£ '■ 
358 o 

24 "O 

'3 3 

162 o 



Seward 

£ '■ 

426 o 

30 10 

36 o 

21? O 



Willan & Co. 

4 '• 

496 o 

26 15 

16 10 
'95 o 



//,i2 4 538 10 557 13 707 10 734 5 



Painting, Staining, and Varnishing — 

Shrigley Barrow & Co. 

£ >■ £ '■ 

Church . . . 76 17 55 10 

Lady Chapel . — — 

Presbytery . . II 10 



Walmsley 

£ «■ 
75 o 

• '5 
15 o 



Richmond 

£ '. 
130 9 



£76 <7 



£h7 



£91 '5 £>$° 9 



252 ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 

XIII 

THE CHANTRIES 

At the High Altar are said twelve masses yearly for the 
family of Gabriel Coulston. The names are : Gabriel 
Coulston, who died December 12, 1854; Anne, his wife 
(formerly Rogerson), d. ; their sons, John, 

d. Oct. 9, 1853 ; George, d. March 6, 1875 '< Henry, d. about 
1864; (Rev. Dr.) Gabriel, living; and daughters, Mary, d. 
Feb. 19, 1855; Anne, d. May 6, 1859; Monica, d. April 26, 
1857; Dorothy, d. Sept. 1, 1856; Teresa, wife of Charles 
Goldie, living. Also the parents of Mrs. Gabriel Coulston, 
viz. George Rogerson, d. Sept. 23, 1847, and Anne his wife, 
d. Oct. 27, 1833. Also her brother John Rogerson (d. March, 
1848), and his wife Louisa. Also her sister Dorothy Rogerson, 
d. Aug. 29, 1847. 

In the Lady Chapel are said twelve masses for the 
foundress and her sisters, as recorded on the tablet in the 
chapel. 

In the Whiteside Chapel are said forty masses for the 
brothers John and James Whiteside and their kin. John 
Whiteside, d. August 1, 1856; James, d. Jan. 13, 1861 ; their 
father, William, d. Dec. 31, 1824; their mother, Catherine, 
d. March 24, 1825 ; their brothers, Richard and William, 
d. Sept. 1, 1815, and Sept. 16, 1818, respectively; and Anne, 
the widow of John, d. Oct. 30, 1867. 

In the Coulston Chapel are said twelve masses for Thomas 
Coulston of Well House and his family, viz. Thomas Coulston, 
who died Feb. 14, 1856 ; his father, Thomas, d. May 21, 1848, 
aged 76; his mother, Elizabeth, d. March 29, 1824, aged 51 ; 
his stepmother, Anne, d. May 16, 1859, aged 84 ; his brother 
John, d. Aug. 20, 1821, aged 20; his sisters, Mary and 
Jane, d. Aug. 21, 1814, and July 21, 1825, aged 18 and 26 
respectively. 

Miss Margaret Coulston's masses, ten in number, are said 
at St. Charles's Altar or the High Altar for John Coulston 
the elder, who d. Sept. 10, 1855, his wife, Margaret, d. Feb. 2, 
1864; Henry, d. July 2_), 1833; Joseph, d. April 29, 1865; 



APP1 NDH ! S 253 

(Rev.) John, d. |unc 4, 1889; Alice, d. Feb. 16, 1853; Mary 
(mother Mary Francis), d. April 15, 1873; Jane, d. April 17, 
1X4;; Elisabeth, d. Sept. ai, [893; and Margaret, the bene- 
! . d. Api il 13, [909. 

Two maj u - .1 yeai are s.iid for the late Provost Walker. 

Four masses are said, in the Ember weeks, for those buried 
in St. Peter's churchyard. They were founded by the Rev. 
T. Abbot, who died Feb. 18, 1004. 

Eighl masses arc said also for Mrs. Margaret Leeming 
(formerly Whiteside), who died Dec. 13, [873. 

The ancient obligations include four masses for Jolm 
Dalton, three for Francis date and his wives, one for the 
Croskell family, five, six, or seven for Edward Bullen and 
Agnes his wife, two for Anne and William Hoghton, one for 
op Petre, one for Josepli Broekholes, and one for all 
benefactors. 

Francis Fitzherbert-Brockholes of Claughton i- recom- 
mended to the prayers of the faithful each June. 



XIV 

A CALENDAR 

January 2. Rev. Thomas Croskell d. 1901. 

3. Right Rev. Janus Taylor d. 1908. 

6. Organ opened, 18S9. 

13. James Whiteside d. 1861. 

„ I St. Peter's Chair at Rome. 

' J Rev. James Parkinson d. 1883. 

20. The bells first rung, 1880. 

24. Edward Smith d. 1864. 

I Right Rev. George Brown, D.D., 1st Bishop of Liver- 

25. -J pool, d. 1856. 

( Alice (Gillow) Worswick d. 1802. 

26. Edward Bullen d. 1692. 



February - \ Af;nes Bulle " d ' l694- 

3 I Margaret, wife of John Coulston, d. 1S64. 

9. Rt. Rev. Richard Preston, D.D., Bp. of Phoccea, d. 



1905. 
Margaret Ball d. 1858. 



254 ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 

February 12. Rev. John Gardner d. 1903. 

14. Thomas Coulston of Well House d. 1856. 

16. Alice Coulston d. 1853. 

18. Rev. Thomas Abbot d. 1904. 

19. Mary Coulston (daughter of Gabriel) d. 1855. 
22. St. Peter's Chair at Antioch. 

28. Charlotte Dalton d. 1802. 



{ 



vt v. /; i Joachim Andrade d. 181 7. 

'" I George Coulston (son of Gabriel) d. 1875. 
Rev. Henry Gibson d. 1907. 
Winefrid (Smith) Preston d. 1905. 
John Paslew, abbot of Whalley, executed 1536-7. 
10 '"i John Dalton d. 1837. 
15. Elizabeth Dalton d. 1861. 
17. Constantia Jones d. 1870. 
„ ( Ven. John Thewlis, priest, 16 15-6. 
' I Ven. Roger Wrennall 16 15-6. 
19. Rev. Joseph Preston d. 1889. 
24. Catherine, wife of William Whiteside d. 1825. 
29. Elizabeth, wife of Thomas Coulston the elder d. 1824. 



f Yen. Thurstan Hunt, priest, 1601. 



en. Robert Middleton, priest, S.J., 1601. 
John Rogerson d. — March 1848. 

April 4. Thomas Preston d. 1894. 

( Rt. Rev. Bernard O'Reilly, D.D., 3rd Bp. of Liverpool, 
9. d. 1894. 

( Sacred Heart Altar consecrated, 1S90. 
13. Margaret Coulston d. 1909. 
17. Jane Coulston d. 1S43. 

( Ven. James Bell, priest, 1584. 
" ) Ven. John Finch, 1584. 
\ Rev. Edward Hawarden, D.D., d. 1735. 
23 ' } Rev. William Massey d. 1889. 
25. Mary Coulston (Mother Mary Francis) d. 1873. 
, J Monica Coulston (daughter of Gabriel) d. 1857. 
' I Joseph Smith d. 1S89. 
( Foundation-stone of St. Peter's blessed, 1857. 
"' ) Joseph Coulston d. 1865. 

May 2. Rev. Richard Gardner d. 1885. 

4. Jeremiah Parkinson d. 1880. 

5. Rev. James Tyrer d. 1784. 

6. Anne Coulston d. 1859. 






APPEND!* l 5 



255 



M.r, 16. 
19. 
20. 
2 1. 
*3- 



June 



3- 

•i- 

7- 
10. 
16. 

'T- 
IS. 



*3- 
*7- 
29. 

July 1. 
2. 

3- 

2 1. 

24- 
26. 



August 1. 

4 
5 



«4 
'5 

'7 
20 
21 

-'5 



Anne, widow ofThomai Coulston the elder, <L 1859. 

Very Rev. 11 snry < looke d. 1S90. 

Ellen Jenkinson d 

'I'homas Coulston the elder d. 1848. 

William Marsl.ind d. [863. 

Rt. Rev. William Gibson, Bp. of Acanthos, d. 1821. 

Francis, Margaret (Gillow), and Anne (Smith) Gate. 

Rev. John Coulston d. 1889. 

Rev. Richard Walsh d. 1.S93. 

Rev. John Rigby, D.D., d. 1818. 

Rt. Rev. Robert Cornthwaite, D.D., Bp. <>f Leeds, 

d. 1890. 
Ellen l'reston d. 1861. 

Francis Fitzherbert-Brockholes of Claughton d. 185 1. 
Rev. Charles Belasysc, D.D., Lord Fauconberg, d. 

I8x 5 . 
William Rail d. 1854. 
Sir John Iuiwson d. 1811. 
SS. Peter and Paul. 

Aniv and William Hoghton. 

SS. Processus and Martinianus. 

Richard Worswick d. 1819. 

Jane Coulston (sister of Thomas) d. 1S25. 

Henry Coulston d. 1833. 
I Ven. Robert Nutter, priest, 1600. 
( Ven. Edward Thwing, priest, 1600. 

{ St. Peter ad Vincula. 

Thomas Weld d. 1810. 
( John Whiteside d. 1856. 

Henry Wells d. 1897. 

Bridget Dalton d. 1821. 
( Ven. Edward Bamber, priest, 1646. 

Ven. John Woodcock, priest, O.S.F., 1646. 
( Ven. Thomas Whitaker, priest, 1646. 

Richard Gillow d. 181 1. 

Consecration of Rt. Rev. Thomas Whiteside, D.D., 
4th Bp. of Liverpool, 1894. 

Mary Dalton d. 1820. 

John Coulston (brother of Thomas) d. 182 1. 

Mary Coulston (sister of Thomas) d. 1814. 

Margaret Parkinson d. 1885. 



256 ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 



{ 



August 26. Altar in the Whiteside Chantry reconsecrated, 1901. 
27. Altar in the Baptistery consecrated, 1901. 
Ven. Edmund Arrowsmith, priest, S.J., 1628. 
St. Peter's Cemetery blessed, 1850. 
J Ven. Richard Hurst, 1628. 

29. < Dorothy Rogerson d. 1847. 

( Rev. Francis Cosgrave d. 1909. 

~ . , f Richard Whiteside (brother of John) d. 18 15. 

beptemDer 1. | Dorol i ly Coulston (daughter of Gabriel) d. 1856. 
j Ven. Ambrose Barlow, priest, O.S.B., 1641. 
10. < John Coulston the elder d. 1855. 

( Robert Ball d. 1891. 
14. Mary Ellen Preston d. 1905. 

, j Ven. Lawrence Baily 1604. 
l0, I William Whiteside (brother of John) d. 1818. 

19. John Coulston of Bolton d. 1866. 

21. Elizabeth Coulston d. 1893. 

22. Richard Leeming d. 1888. 

23. George Rogerson d. 1847. 

October 1. New high altar consecrated, 1909. 

3. Rt. Rev. Alexander Goss, D.D., 2nd Bishop of Liver- 

pool, d. 1872. 

4. Consecration of St. Peter's Church, 1859. 

f Consecration of the altar of the Lady Chapel, 1859. 
5" "j Also of the altar of the Whiteside Chapel, 1859. 
8. Altar in the Coulston chantry consecrated, 1859. 

( John Coulston (son of Gabriel) d. 1853. 
"' \ Old high altar consecrated 1861. 
1 6. William Cardinal Allen d. 1594. 

20. Alice (wife of Robert) Worswick d. 1S2S. 
25. Sarah Gillow d. 1801. 

27. Anne Rogerson d. 1833. 

30. Anne, widow of John Whiteside d. 1867. 

November 4. Lucy (Dalton), wife of Joseph Bushell d. 1S43. 
13. Rev. Nicholas Skelton d. 1766. 
o f Dedication of the Vatican Basilica. 
' ) Henry Verity d. 1873. 
f John Gardner d. 1879. 
2 5' ( Matthew Hardman d. 1886. 
2S. Very Rev. William Walker d. 1S93. 
30. Rowland Belasyse, Lord Fauconberg, d. 18 10. 



APPENDK l.s 257 

mbei Bi Sarah Anne Gillow d. 1 R 7 1 . 

10. Rev. Jeremiah Holland d. 1S88. 

ia. Gabriel Coul 1 vi- 

13. Margaret (Whiteside), widow of William Leeming, 

d 1 
16. Mary (Jones) do Sandelin d. 1865. 

I Thomas Fitzherberi Brockholes d. 1 S73. 
j 1. Thom IS I 'i' kins. 'ii d. 1882. 

( Consecration of the Bells, 1879. 
24. Rt. Rev. Francis Petre, D.D., Bp. ofAmoria, d. 1775. 

28. Richard Preston d. 1899. 

29. Rev. Pet 1 I tot id 11 d 1694. 

/ Very Rev. Rii bard Brown d. 1868. 
) William Whiteside d. 1824. 
Bliza (Brettargh), widow of Richard Leeming, d. 1S90 
chard Smith d. 1907. 



( Ri< I 



XV 
INVENTORY 

The following is an account of the plate, vestments, and 
other ornaments of St. Peter's Church in December 1909 :— 

An old chalice of silver gilt, with three large enamels; inscribed 
Ex hartditale Fr. Christopheri Huebtr. 

Two other chalices of silver gilt ; two of plain silver, one of them 
having a blue enamelled cross. 

Two silver-gilt monstrances ; one set with precious stones. 

A baldaquin or canopy for the Blessed Sacrament during pro- 
cessions. 

Processional cross of brass. 

Two cruets of silver; two others part silver and part glass. 

Two silver salvers. 

Silver ewer and basin. 

One ciborium of silver gilt ; two of white metal. 

l'yx for Benediction, of white metal. 

Two oil stocks with dish, silver. 

Altar bread-box of metal. 

Three electroplate thuribles and boats. 

Six torches of electroplate and six of brass. 

K 



258 ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 

Two candlesticks (for acolytes) of electroplate and four of brass. 

Large Paschal candlestick of finely wrought brass. 

Stand for the triple candle on Holy Saturday. 

Triangular candelabrum for Tenebrae, iron. 

Two candelabra of wood gilt, for St. Peter's statue. 

Four candelabra of brass in form of lilies and leaves. 

Fourteen other candelabra of brass. 

Twenty-three brass vases for flowers. 

Fourteen brass candlesticks for low mass. 

Brass holy-water vat and sprinkler. 

Two brass triangles for votive candles. 

Five bronze collecting dishes. 

Thirty-eight glass cruets. 

Stock of wax candles for one year's use. 

Missal in gothic type, bound in embossed leather and brass. 

Two missals from the Plantin press. 

Eleven other missals, of which five are kept supplied with additional 

masses as authorised from time to time. 
Five Requiem mass books. 
One Gospeller's book. 
Three books for the Cantus Passionis. 

Ten white chasubles of silk, with accompanying stoles, maniples, 

chalice veils, and burses. 
Five red chasubles, &c. (as above). 
Two green chasubles, &c. 
Four purple chasubles, &c. 
Four black chasubles, &c. 

Four white dalmatics, with stoles and maniples. 
Two red dalmatics, &c. 
Two green dalmatics, &c. 
Two black dalmatics, &c. 

Three white copes ; two red ; one green ; two purple ; two black. 
Four white humeral veils ; one red ; one green ; one purple. 
Eight book-stand covers of silk. 
Four burses for benediction. 
Six veils for the tabernacle. 
Two tunicelL-e, purple and black. 
Three silk antependia, white, red, and black. 
Seventeen stoles. 
Twenty-one albs. 
Twenty-five cottas. 



\ITI.\1>I< I • 

Thirty-nine amices. 
Eighteen ■ < ■[ ; ■■ >r.ils. 
Thirty-seven purificators. 
Twenty six puis. 
Thirteen lavabos. 
I i n girdles. 

and thirty-nine cassocks for serving boys. 
I covers for altars. 
cloths, 
j four altar cloths. 
Twi Dty-tWO communion cloths. 

Three processional banners of silk anil velvi I. 

High Altar 

Six large brass candlesticks ; two small ones. 

Four brass vai 

Foul bronze candelabra, finely wrought. 

kstand and altar cards. 
Bell. 

Lady Altar and Chapel 

Tabernacle of brass. 

Six twisted brass candlesticks. 

Two small candlesticks. 

Bookstand and altar cards. 

BelL 

Two large candelabra. 

Hanging lamp of electroplate. 

Brass lamp before a picture. 

Whiteside Chantry 

A chalice of silver gilt. 

Baptistery Altar 

Tabernacle of steel, with silver door. 
Two candlesticks of white metal. 
Altar cards. 

Bell. 

The holy oils are kept in an aumbry in the Baptistery. 



2 6o ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 

Before the Reformation the greatest church in Lancashire 
was the collegiate church at Manchester. Its endowments 
were confiscated by Henry VIII. and Edward VI., and the 
record then made of its possessions shows the following 
plate and "ornaments," according to Raines' Chantries, 
p. 10 : — 

Four chalices weighing 40 oz. 

One cross of silver gilt, 50 oz. 

Two candlesticks of silver, 16 oz. 

One censer of silver, 1 2 oz. 

One pax of silver, with Crucifix, Mary, and John, 6 oz. 

One cope of old purple velvet and cloth of tissue. 

Two copes of black velvet, embroidered with branches. 

One old cope of green velvet. 

Two copes of white damask. 

Two copes of red damask. 

One cope of old sanguine velvet. 

Two copes of white satin. 

Two copes of red worsted. 

One vestment, [with] deacon and subdeacon, of black velvet. 

One vestment, [with] deacon and subdeacon, of white damask 

branched. 
One vestment, [with] deacon and subdeacon, of red branched 

damask. 
One vestment, with deacon and subdeacon, of green velvet. 
One vestment of white damask. 
One vestment of red chamlet. 
One vestment of green baldekin. 
One vestment embroidered with bears. 
One vestment of old black velvet. 
One old white vestment. 

One forefront of chamlet for the high altar 
One forefront of silk, blue and red. 
Certain ornaments for the sepulchre. 
Three altar cloths diaper. 
Two altar cloths of linen cloth. 
Two great candlesticks of latten. 
Two little candlesticks of latten. 



APPENDICES i 

A latei tatemenl (p. ») gives the weight of the plate 
belonging to the college (/.<•. to church and housi | as 303J 
■ v., <ii winch the gilt w.is 30} oz. and the parcel-gill 90 oz. 
The "ornaments were worth .{in, [3s. It is added "that 
certain of the ornaments to the \ I. were sold, 

and the King [Edward VI.] is answered; the resl were left 
there with the churchwardens and parishioners, for that it is 
a great parish, the value of which parcels came to £9, 12s. 4d., 
and also there was left in the said church two chalices, one 
hing joj or. and the other 12 oz." The chantries .it 
Manche tei had little plate, &c. That ol St. John Bapti t bad 

.1 chalice Of silver (6 OZ.) and three old vestments with albs; 

that of St. Nicholas had a silver chalice (8 oz.), three old 
vestments with albs, and two coarse altat cloths (pp. 30, 33). 
The goods remaining in 1552 show that of the silver only 

two chalices were left; of the ornaments there remained 
seven copes, seven vestments, four altar cloths, two little 
candlesticks, and the sepulchre ornaments; the two fore- 
fronts above named had been increased by two others, which 
had probably been overlooked before, viz. one of silk blue and 
red, and another of white, green, and red. See Church Goads 
(Chetham Society), 4. 

The inventory cannot have been complete; probably the 
royal commissioners took notice only of the silver and other 
things which were of value for sale. Nothing is said of any 
books. 

The church goods at Whalley Abbey in 1537 are cata- 
logued in the Whalley Coucher(Cheiham Society), iv. 1262-5. 



XVI 
SOME STATISTICS 

The following details are taken from the returns made to 
the bishop each Easter. The numbers of marriages and 
baptisms are those for the year ending the preceding 31st 
December ; the Easter communions are tor the year of the- 
re-turns. Adult baptisms include all of persons above seven 



262 ST. PETER'S, LANCASTER 

years of age ; in most cases these are converts. Some of the 
fluctuations are accounted for by the opening of the church 
at Morccambe in December 1895, and the school-chapel at 
Skerton in 1896 (church 1901). 



Easier 


i89S 


1896 


1897 


1900 


Marriages in preceding year 


34 


29 


17 


24 


Infant baptisms in preceding year . 


189 


154 


168 


'53 


Adult „ „ „ „ 


2S 


27 


43 


38 


Easter Communions 


1 343 


1212 


1557 


1667 


On 4 Sundays in Lent : 










Average at Mass 


"— 


— 


— 


'557 


Easter 1903 




1906 


1909 


Marriages in preceding year 


26 




20 


23 


Infant baptisms in preceding year . 


154 




125 


130 


Adult „ „ „ „ 


42 




8 


17 


Easter Communions 


.671 




1598 


1540 


On 4 Sundays in Lent : 










Average at Mass .... 


1580 




1523 


1332 


„ at evening service . 


564 




57S 


422 



The total number of adult baptisms from 1893 to 1908, 
both inclusive, was 436, an average of a little over 27 a year. 
The number of communicants at a mission in December 
1895 was 1630. The total number of communions during 
1907 was 15,300, and during 1908 it was 19,900 ; in the former 
year there was a fortnight's mission in Lent. 



XVII 

VISITATION LISTS, 1554 and 1562 

The following are the names of clergy in the lists re- 
ferred to on pp. 13, 15. It will be noticed that the persons 
as well as the numbers varied. Such lists were prepared 
from earlier ones before the visitation began, and during its 
course or afterwards the bishop's registrar made various notes, 
the meaning of which is not always clear. Ext. probably 



AIM'KNDM I S 



m. .ins txhibuit. The relucta some "i the priests to 

conform is shown by the conflicting remarks, "111," "Nol 
so," and "Appeared' 1 to Martin Poster's name. Such □ 
or additions arc here indicated by parenthesis marks. 

Lancaster (in Amoundei ne >s I leanery) : — 



Dr. Mallet, vicar (ext.). 

John M .u tin (ext.). 

John i larter. 

Richard Rigmeydon [ext.) (with 

Mr. Leyborn). 
1 [i nry Singleton {ext.), 
Ralph Edmundson, ii/ias Orton 

(ext.). 
John Jackson (ext.). 
John N'atis (ext.). 
William Smyth. 



1 )r. Mallet (did not appi 

John Adamson, curate (appeared, 

Sll I 1^1 -III i 

(Thomas Richardson.) ' 

(Robert ( lottam.) 

Ralph Edmundson (appeared, 
subscribed). 

Martin Foster (appeared) (ill) 
(not so). 

John Vans (appeared, subscribed). 

Henry Norton (appeared, sub- 
scribed). 



Caton (in Lonsdale Deanery) 



IS48 

William Bayncs, curate. 
William Thompson. 

■554 
William Baynes {ext). 



1562 

Richard Patchett, curate (name 
erased). 

Thomas Carter (appeared, sub- 
scribed). 



Gressingham (in Lonsdale Deanery) 

1548 
James Baynes, curate. 



1362 



James Beanes, curate (appeared, 
subscribed). 

James Baynes (ext.). 

1 The names of Richardson and Cottam arc added between the lines. 



INDEX 



Names o( places arc printed In UaiU i. 

inic name often occurs mure than once on a page, especially in ill 



Adbot, Rev. T., i |9, -;:. -'54 
Aliliott, Anthony. 

Mr^. Lacy, 248 

LoCJ 

11, Robert, 
Adamson, John, 

A in, jane, -'-■ •■■ . a 1 

Robert, 2 ;i (.:) 
'I bom**, -".' 1 [2] 
1 ci-hire), 45 
Aldan, Ft, I' , 1 '■{ 
Ainscough, Henry, 131 
AinsJaie, 1.1 
Ainsworth, John, 143 
Aisles, 12,-7 

Aldcliffe, 56, 59, 63, 76, 79, J9°. - ' 
,, accounts of, 66-70, 2013-6, 
11 
Alexander 1\ 
Alexander, Fr., 193 
Allegiance, oaths of, 38, 39, 95~6 
Allen, Caleb 1., 1 -4 

„ Cardinal William, v , 256 
Allibone, Sir Richard, 62, 209, 210 

„ Lady, 210 
AUUon, Lydia, 
Alston, Anne, 240 
„ Mary, 240 
Altar, high, at St. Mary's, 6, 19 

,, at St. Peter's, 1 1 3-8, 164, 
[8l, 252, 259 
Altar of Repose. 1 3 1 

, 9, 19, 12", 12;, 132 
,22, 263 

Anderson, ElizalxMh, 243 
Andcrtun, - . ~--\ 

Llkabcth, 218,243 



Anderton, John, 218 

,, Richard, 2:8 
Andiadc, Agnes, 2 ;.( 

Joachim, 214, 215, 234, 254 

Angelus Hell, 149 
Anniversary Sermons, I0S-9 
Apcdale, Rev. — , 238 
A pie. Anne, ' 1 

by, Kcv. James, 239 
AppUton in Widncs, 67 
Aqueduct. 9> 1 
Archpricst, 65 
Arling. S(e Harling 
Armada, the, 52 
Armalhwaitc, 79 
Armstrong, John, 240 

,, Margaret, 240 

Mary, 240 
Arnold, Gustave, 89, 107 
Arras, Bishop of, S- 

Arrowsmith.Ven. Ldmund, 41-43, 45. 256 
Ash, Rev. Henry, 49 
Ashton, Lord, 26 
Ashton in Makcrficld, 43 
Ashton near Lancaster, 11, 18, 20 
Askew, Anne, 218,220-2,225, 227, 230, 

240 
Aspatria, iS 
Aspinal, William, 243 
Assheton, Mr., 39 
Atkinson, — .215 

,, Anthony, 81 
Jane, 243 

„ John, 224, 227 

,, Joseph, 227 

„ Margaret, 224, 227, 240 
Thomas, 224, 239 
Winefride, 243 



265 



266 



INDHX 



Austin, Anne. 223 

,, llarliara. 223 

., James, 223 
Austin & Paley, 105, H3i '- 1 . '-9. I3'i 

ISO, 183 
Australia. 89, 195 
Axley, Edward, 

Bachelf.t, Rev. Nicholas, 213, 214, 229, 

230. 233 
Bailes, Thomas, 240 

Bailey (Baily, Bayley, Bayly), Ven. 
Lawrence, 38, 256 
Mrs., 214 

Mary, 221, 225, 23S 
William, 221 
BaUrigg, 9 

Baines (Baynes, Beanes), Anne, 219, 221, 
243, 248 
,, Cecily, 231 
„ Edmund, 243 
., Elizabeth, 222, 224, 24O, 243 
„ Henry, 240 
., James, 231, 240, 263 
,, Jane, 243 (2) 
„ John, 219, 221, 240 
., Joseph, 240 

.. J-, 248 

,, Margaret, 221, 227, 231 

,, Margaret A., 248 

,, Martha, 230, 237 

,, Mary, 218, 222 (2) 

„ Richard, 240, 243 

„ Thomas, 219, 224, 240 (2), 243, 

24S (2) 
,, William, 240, 243, 263 
Baines and Oldham, 24S 
Baker, Mr., 87 
Baldacchino, 1 18 
Baldwin, — ,215 

,, Anne, 224 
Ball family, 73, 204, 206, 24 ! 
„ Agnes, 234, 236, 240 
,, Alice, 226, 234. 240 
„ Dorothy, 226, 227, 230, 233, 237, 

240 (2) 
., Edward, 221 ; Rev. Edward, 206 
„ Eleanor, 222 
„ Elizabeth, 219-24, 228, 230, 232, 

233. 235.236, 240, 243 
,, Ellen (Helen), 218, 225 (2), 227, 232 
„ G.,236 

„ George, 226, 233, 235, 240 
,, Rev. George, 206 



Ball. Henry, 219, 224, 234, 235, 240 
„ J-, 236 

,. James, 225, 229, 230, 234, 240 
„ Jane, 2l8, 222, 223, 225, 226, 

231, 233-6, 240, 243 
„ John, 214, 218, 222, 223 (2), 

22S, 231, 232, 234(3), 235, 
• 248 
,, tfarmaduke, 218, 220, 222, 

22;, 230, 232 (2), 240 
,, Margaret. 24.', 24S 253 
.. Mary, 221, 231, 234, 2;:, 239, 
,, Richard. 225, 226, 230, 233 

240 (2), 243 (2) 
„ Robert. 73, 77. 206 (3), 213, 

243, 256 
„ Sarah, 224, 240 (2) 
,, Thomas, 218, 222, 227, 230, 

240(2), 243 
,, William, ", 206, 2I8-2I, 224, 

233, 234, 237, 238, 24O (2), 

255 

„ Rev. William, 73 
„ Winefride, 206 
„ Mrs., 240 
Balshaw, Esther, 224, 240 
Bamber, Alice, 243 

,, Ven. Edward, 47-49, 256 
„ Thomas, 243 
Baptistery, 130-2, 144, 259 
Bare, 61, 119, 192 
Barlow, Sir Alexander, 4 i 

„ Ven. Ambrose, 44-47, 255 
Barlow near Manchester, 44 
Barns, George, 248 
Barrow, Edward, IOO 

„ Mary, 14,5 
Barrow i\: Co., 2 5 1 
Barrow, 161 
Bartolozzi, F., 101 
Barton, Rev. Richard, 62 
Baskow, Peter, 21S 
Bateman, — , 222 
,, Alice, 234 
„ Anne, 219, 220, 222, 235 
Elizabeth, 219, 223, 233, 
,, Giles, 234 
,, John Redman, 234 
Mary, 222, 223 
Baxetonden, William, 200 
Bayles, Martha, 243 
Bayley. See Bailey 
Baynes. See Baines 
Beaumont (Beamonde) in Skerton, I. 



22;. 
239, 



240 
240, 



233. 

231. 

243. 






INDEX 






I i lien (Helen] 

-MO 
-4° 

" . 

Mi 

■ I <uconbcrg), 

I 

Rowland (Lord Faucoi 

Susanna, io.' 
tl imas, --, 93 

Mrs., IOI 

Mi -. 10 . 6, 217. 240 

Monament, 
■ 
.. Yen. fames 
.. Mary »i I 

:.. 70 

Hells, description of, 1 I 

Benches description of, I2u 

Benedictini - | 
Benison, Ann. 

Thomas, jun., 
Mr. 
.ck. Duke of, 67 
BntrUr, , >39 

. Dr., 214 
Bit 

y 234. -■">• --',", --''• 
236 

holomew, - 
Edward, 225 

Elizabeth, 229. 243 

Jane, 235, 237, 229. 236 

Margaret, 233, 243 

Man. 

Rev. R. N., 1*4, 157 ". ' 

11 .t. !'-'•, 1 . 
Sarah, 225 
ihop, 1 57 
Rev. K. 0., «6t. K I, 166 
Birchall, Rev. James, 138. «43 
.. I . ' 

Birkdalt, 14", 159-6' 
BirUelt, — , 61 
Birmingham, I 27, 133 
Bishop, J. C, 88 
Pisfham. 1 5 5 
Blackburn, James. 240 
John, 



1 rd, 74 

Mrs., 

I, I 
[ale, Alice, 
Elisabeth, 

liluun 

foseph, »i$i 
Blundelf, Mary, 231 

1 

[ley, Rev. S. G., 
Bollai 

, . Bucabeth, | 
Prances, 243 
John, 1 
Thomas, 248 


Fivihs in Worsley, 61 

, Mary I Urc, 187 
Uoulton, —,iu 

„ William, 248 

Bewerham (Bowram), 2, 17, 139, 244, 

Bowet, 1 hn, •' 1, 
., Richard 
;.. Hesther, 244 
Bradford* 129 
Bradley, Mice, 220, 3, 244 

Dorothy, 243 (2) 

Edmund, 222, --^ 

,, Edward, 243 
Elizabeth, 244 
Esther, 

Helen, 
lame-. 
,. "lane, 243, 248 

I'eter, 205, 223, 24;, 
alias of Winder, 7}. - 
Bradshaw, Alice, 244 

Ambrose, 74 
Jane, 74 
John, 74 

alias of Arrowsmilh, S3 
Braithwaite, — , 210 
Bramwell, Margaret, 236 
Brand, Mary, 236 

es, monumental, 125-7, '36. '38 
Bretherton, James. 

Margaret. -' ;4 
Mary, 244 



268 



INDEX 



Brettargh, Eliza, -'57 
BridgemaD, Bishop, 41 
R--H3 

Brings, Bishop John, 65, I 7 
Brindley and Farmer, 1 18 
Briscoe (Brisco, Briscow), Anne, 220, 22S, 
-'4", 244 
,, Edward, 244 
,, Elizabeth, 230 
„ Margaret, 244, 248 
„ Mary, 220, 233 (2), 240 (2) 
„ Peter, 220, 222, 228, 230, 233 
„ Sarah, 228, 230, 233 
„ Thomas, 240 

William, 227, 228, 233 
Brockholes fam., 57 

Joseph, 100, 253 
„ See Fitzherbert-Brockholcs 

Brockholes, 74 

Broomhead, Rev. Rowland, 93 
Brotherton, Elizabeth, 227 
„ James, 240 

,, John, 227 

„ Mary, 227 

„ Thomas, 239 

Broughton, Sir Thomas, 202 
Broughton, 248 

Broughton near Preston, 64, 73 
Brown (Browne), Anne, 219, 236, 240 
„ Ellen, 93 
„ Bishop George, 65, 89, 96, 153, 

154, 253 ; account of, 93-4 
„ Helen, 248 
,, Isabella, 244 (2) 
„ Jane, 244 (2) 
„ Margaret, 248 
„ Richard, 153 
,, Richard Gregory, 244 
,, Rev. Richard Melchiades, 94, 96, 
98, 102-7, 118, 124, 125, 128, 
136, 149, 150, 156, 185, 187, 
195, 248, 257 ; account of, 
153-5 
„ William, 93 
Browne, George, 22 

,, Rev. Joseph, 109 
„ See also Brown 
Brownrigg, John, 240 
Bryer, Rev. Thomas, 155 

,, Mrs., 215 
Bugia, 94 

Bulk (Boulke), 8, II, 56, Co, 76, yj t 139, 
190, 201, 243-7, 249, 25° 
„ accounts of, 70-73, 203-7 ; tolls, 80 



Bullen, Agnes, 240, 253 

„ Edmund, 238, 253 
Bullinger, Henry, 51 
Burge, Prior, 166 
Burnley, 47, 105 
Burrow, 2 1 2 
Burton, Richard, 7 
Burton Constable, 76 
Bury, 101, 211 
Bushell, Joseph, 244, 256 

,, Lucy, 256 
Butcher, Jane, 220 

,, Margaret, 220 

,, Thomas, 220 
Butler, Elizabeth, 20 

,, Isabella, 244 

„ John, 20 

,, Mary de Sales, 1S7 

,, Thomas, 20 

„ Dr. Thomas, S9, 225 
I'.uuerfield, Fr., 109 
Byrne, John, 248 

Cairo, 160 

Calendar of Benefactors, &c, 253-7 

Calton in Craven, 208 

Calvert, — , 220 

,, Frances, 218 

,, Isabel, 218 

,, Thomas, 22, 218 
Camden, William, 21 
Campbell, Anne, 232 

,, Mary, 232 

,, William, 232 
Campion, B. Edmund, 25 
Candelabra, 1 18, 258, 259 
Capemwray, 246 
Capstick, E., 235 

,, James, 241 

,, Priscilla, 235, 241 
Cardwell, Alice, 235 

,, Cuthbert, 235 
Carlisle, 2, 140 
Carmelites, 189, 192 
Carmichael, Anne, 244 
Carney, Patrick, 248 
Carr House, 1 1 , 244, 246 
Carroll, Bishop, 157 

,, Mrs., 248 
Carter, Alice, 244 

,, Dorothy, 241 

,, Elizabeth, 60, 22*, 234, 241 

,, James, 2 2>S, 240 

„ Rev. James, 218 






INDEX 



169 



„ John, So, -mi. 

|i(2), 234, 

Mutant, 

.. ' • 2 3-l. 

Patrh I 

„ Sarah, -■-•, 1 1 1 

,, Thomas, 133, 341, 't ' 

,, William, 

., 

.', 1 .•, ioj 
Cartwright, Biab • '■ ' 

1 
„ — , 09, 204 
,, Christopher, 22, 77 
I ranees, 64 
George, 
Thorn 

i , 1 lii tbeth, 235 
„ Mary, 235, 241 
.. Richard, - S 

■ •■: neai Preston, 141 
Catholic Bmancip it ion, , 1 5 | 

Catholic Lending library, 94 

1 
"Catholic Virgins," thi . 204-5, 

- 1 1 
Caton, Agnes, 22:, 226, 241 

lames, 23 I 

.. John, 222, 241 

,. T..ai3 

,, Mary, 223, 236, 241 

„ Mrs., 241 (2) 

,. Kev. Thomas, 217, 227, 236 

C.iton, t, 6, 13, IS, 18, 7', 73.82,00, 

.0 . 198, 203, 204, 241, ; . 1 . 
2<i} 

1 'luthorne, J. F., 05 
1 emi lory. ■ 13, 1 5°-' 
,, Crosses, 150 
,, Public. 151 
Cbadwiclc, Rev. I .. 

John, 24'J 
1 Chambers, Mary, 55 
Chancel, 1 12-20 

( hantrii -. 8, 1, 125, 1 " . 132, 2^2 
( harles I., 56, ; . 
Charles II., 66, 71, 205, 
Charnley, Esther, 22), 236 
Geor) . 
John, 239 



Charnley, R 

William, 2a >. ■■)'•(?) 
k, I [ugh, 

< lifl/rnhtl'i:, 

Chester, Dr. Richard, 7. '97 

Chester, .1, II, |8, 4" 

.. Bishops of, 1 !, 15, 34, 62,65, 1 

Chichester, Mar). 

rtb, W., I 
( Ihippindall, Mm., i i 
Choir Benches, 1 12-3 
Charley, Elizabeth, 2 1 1 
John, 244 
,, 'William, 244 (2) 
Chortey, 99 
CkudUi 

Church goods, 2^7-r'>I 
■■ Church Papists, 
Church, the Prescn- 

„ the building, 1 10 
Civil War : conduct and sufferings of 

Catholics, 5*. 209 
Clagctt, Dr., ";, 210 
Clarke, Dr. S., 69 
Clarkson, Henry, 248 
„ John, 248 
„ Rev. Joseph, 143 
Richard, 238 
: 'on in Lonsdale, 61, 71, 203, 204 
Claughton on Brock, 49, 134, 204, 2-,i 
( llaxton, [ane, 208 

,. 'William, 208 
Cleminson, Elizabeth, 2:4 
,, Margaret, 244 

Clergy, ancient number of, 22 

„ of St. Peter's, 1 5 
Clergy Fund, 64 
Clervet, Susanna, 102 
Cliffe, Rev. M., 238 
Clifford fam., 73 

., Hon. Edward, 80, 81 
Clifton, Alice. 20 
„ James, 20 
Sir Thomas, 
Clifton in Kirkham, 20, 03 
Clifton J/illm Forlon, 88, 1 34, 160, 249 
Ctydi, 18 

Cock, Anne, 226, 22S 
„ Elizabeth, 219, 221, 224, 236 
.. Henry, 220-22,224, 220, 23", 211 
,. Jane, 229 

,. John, 213, 224-6. 220, 232 (2), 
233, 236, 241 






270 



INDEX 



Cock, Mary, 225, 226, 229, 232, 236, 

239< 24' 
,, Sarah, 233, 237 

William, 101, 221, 226 
Cockerham, 22, 100, 204 
Cockersand, 9, 12, 204, 209, 21 1 
Coghlan, J. P., 153 
Coiney, Edward, 238 
Collins, Mary Borgia, 187 
Commendations, 237 
Commonwealth Rule, 50 
Communicants' Lists, 240, 243, 262 
Confirmations, 14, 63 
Conishead, 12, 105 
Coniston, 99 
Connolly, Eleanor, 244 
„ Thomas, 244 
,, Miss, 24S 
Consecration, 106 
Consecration Crosses, 1 20 
Constantinople, Patriarch of, 153 
Convent of Mercy, 103 
Cooke, Rev. Henry, 99, 104, 255 
Cookson, Canon, 107 
Cooper, Mrs., 240 

,, Elizabeth, 240 
Cooper & Tullis, 25 1 
Copeland fam., 57, 70, 203, 204 
„ Bridget, 60 
„ Dorothy, 240 
Ellen, 60(2) 
Henry, 70, 77, 203 
„ John, 6o, 203 
,, Rev. John, 203 
,, Katherine, 60 (2), 71 
,, Lawrence, 70, 203, 205, 209 

Mary, 70, 77, 203 
,, Robert, 60, 71, -'03 
„ Thomas, 60, 77, 203 
Coppinger, Walter, 20 
Copple, Anne, 221 

Elizabeth, 218, 221, 223 (2) 
Ellen, 221 

James, 218, 221, 223 

Margaret, 218 

Thomas, 221 

William, 218 

Corbishley (Corbesley), Anne, -44 

,, Elizabeth, 236 

George, 236 
,, Isabel, 238 
Corlass (Corless), Rev. George, 93 
„ James, 241 
John, 23S 



Corlass (Corless), Mary, 241 
,, Mrs., 241 
„ Robert, 241 
„ William, 241 
Cornah (Cornay), Ally, 240 

„ Anne, 218-21, 223, 227, 230, 

231, 234, 240 
,, James, 218, 221, 223, 229, 238 
„ Jane, 240 
,, Mary, 221 

Robert, 218, 240 
„ Thomas, 223 
„ Mrs., 240 
Cornforth, John James, 244 
„ Margaret, 244 
,, Thomas, -'44 
Cornthwaite, Agnes, 223, 234-6, 240 

,, Andrew, 222, 228, 230, 236 

Ann, -'4 \ 
,, Brian, 223, 240 (2) 

Elizabeth, 218, 222, 223 (2), 

23°, 233. 241. 244 
„ Ellen, 221, 224, 231, 240 

,, Esther, 244. 248 

,, James, 219, 221, 223, 224, 

228 (2), 231, 236, 240, 241 
„ Jane, 217, 219, 235, 244, 24S 

,, John, 224 

„ Martha, 24S 

,, Mary, 218, 22:, 22 }, 228, 

236 (2), 244 (2), 24S 
,, Mary Melicent, 230 

,, Robert, 235, 244 

Bishop Robert, 138, 139, 255 
,, Thomas, 244 

„ William, 221, 239, 244 (2) 

Corry, William, 215 
Cosgrave, Canon, 1 

„ Rev. Francis X., 161, 256 
Cotes, Bishop, 14 
Cottam, Ellen, 73 
,, Jane, 236 
,, John, 244 
Mary, 244 
,, Richard, 7$ 

,, Robert, 263 
Co/lam near Preston, 217 
Cotton, James Bradshaw, 220 

,, Mary, 218, 220, 223, 226 
Coulston fam., 1 19, 252 

„ Alice, 244, 253, 254 

„ Anne, 104, 145. 244 (3), 249, 

252(3). 254, 255 
„ Dorothy, 252, 250 






INDEX 



, i 



>. 19 (a), 
Gabriel, 104, i )S i | . I 

Ml 

-52 
G '54 

Henry, .'=;2 (a), 
l»i. »S4< 

John, 102, i 

1 I) 
„ Mrs. [i ho, 

Rev. John, : |8, '39. 2 10, 252. 

Jonathan, 344 (2) 
Joseph, 104, 145, 344 

254 
Man iret, . 1 . 

Mai j, -5- (2). 

1 
Monica, 249, 252, 251 
Tcr. ■ 9 
Thomas, -• . 114, »3Si -40, 

244, 25-'. -54. 
Mrs. Thomas, -MO, -■;.'. -• 5 \ 
Thomas, junior, 101, 1 3, i-'i;, 

44, ..(;, IS*. -?4 

chantry, 135, I , r | . 
25- 
■ e, Charles. -44 
fames, -44 
Kr., 109 
Cored, Thomas, 57 
Cowke, Elizabeth, 10 
< rib for Christmas, 14 i 
Croft, — , ^44 
,, Agnes. 
.. Elisabeth, 224, 226 5, 334, 240, 

,, Helen, 

.. Henry, 239 

.. Jane, 233, 231, -40 

John. .'41 
.. Man. 
., William, 214, 223, 22 

.. 

,159 
Croke- Robinson, Mgr., 19 
well, Oliver, 



1 ■ . ( •) 

,, Bridget, -'-t 1 
I dwai I 

1 
,, Lawrence, 24 ;, 249 

William, 1 

..11 
II, Rev. Thomas, 160, 164, 
. 94 

Croskcll Gun., 7 ;, 253 

,, Ann 

,, Christophei 

Elisabeth, 2 (6, 239 

14 
John, 231 

,, "44 

Robei 
„ Mgr. Robert, ; , . 139, 

,, Thomas, 

Rev. Thomas, senior, 1 '8, 139, 

M>*r. Thomas, 138, 139 
William, 77, 238 
. — , 228 
Alice, 230 
,, E. & Sons, 106, 251 
,, Joseph, 

,. Margaret, 23 I 
Mary, 228 

Mil hael, 238, 231 

William, 231 
Crosthwaitc, 18 
Crowe, Harriet, 

Henry, X% 244 

Crucifix, 1 18 

Crumblcholme. Richard, 241 
Cumberland, Christophei . 
,, I lorothy, 60 

Cumberland, Church Dedications in, iS 
Cumwitk, 26 

1 'a 1 i.John, 241 

Dalton fam., 17, c6, 70, 76, 203, 207 

,. Mr., 31, 63, 85, IOI, .'O.t. 21 I, 
215 

., Miss, 66, 1 1 
Anne, 208 

.. Bridget, 

„ Catherine, 2 

.. Charlotte, 1 | '. 254 

,, Dorothy, 76, 208, 211 



272 



INDEX 



Dalton, Eleanor (Ellen), 205, 208 

„ Elizabeth, 76, 132, 133, 208, 211, 
249, 254 (and see Miss 
Dalton) 
„ Jane, 208 

,, John, 76 (2), 101, 253, 254 
„ John (Hoghton), 76, 204, 211 
,, Lucy, 133, 256 
„ Margaret, 20S 
,, Mary, 133, 255 
,, Penelope, 208 

Robert, 66, 76 (4), 205, 208, 

210 
Thomas, 66, 76 (2), 77, 205, 208 
,, William, 76 
Dalton-Fitzgerald, Sir Gerald, 209 
Dalton Square Chapel, S2-99, 107, 153, 
187, 189 
,, ,, ,, licence for, 216 

„ ,, „ presents to, 217 

,, ,, „ school, 8S, 182 

Dalton-in- Kendal, 20, 97 
Danson, Mary, 241 
Dante, 137 
Darwin, William, 162 
Davies (Davis), Apollonia, 231 
Catherine, 244 
Ellen, 241 
Helen, 244 
John, 226 
Margaret, 233 
Mary, 231 
Robert, 244 

Thomas, 231, 233(2), 238 
Dauson, — , 241 
Dawson fam., 211 

„ Edward, 76, 21 1 
„ E. B., 15S 
„ Matthew, 184 
Dead, masses for the, 8, 9, 19, 142, 150 
Deaudesville, Denise, 244 
Deep Carr, 10, 20 
De Hummelauer, Fr., 109 
Delany, Rev. P. J., 160 
Derby, Earls of, 30 

,, James, 7th Earl of, 58 
Derome, Matthew, 248, 249 
De Sandelin, Mary, 257 
De Vitre, Alderman, 98 
Dewhurst, Anne, 241 
,, Arthur, 249 

,, John, 249 

William, 249 
Dicconson, Bishop, 65 



Dickenson (Dicconson, Dickinson), Alice, 
228,231 
,, Anne, 220, 223, 227, 228, 

229, 235, 241 (2) 
E.,235 

„ Helen, 244 
,, Henry, 244 
,, James, 222, 223, 22;, 229 (2), 

230, 233, 234(2), 235, 237, 
241 

Jane, 235 

Joseph, 244 (2), 249 
„ Margaret, 237, 241 

Martha, 234, 237, 241 
,, Peter, 220 (2), 241 
., Prudence, 223, 238 
,, Richard, 234, 241 
„ Robert, 227 

Thomas, 106, 149, 231, 244, 

249, 251, 257 
Th„ 235 

William, 227, 22S (2), 231 
" Dickison," 63 
Dilworth, Mary, 237 
Dirge (Dirige), 19, 142 
Ditton, 204 
Dixon, Anne, 230 
„ Elizabeth, 236 
„ Ellen, 227, 233 
„ Jane, 236 
„ John, 102 
,, Mary, 223, 228 
„ Reginald, 124 
Dobson, Anne, 238 

„ Elizabeth, 234, 241 
Dodd, Charles, alias of Tootell, 206 
Dolphinlee in Bulk, 57, 77, S2, 211, 243, 

244 ; accounts of, 70-73, 203-6 
Dominicans, 1 1 
Donnelly, Fr., 109 
Doolan, Mary, 249 
Dornin, Michael, 244 
Douay, 35, 41, 67, 68, 77, 79, 82, S9, 93, 

100, 203, 21 '5 
Douglas, Isle ot Man, 160, 164 
Dourlens, 77 

Dowbiggin, Anne Winder, 212 
,, Joan, 212, 213 

,, John, 212 

,, Lancelot, 212 

., Thomas, 212 

Downham, Bishop, IS, 22 

Ann, 239 
Dcinkall, Mary, 249 



INDEX 






Drinkwell, M uy, 
1 ►river, M ii ■ 11 ■ ■. .• 1 1 
' .11 

Dublin, 
Duck, ' 
Dndwtl (Dncketh), Aliic. 141 

,, Amv 

Edward, 330, 222, 224, 2:7, 2 v. 

241 
Elisabeth, 
Ellen, aao, 224, 226, 237,335, 

George, 2 jo 
,, Junes, i"-, -51 
., lane, 240 

John, I34i 2;;, 211 
Mary. 220, -'24, 241 
Thomas, 
Dugdale, Ellen, --4 

•-■'■. ■' •'. 1 ;i 
Dunbabin (Dunbobbin), Alice, 34 1 
Ellen, .'41 
John, 225 
,, Margaret, 

Mary, .24. 226 
Thomu, 334-9 
,, William, 

Duncan, Lord, 101 
Dunn, Mary of the Cross, 186, 1 7 

,, Richard, 83 
Dunn ami Morgan, 2 14 
Diirer, Allien, 1 15 
Durham, 2 1, 68 
Dutton, Anne, 231 

Elisabeth, 230 
., John, -'3 (-•). 231 

Mabel, 331 
,, Thomas, 1 3 . 2 31 
Dwyer (Dywier, Dwyre), Anne, 2.';, 232 
,, Charles, 224, 225, 227 (2), 228, 

333, 334 (2), 23'., 241 
,, Tane, 228 

„ Mary. 224 (-), 7. 228, 

333, .'•'._•; , 241 

Easnshaw, Mary, 236, 229. 230. 241 

William, 225-;. 230, 236, 
1 
• '"4 
Eastwood, Jane, 2 ( 1 

Thomas, 96 
Eccles, — a 

Anne, 2^5, 239 
Cecily, 225 



■ I, 
,, Elisabeth, •■-•! 
1, ' ■ 
,, Mar] 

Thomas, 224, 336 
Winefi I 1. 236 
,, aiiat Myerscough, 232 
. 45, 67 

tb, 55 
. -■ 19 
Eatestoii in l.< yland | 

ton. Little, 205 
Edmundson Gun., 74 
Anne, 1 
,, Margaret, 23'. 

,, Mary, <«. 

,, Nicholas, 74 

Peter, 74 
Ralph, 1 
,, Richard, i' o 

„ Rev. Richard, v '2, 100, 217 

:t, 60 

Edrington, Mary, -• 18 

pb, 218 
Edward VI., 9, 13, 22, 51, 203 
Eidsforth, — , 220 

Charles, 221, 223, 229, 231 (2), 
234. 24 1 

Edward, 22 •, 

E., 233 

M., 229 

Mrs.. 241 

William, 229, 233 (2) 
Elcoke, Ralph, 20 1, . 
Elizabeth, (Jueen, 7, 14, 19, 23, 24, 27, 

33, 51, 141. 2 °8, 21 I 
FJUl, 7", 213, 246 
Ellct, Elizabeth, 221 

„ John, 2ji 
Ethcrington, Dorothy, 221 
Ellen, 249 

Rev. Robert, 13-, 143 
Robert, 249 
William, 241 
Eiixton ,14, 
Everard, Francis, 19 

Rev. P.. 214 
Ever/on, 160 
Exley, Mr.. 2 ;i 
,, Mrs., 241 

Edward, 218, :i 
,, Hannah, 2l8 
„ Samuel, 21 8, 241 
Exterior of the Church, 146-0, 
S 



274 



INDKX 



Fagan, Mary, 244 
Fairclough & Son, 251 
Faithwaite, Elizabeth, 212 
,, Henry, 212 

„ Thomas Winder, 81 

Farmer, Anne, 244 

,, Robert, 104, 249 
Faucit, Ralph, 202 
Fauconberg, Viscount, 92-3, 102 
Fell, Agnes, 238 

., Frances, 244 
Felton, John, 204 
Fenning, John, 244 
F'enton, Rev. James, 75 
Fenwick, Ann, 212, 213 

John, 212 
Ferguson, Chancellor, 18 
" Fifteen," the, 63, 69, 70, 204, 20S, 211 
Finch, Elizabeth, 224 
„ H., 224 

„ Henry, 218, 224, 231, 232, 241 
,. James, 232 
,, Ven. John, 27, 29-32, 254 

Mary, 224 
,, Rebecca, 231, 232 
,, Sarah, 231 
William, 224 
Fisher, Canon, 105, 107 
B. John, 144 
„ Mgr.J. H., 156 
Matthew, 218 
Fitzherbert, Elizabeth, 240 
Fitzherbert-Brockholes, Francis, 253, 255 
„ ,, Thomas, 1 34, 249, 

257 
Flanders, 64 
Fleetwood, 99 
Fleming, Sir Daniel, 210 
Fletcher, — , 68 
Flodden, 1 1 
Font, 125, 131 
Forrest, Anne, 227, 230 

Elizabeth, 223, 233, 238 

„ James, 239 

,, John, 220, 227 

,, Margaret, 220, 222, 22;, 227, 233 

„ Martha, 230 

,, Mary, 221, 222, 227 

„ Peter, 239 

,, Richard, 227, 230 

,, William, 220 (2), 222, 223, 227, 

233. 241 
Forshaw, Anne, 244 
,, Edward, 244 



Forton, 64, 88, 247. See also Clifton Hill 
" Forty-five," the, 81, 100 
Foster, Amy, 239 
Anne, 228 
J., 2.?6 
Rev. James, 101, 213/221, 222, 

220 
James, 238 
John, 219, 220 
Joseph, 21?, 2^5 
Martin, 263 
Mary, 222 
Robert, 204 

Thomas, 223, 226, 236, 241 
William, 238 
Fox, Alice, 241 
,, Andrew, 222, 224, 227, 231, 233 
„ Anne, 233, 234 (2), 241 
„ Dorothy, 241 
,, Elizabeth, 241 
,, Ellen, 228, 241 
,, Jennet, 17 
,, John, 222 

., Margaret, 222-4, 227, 231,233,241 
,, Mary, 228 
,, Richard, 224, 227, 234 
,, Thomas, 228, 231, 241 
Foundation Stone, blessing of, 105 
Franciscans, 48, 58, 74 
Frecklelon, 160 
Friars, work of the, 197 
Fulwood, 18 

Furntss, 12, 14, 56, 73, 154, 205 (Manor) 
Fylde, 47 

Gally, Joseph, 245 
,, Lewis, 249 
„ Mary, 245, 249 
Gardiner (Gardyner), Isabella, 200 

„ John, 8, 9; his will, 199-202 
„ Nicholas, 202 
,, chantry, 9, 200 
Gardner. Alice. 230. 238. 241 

„ Anne, 228-30, 233 (2), 241 (2), 

245 (2) 
„ Dorothy, 235, 241 
„ Edward, 228, 230, 238, 244 
„ Elizabeth, 245 (2) 
,, Francis, 245 
George, 245 
„ Helen, 245 
Henry, 17 
,, Jackson. 249 

James, 2.:o, 245 (2) 



INDEX 



»75 



:rv. James, I B, I 1 I 
|anc, 145 
John, 1.(1. >47. '4'. »30, 

Rev, John, l ; 
M.wy Magdalen, 187 

.. 

,. 

Rob ,?(-') 

.. 
.. : 

William. 114, I' (•')• 

-■) I 

1 irncr 
Garner. Al 

Andrew, 

Ann. 

I I ■ 234 

Edwaro, 

John, 235 

.. 

Richard, ■ 
,, Thomas, ■ 

William, 22;. M |, 22 , 232 
St* a/10 Gardner 
:t, Henry, 17 
Jean 

1 

Oars/on. I 1 I 
Garth. Helen 

John. 

Gaitside, Edmund, 63, 238 

Gastrell, Bishop. 
Gate, Anne, 230, 25 J 
„ Fnmdi . --3. 255 

,, John, 74 

„ Margaret, 75, 139, -55 
,, Thomas, 74, 75 
Gcnnings, William. 
George II., 69 
George, Kr., 11 9 
Gerard of Brandon, Lord, 210 
Gerard, Sir Thomas, 56 

Sir \\ , 210 

Gerrard, Kev. Robinson, 239 
Gibson, Agnes, 245 

Edward, . 

Elizabeth, 60 

Rev. Henry, ,-9, i | ), 154 

James. .4 1 

Mary 

Mary Liguori, 186 \ 

Bishop Matthew, 65, i I 

Or. Michael, iq; 



n, Richard. 

BUhop William, 65, i 

255 

Gilchrist, W., 1 57 
llillrt, Ann. 
Gillibrand, 1-r., 78 

. 216 

Mr.. Krl, 215, 217, 24 1 I > 
., 
.. 

Alice, 217, 241, 253 

Anne. 2 ;.:, 245 

Mj;t. I ., I 

Rev. George, 89 

Isabella, 245 

John Francis, 

Joseph, 76, 

Mar 

Richard, I \ . 253 

Richard T.. , 

K. .V Sons, 21 j 

Robert, 85, 100 ( ). 1 :. 214. 

.. 

Sarah Anne, I vi, 249, 
and CO., i 
Ginflowski, — , i 
Glasgow, 18 
Golborr. 

Goldie, Charles, 2:2 
,, Teresa, 252 
Golgotha, 17, 244-7 
Gooden, Rev. Peter, 67, 76, 205, 210, 

212, 
Gordon, Bishop, 157 
Charles, 22 ; 
Elizabeth, 22; (2) 
Gomel, Anne, 231, 241 
Martha, 22. p, 225 
„ Thomas, 227, 230, 234 
William. 219, -5.1, 241 
Goss, Bishop, 65, 105-8, ii 
i-o, 154, 256 
,, John, 2.', 1 
Gradwcll, Helen, ns 

„ Rev. Henry, 249 
Rev. R., 11 7, 219 
Grange. 
Grasstndale, 
Graveson, Elizal>eth, 2 
Ellen, 221 
lames, 221, 226 
Mary. 2.-6 



276 






INDEX 








Gravestone, Elizabeth, 225 








Ilardacre (Hardicre), Robert, 


218, 


219, 


„ James, 225 










221, 229, 235, 241 






„ John, 22?, 229 








11 


Thomas, 218 






„ Mary, 225, 229 (2) 






') 


T., 238 






Graystone, Thomas, 241 








»» 


William, 225 (3) 






Green, Anne, 218, 220, 241 


(a) 






Hardman, Edward, 221 






„ Dorothy, 218 








„ 


Ellen, 241 






„ Edward, 249 








,, 


Helen, 245 






„ Elizabeth, 241 








,, 


Matthew, 96, 144, 


245. 


249. 


,, Rev. George, 99 










256 






„ Hugh, 218, 220 








,, 


Sarah, 229 






,, James, 238 








• > 


William, 226 






„ Jane, 21 8, 220 








'1 


and Co., 133 






., J- R- 16 








11 


See also Herdman 






„ Rev. Louis H., 161 








Hardshaw, 82 






„ Magdalen, 238 








Haresn 


ape (Harsnap), Alice, 


IOO, 


219, 


,, Nicholas, 201 










220, 238 






Richard, 218, 241 








11 


George, 10 1 






Thomas, 218, 220, 2 


4', 


249 




,, 


G., 238 






„ Dr. William, 7 ; his 


will 


19 




Hailing (Arling), — , 241 






Greene, Thomas, 95 








,, 


Ellen, 231, 232, 241 






Greenfield, 103 








,, 


Jane, 2^2 






Greenwood, Elizabeth, 245 


(2) 






,, 


Richard, 231, 232 






Gregson, Anne, 221 








,, 


Thomas, 231 






Elizabeth, 221 








Harrison, — , 235, 251 






,, Henry, 236 








,, 


Anne, 223, 228,220, 2. 


2,233( 


„ Mary, 236 










235, 241, 245 






,, Thomas, 221 








,, 


Elizabeth, 59 






Gressingham, 5, 6, io, 13 


, IS 


18, 


198, 


,, 


Ellen, 60 






263 








,, 


Isabel, 21S 






Griffiths, Rev. Walter, 160 








,, 


John, 223, 22^), 229 


(2). 


23'. 


Guest, John, 238 










232, 235,241 






Guilds, 10 








i» 


Margaret, 225, 229, 2 


U 




Gunpowder Plot, 38 








t » 


Mary, 2l8, 236 
Robert, 21S, 229, 233 


(2) 




Haddock, Elizabeth, 238 








»i 


Thomas, 241 






,, Thomas, 238 








Hart, John, 166 






Hall, Alice, 230 








Harterbeck, 212 






„ Ellen, 225 








Hartlepool, 166 






,, William, 100, 225, 2 


30, 2 


39 




Harvey 


, Miss, 214 






Halle, Charles, 89 








, 


Ann, 215 






Halsall, Sir Cuthbert, 53 








,, 


John, 214 






Halton, 2, 17, 22, 56, 64, 


77, 


[9 


-15, 


11 


Mary, 215 






246, 250 








Hatch, 


T. & Sons, 120 






Hamilton, Duke of, 20, 79 








Hathomthwaite, Anne, 60 






Hammersmith, 188, 1 95 










,, John, 68 






Hankinson, John, 81 










,, William, 60 






Ilardacre (Hardicre), Anne, 225, 


231, 


Hatton 


Anne, 221, 224 (2), 22C 


,22S 


229, 


23?. 2 4I 










2 ;6, 241 






,, Elizabeth, 218 


2), 


222, 


225, 


,, 


Catherine, 224 






227, 238,241 


(2) 






,' 


John, 2i\ 






,, James, 225 








»i 


Mary, 226 






„ Jane, 222, 229 








,, 


Richard, !I 






,, Mary, 218 








>* 


Thomas, 221, 224, 226, 


228 | 


2) 






1NDKX 



77 



'rtaks, 17 

1 [swank n faro., 67 

Dr. Edward, 67-70, 77, 2' 5. 
I 

Hawthornlhwaite, J->lin, 339 
Hayd 

,, See ii/jo Haddock 

,, Rev. Thomi 

\\ illi.ini, 2.' - 
Hayhurst, Alice, 222 

George, aaa (2) 

. 14 i 

Heating arrangements, 146 

Icy, Mrs., 214 
I [eaton, Anne, --7 
lltaton near Lancaster, 13, 57, 6l| ''4. 

190, 304, 24;, 24S, 247, 
Heoley, bis sermon at 

the Jubilee, 16: 
Ilendcrson, Kcv. William, 103, 107, 249 
1 ieneage, Thomas, -' 1 ^ 
Hennikcr, T.. .'36 
Henry \ ■ j 
Henry VHL, 4, 9. --, =6, 5-. '44 

Henry, Michael, 184, 219 

Henway, John, 231 

Iletber 1 1. ".1 . s 
Hcrdman, Ellen, 234 
Henry. 228 
,, Margaret, 2 :a 
,, Richard, 234 

Robert, 2 14 
See also llardman 
See Hurst 
Hcsketh, alias of Tootell, 206 
Hest, Edmund, 226 
., Elizabeth, 226 
„ William, 226 
He it Bant, 2, ir, 246 
Hetherington, Grace, 233 
„ John, 233 

William, 233 
Hethington, William, 245 
llcwcuon (Huetson), Elizabeth, 55 
,, Jnhn, 60 

., Margaret, 60 
Richard, ; S 
llewitson, William, IOI, 211 
Hewitt, — . 

,, John, 
Hewson, Mary Etnelborga, i s 7 
Hexham and Nr.vcastU, 140, 14 ' 



Hey, Anne, 

. Margaret, 

Htyskam, .-, 18, 77, go, 247, 
.. Mr., St, 1 
■in, Mary, 23 J 

1 I ancsster, 56 
Richard, 51 

. 
., 1 ■ '37. -••15 

.. Hate 

,, James, 237 
„ Matthew, 245 
,, Robert, 237 
,, See Hurst 
Hitchcock, Henry. 

Hitchmough, Richard, 205, 206, 210 
Hockey, Michael, 245 
Hodgkinson, Alice, 223 
„ Richard, 

Thomas, 223 
llodgskinson (llodskinson), Edward, 226, 
245 
Elizabeth, 226, 330 

Jnhn, 24S 

Mary Agnes, 245 

h, 245 
Thomas, . -45 

William, 245 
■ in, Helen, 227 
Hoghton fam., 204 

— , 'oi 

Ann, 239, 253, 255 

Elizabeth, 7 6 . 211 
,, John. See Dalton 
,, Sir Richard, 36 

William, 76, 211,239, 253, 255 
Holdcn fnm., 41 
„ Erances, 245 
„ Jane, 245 
„ Margaret, 245 
„ Mary, 245 
Holland, Rev. Jeremiah, 99, 257 
Hollesholtie, 200 
Hollinhurst, Margaret, 24; 

,, is, 245 (-) 

1 1 '1 1 well, Jane, 245 
HoUoway, John Hughes, 124 
lb. line, Barbara, 

Dorothy, 238 
Mary. 24 1 
Matthias, 239 
Robert, 
Thomas, 60, 23S 



'78 



INDEX 



Holy Oils, I')8, 259 

Holy Watei \ essels, 1 -'5 
Hook, — ,249 
Horman, Mar)', 245 
Hornby, Ann, 24 1 

E. G., 97 

Margaret, 245 
,, Thomas, 241 
Hornby, 10,71,82, 101, 161, 191,212-4, 

225, 229 
Horsfall, Elizabeth, 59 

Mark, 59 
Hothersall (Huddersall), Alice, 221, 225, 

229, 236, 237 
Houghton, B. John, 144 
Houland, Edward, 241 
Howson, — , 251 
Hoyle Bank, 1 90 
1 lubbers ty, Ellen, 55 
Huddersall. See Hothersall 
Huddlestone, Alice, 229 

,, Elizabeth, 227 

Ellen, 225 
,, James, 225, 227, 229 

"Mary, 225, 227, 229, 241 (2) 
Hueber, Christopher, 257 
Huetson. See Hewetson 
Hughes, Thomas, 249 
Hulton, Elizabeth, 208 

„ William, 208 
Hulton Park, 208 
Hunt, Ven. Thurstan, 36-7, 254 
Hunter, Helen, 245 
John, 245 
Huntingdon, Earl of, 26 
Hurst, Mary, 236 
Hurst, Ven. Richard, 43, 256 

Immison, Juliana, 241 
Jttce Blundell, 160 
Income of the clergy, 6, 7, Q3, 98 
Indulgences, 10, 20, 166, 181 
Ingilby, John, 239 
Innocent XI., 210 
' . :-." 'ruck, 141 
Inventory of St. Fcter's Chuich 

257-6) 
hleworth, 5 

Jackson, Anne, 233 
,, Charles, 245 

,, Elizabeth, 240 

John, 245, 263 
,, Margaret, 249 



Jackson, Mary, 241, 243 (3) 
„ Thomas, 245, 249 
James I., 37, 38 
James II., 62, 67, 209 
James, II. E., 249 
Jansenism, 68 
Jelly, Elizabeth, 60 

,, William, ' 1 
Jenkins, Kev. George, 102 
Jenkinson, Miss, 145 

,, Christopher, 239 

„ Elizabeth, 249 

,, Ellen, 253 

Mary, 239 
Jennings, William, 245 
Jepson, Anne, 5 1 

,, Edward, ~g 
Jesuits, 16, 2-,, 33, 41, 58 
Jesus Guild, 10 
Jesus Mass, 8 
Jewell, Bishop, 23, 51 
John, King, 1 1 
John of Gaunt, 12 
Johnson, Dr., 210 
,, Mrs., 249 
„ Alice, 235 
„ Anne, 235, 245 
,, Mar)', 236 
,, Robert, 236 
,, Rev. Robert, 239 
Jones, Mrs., 214, 241 
„ Miss, 241 
,, Catherine, 241 
,, Constantia, 241, 254 
,, Rev. Edward, 238 

Edward, 241 
,, James, 241 
,, Mary, 227, 2:7 
,, Michael, 226 
Joyce, Elizabeth, 219(2) 
„ George, 233 
,, Mary, 233 
,, William, 219 
Jubilee Celebrations, 163 S> > 

KAUFFMANN, Angelica, 87 
Kay, Rev. Thomas, 212 
Kaye (Kay), Elizabeth, 239 

„ Ellen, 220, 221 (2) 

„ John, 85, 210, 2.-0--, 
241 

,. Mary, 245, 2.;9 

„ Richard, 243 

,, Thomas, 220 



28, 236, 



fNDEX 






Kcarnv Nicholas, 

Keenc, --. 
Keenan, — , i 4 

Kelly. Itridget, 
.. 

n (KiUam), Ann, 1 1 1 
1 

Margaret, 
., 
Kellet, . 245 

n. 1 >r. Matthew, 
Kelly, Bamaby, .'41 
Catherine, 
Patricl 
Ktndai, 99 

Kennc -, 225 

Kenny, Rer. James, 161,1 4, 166 
Ktsuruky 18 
KitttrtHg, 1 ' 
Kew, Anthony, 223 
Kit-man, Rev. Thomas, 193 

m Kellam 
Kilthaw, Anne, 219 

1 1 . 114, H> 
Thomas, 225 
'. 1 54 
Kimniis (Kimmins), Edward, 227, 2j'\ 
241 
Elizabeth, -27 
Margaret, 2-'< \ -31, 24: 
Sarah, 2 7. - V • (-') 
Kin.iston, William. 21 4 
Kin;;. — , 44 
A'hi&jr Lonsdale, 18 
Kirkham, Miss, 216, 237 

Anne, 236, 23S, 239. 243 
Alice, 216, 233, 237, 23S, 241 
Catherine, 234, 237, 241 
., C.,241 

Elizabeth, 245 

George, 216, 230, 234, 237, 241 
Grace, 222 

Henry, 213, 216, 222-4, 226, 
228, 230, 236, 237, 241 
., Margaret, 238 

Richard. 
,, Rev. William, 13S, [40 
William, 245 
Kirkham, 40, 164, 1 >5 
Kitchen (Kitchin). Rev. Edward, 64 

Mary, .'20 
Knipe, Ellen, 59 
„ Isabel. ;o 
Knock, Elizabeth, 222 



Mary, 245 

I 

Chapel, i"4, ' - , -5-\ 259 
■." ft 
Lamb, Brii 

1 n ■ •■ 1 ■ 
lane, 245 
John, 249 
\\ illiam, 24 1 

2 .i3 
Lamps. 113, See also Votive Lights 
" Lancashire Plot," 75 

: ire \ icu iati . 6$i 94 
Lancaster, Dukes of, 12 
Lancaster, Lawrence, 2U 

,, 

I nomas, 20 
liter, early history, I 
,, 

,, crosses, 2 

gallows, 25 
,, Reformation in, I $-17 

,, religious foundations, 7-1 I 

Lancaster Castle asap I, 34, 

35, 40-43, 4". ■■:. 4'. 61, 

Lancaster Church (St. Mary's), 26; its 
ancient services, 4,6, 19; chantl 
9 ; guild, 10 j vicars, 5-7, 14-'°. 44 

Lancaster Corporation, 8, 9, 10, 95, 98 ; 
mayors, 14, 109-10; park, 25 

Lancaster Monasticism : Benedictine 
priory, 3-5, 207; Dominican priory, 
1 1, 20, N4 ; supposed Franciscan house, 
11. ;o; St. Leonard's Hospital, 11 ; 
Cistercians at Beaumont, I 2 

Lancaster Post-Reformation Catholicism : 
Conditions, 15, 16; Recusants, 55, 59; 
supposed chapel in Bridge Lane, 62 ; 
mass said again, 62, 78 ; mission estab- 
lished in the town, 75, 79; number of 
Catholics in 1767, 82 

Lancaster School, 4, 8, iS, 199 

I,ane, — , 127 

Langtrce, Rev. R. J., 164, 166 

Lanherne, 192 

I.atus. Jane, 1 

Lawrence, Kr.. 109 

Lawrence fam., II, 20, 74 
,, Agnes, 20 
,, Alice, 20 

Edmund, 20 
,, Elizabeth, 20 



?So 



INDI-X 



1 '■'. i -nee, James, 20 
John, 20 (2) 
,, Margaret, 20 
,, Sir Robert, -O 
,, Robert, 20 
,, Sir Thomas, 20 
Lawrenson, Dorothy, 228, 236, 242 

,, Mary, Z41 

Lawson, Sir J., 21.5, 255 
Layfield, Alice, 254 
,, Elizabeth, 225 
,, John, 245 
Mary, 237 
,, Richard, 221 
„ Thomas, 234, 242 
l.aylon Hall, 1 55 
Lea near Preston, 141, 143 
Lee, Margaret, 233, 242 
Leece, Thomas, 249 
tends, 130, 140, 154, 1^7 
Lcemingfam., 119, 137, 195 
„ Anne, 245 
„ Catherine, 242, 245, 249 
,, Eliza, 257 

„ Elizabeth, 239, 245 (2), 249 
„ Helena, 192 
,, James, 242 

"Jane, 24; (2) 
„ Mrs. Jane, 250 
Jane F., 250 

John, 192, 242, 245 (2), 240 
Margaret, 145, 242, 245, 253,' 

257 
Margery, 145, 14G, 245, 249 
„ Mary, 245 
„ Mary F., 250 
„ Mary Seas., 250 

Richard, 96, 104, 121, 133, 137, 
143, 145, -45. 249, =56, 257 
„ Robert, 233, 242, 245 (2) 
Sarah, 245 

Thomas, 242, 245, 250 
„ William, 104, 120, 121, 245, 
249 
Mrs. William, 249 
Rev. William, 138, 143 
Eegatine Constitutions, 202 
Legh, Sir Urian, 45 
Leigh, Rev. William (" Parson Lee "), 39, 

41, 42 
Leigh, 4< 

Leigh/on in Yealand, 107, 205, 210, 249 
Lennon, Anne, 2 n 
„ Catherine, 135 



Lennon, Christian, 231 
„ Edward, 231 
Mary, 233 
Patrick, 233 
Leo XIII., 26, 119, 156; his prayer for 

the conversion of England, 196 
Leonard, Agnes, 234 
„ Denis, 234 
,, Edward, 234 

John, 232 
,, Sarah, 232 
Sophy, 232 
Leslie, Charles, 69 
Levenshu/me, 139 
Lever, Great, 39 
Leyburne, Bishop, 63, 210 
-, 263 
,, George, 210 

,, James, 26 

Leye, Christopher, 201, 202 
Ley/and, 48, 204 

,, Dean of, 79 

Lichfield, 1 1 3 

Lightbound, Mary Berchmans, 187 
Lightbourne, Mary, 227 
Lighting arrangements, 146 
Lilystone Hall, 76 
Lincoln, I 5 
Lincolnshire, 105 
Lindow, Rev. John, 21S, 222 
Lingard, Rev. John, 93, 101 
Lisbon, 67, 73, 140, 205 
Liverpool, "8, 99, "3, "4, 121. 125, 139, 
I40-3, 'S3. I59-6I, 185, 189, 193-5, 
248 
Liverpool, see of, 65, 94 
London, 26, 29,36,69, 11S, 153, 214, 2'5 
,, St. Paul's, 19 
,, Tower, 35 
Longsettle (? Long Sleddalc), 247 
Lonsdale, 3, 16, 22, no, 204, 203 
Love!, Prior Giles, 5 
Loyndes, Elizabeth, 245 (2) 
,, Helen, 245, 250 

„ Mary, 245 

„ Susan, 245 

] it, u rue, 89 
Lucina, 131 

Lucy Brook (Lousie Beck), II, 20 
Lund, William, 220 
Lune, 11, 18, 71, 74 ; Mill, 201 
Lupton, Charles, 219, 222, 224, 227, 229, 
23', 235, 242 
„ Elizabeth, 231 



INDEX 



i 



Luptoo, 1 i i . -•! 

.> 

,, loll 

,, 

M ...■.-. 

aji,a3i * ■•) 
,, 

Rev. Thomas, 93 
,, Thomas, 2 - 

William, 2 1 I. 24- 

-35. 24- 
Henrj 

Margaret, iaa 
Him 
Thomas, 222 

William. 22" (2). 230. 2J5 

Lynch, Helen (Wells), 

Ml An 1 v. (Catherine, 186 
Patrick, . 

., Rose, 

rthy, Ch., 239 
McDonald, Arthui 
,, 

Rachel, 223, 22 : 

lliii, John. I3S 
' ^" r i Agnes, 250 
McGuire. .StfMaguire 
Macharel, Elisabeth, 24; 
Machcl (Machal), Elitabeth, 217 
lames, 
John, 23a 

Mary. 2;2. .42 

M> Hugh, Rev. Bartholomew, 93 
McKay, Ann, 242 

n. Henry, 250 
McLarncn, Alice 

Henry, 245 
McLoskey, Ellen. 

Margaret, 225 

I'atrick, 22; 
McManus, Edwai 
Macnamara, Elizabeth, 22S, 242 
„ Iam< . 

John. 22S 
McQnoin, Mary Ignatius, 1 07 
,160 
■ ire (Macguire), John, 232, 245 
M irj 
I'hilr 

Mums Hi!,', near Poulton-le-Fylde, 204 



Malre, Mr., 11 | 

Mallei, Dr. 1 14, 1 5, 19, 20! 

Mally, Ellen, 1 1 

fane, -42 
Mary, 22S 

A/.IU. I 

,, ' ip "'. ■•? 

,, cllUh 260-I 

Manning, Cardinal, 1 

., Mr., 21 I 
Manor, The. .Sec Fnmra 

rough, 208 
Marsh, George, 14, 21 
,, Rev. J. !(., 102 
Marshal, Elizabeth, 232 
Mrs., 242 
■1 1, William, \\J <, 25 i 
Martin, lane, 220 
„ John, 
,, Thomas, 239 
Martyr, Petei I Vermilius), 51 
•■ Martyrs' M< mortal, " 2 

Mary I., 7, 1 

Mary Queen of Scots, 
Mascough. 5m Mycrscough 
Mashiter, lane, 61 

Robert, I I 
Maskay (? Myerscough), Elizabeth, 220 
Mason, Anne Teresa, 222 
,, Mary, 222, 223 (2) 
„ Thomas, 222, 223 
' I 1 Street Chapel, 79-83 
Massey, Rev. William, 159,254 
Maston, Mary. 223 
Mattersby, Elizabeth, 231, 2 7. 212 
Ceorge, 234 
John, 234, 237, 242 
ley, Isabel, 220 
,, Rev. James, 21* 

,, John, 220, 221 (2) 

,, Mary, 220, 221 

,, Sarah, 246 

Mawley, James, 242 
Mayne, B. Cuthbert, 52, 14 t 
Mazarin, Cardinal, 50 
. Mary, 24S 
Burnt, 89 
Melling, Anne, 219, 2. . ;, 235 

„ Mrs., 242 

Thomas, 239, 242 
Milling, 213,213 
Mellon, Mi- . 
Mercer, Henry, 2.su 



282 



INDEX 



Mercer, Mary, 2lS 

r, 1 8 

Metcalfe, Thomas, 40 
Mcym-ll, Mary, 79 
Mi hclgrovc, 3 3 
Middlesbrough, 140 
Middleton, — , 40 

Ven. Robert, 36-7, 53, 254 
Atiddleton near Lancaster, 12, 55 
Micrscough. See Myerscough 

Milan, '- s 
Millar, Mary, 250 
Millfield, 140 

Millinglon, James, 233 
Milncr, Bishop, 69 
Minor church ornaments, 145-6 
Mitchel (Michel), Anne, 219 
,, Frances, 235 
,, Joseph, 24 11 
Molyneux, — ,210 

Edward, 238 
,, Eleanor, 238 

„ Robert, 206 

Mooney, Anne, 232 

Bernard, 230, 232, 234 
Catherine, 234 
Elizabeth, 230, 232, 234 
John, 228, 231, 232 
,, Mary, 230 
,, Peter, 2 4 
Moor Hall in Aughton, 206 
Moore, Anne, 246 
„ Elizabeth, 236 
,, James, 215 
,, Robert, 236 
Moorlands Estate, 149 
Morand, Margaret, 246 
More, B. Thomas, 144 
Morecambe, 109, 191, 192, 248 
Morgan, John, 233, 234 
Morley, Mr., 204 
Morlcys Hall in Leigh, 45 
Morrison, T. , 124 
Morron, Rev. E. , 102 
Morton, A., 242 

„ Agnes, 100, 223, 239 
,, Alice, 227, 238 
,, Anne, 221, 242 
James, 214, 242 
Jane, 238 

Margaret, 225, 238 
Mary, 221, 222, 224-7, 23S 
„ Richard, 224, 242 
Thomas, 227, 242 



Morti 11. William, 215, 221, 223,22 . 

■ -'4-: 
Moscow. See Myerscough 
Moss, Anne, 100 
Mossborough near Frcscot, 206 
Mountain, Catherine, 22}, 232, 236 
,, Francis, 232, 242 

Joseph, 213, 22!, 223, 224, 

229, 231, 233, 236, 242 
M., 222 
,, Margaret, 236 

Mary, 242 
Mounteagle, Lord, 10 
Mowbreck near Kirkham, 22 
Mucclevanny, John, 230 
Murphy, Mary, 239 

Rev. T. I\, 160, 164, 194 
Murray, Anne, 246 
Hugh, 2461 
Myerscough (Mascough, Moscow), Ellen, 
232,234,237,242 
Elizabeth, 221 (2), 230,235-7, 

239, 242 
Isabel, 230 
,, James, 220, 221, 223, 226, 

9, 242(2) 
., Jane, 220, 221, 223 

,, John, 226, 229, 232, 236, 

239, 242 
Joseph, 223, 242 
,, Mary, 242 

R-, 23° 

Richard, 228, 229 (2), 230, 
236, 237, 242 
,, Sim. Ml. 21 .!, 223, 226, 242(2) 

Thomas, 232 (2), 242 
William, 242, 246 
„ Winefride, 226, 227, 229, 

230, 232, 236 
Myerscough, 77 

Natcby, 2 m 
Naughten, Anne, 246 

„ Patrick, 246 

Nave, description of, 1 20-5 
Nazareth House, 188, 195 
Nelson, John, 52, 246 

,, Stephen, 246 
Neville, Agnes, 220, 224 

,, Alice, 220 

„ John, 220, 224 

,, Margaret. 224 
Newbury, battle of, 66, 205, 208 
Newby, Christopher, 218 



INDEX 






i 

in. Rev. V, 

Newti 

! Iround, 59 

200, 202 
i, F»nny, 242 
Nicholas IV., 10 

. 1 1, 109 
Christ I'licr, 242 
-J4 

Nightingale. ' • 231 

N 

,, 

I D, 

.. V "■ 

., Richard, | . 

K..l>crt, -4" 
,, Thomn- 

William, 250 

Miss, 242 

Edward, 

[ohn, 21?, 234. 242 
.. Th..m - 

I, Elizabeth, 222 
Johi 

"■I u irel 
.nformists, 51, 52. 
Korth(hurch, 19 

cm Rebellion, 15, 24 
n. Henry. 
, 107 

II, Agnes, 238 
Nugent, Bridget, 246 

,, Margaret, 
Nutter, Yen. John, 34 

., Ven. Robert, 34, 35. 37, 255 

Oatf.s, Titus. 5 

ryen, Rev. P, A., 194 
( ("Byrne, 1-rancis, 246 

Mary Agnes, 246 
Oldcom, Anne. 227. 229 (2), i 
242 (2), 246 
Isal 



.. 
.. 

[nditrJ 

,, 
.. 
.. 

A 

:n near 1.' . , l6l 

Uinclvanny (? Mnceleranny), Grace, 
Henry, i 

John, 

< llliriii. I 

[ of the Church, I 

Ordinations at St I'ctcr's, 14-. 
O Kcilly, Bishop, t, i|-, 14,-. 

, >59. 254 
1 r.. 
Organ, 88, 121- < 
Ormandy, Anne, 59 

Richard, 59 
Orrell, James, 214 
. ■ *lon, Ann. 
„ 

225 

Othobon, Cardinal, 202 

>, 190 
Ovcrend, —,215 
Ozcrton near Lancaster, 5,12, 1 3, 

197 
" Owen House." I ; 1 
Oxcliffe, 61, 190 
Oxford, 67, ' 9 

Pai a 1 ins Hall, 99 
Taley, E. G., 1 ',,150 

al Aggression," 96-8 
Papal Collector, 7. 

). 93i '45 
I'arke (I'ark), Amy, 220, ."22 
Anne. 239, 246 
., Catherine, 231, 237 
.. Elizabeth, 218 (2), -22, J42 (2) 
Ellen, 220 
Emma. 217 
,, Hannah, 218 
.. Henry, 242 
.. James. 217, 21S, 222 (2), 242 

lane, 21S 
,, John, 217, 219, 220, 242, 246 
: •'. 



2S4 



INDEX 



Parke (Park), N.,231 
„ Thomas, 246 
„ William Cuvin, 231 
Parker, —,212 

Anne, 239 
,, Edward, 238 
,, Jane, 218 
,, Margaret, 239 
Robert, 238 
Park Hall in Charnock Richard, 76, 204, 

211 
Park Saliva Quernmorc, 73, Si, 203-5 
Parkinson, Edward, 61 
Ellen, 239 
,, George, 246 

,, Grace, 246 

,, Hannah, 246 

„ Helen, 250 

„ Isabel, 59 

„ Jeremiah, 192, 246, 250, 254 

„ Jerome, 219 

„ Rev. James, 159, 253 

Jane, 246 
„ John, 100, 239, 246 (2) 

,, Margaret, 61 

„ Mrs. (Margaret), 119, 192, 255 

„ Thomas, 246 (2) 

William, 59, 89 
Parr, Ellen, 238 
„ Mary, 242 
Paslew, Abbot, 14, 21, 254 
Patchett, Richard, 263 
Taul, Frederick, 195, 246 

,, Mary, 246 
Paulinos, 130 
Peacock, Barnabas, 21S 
Pedder, Grace, 219 

James, 219 (2) 
,, Robert, 250 
Pemberton, — , 242 

„ Andrew, 242 

„ Anne, 222, 225 

„ Catherine, 224 

,, Edward, 242 

„ Elizabeth, 220, 240 

„ Ellen, 242 

,, Henry, 240 

James, 219, 242 
„ Jane, 238, 242 

„ Richard, 242 

,, William, 223 

Pcmbcrtoit, 89, 143 

Penal Laws, 23-25, 33, 34, 37, 57.61, 75, 
95 



Penketh, Fr., 61 
Pennington, Alice, 235, 246 
„ Elizabeth, 232 

,, Isabel, 237 

„ James, 246 

„ Jane, 246 

„ Lawrence, 246 

„ Margaret, 246 

Richard, 235, 237 
„ Thomas, 250 

Rev. William, 81 
,, William, 246, 250 

Pcnswick, Bishop, 65 

,, Catherine, 237 
Dorothy, 237 
Randolph, 237 
Perks, Anne, 227 
,, Mary, 227 
„ N., 227 
Peter's Pence, 7, 198 
Petre, Bishop, 65, 82, 100, 253, 257 
Philip II., 52 
Philip and Mary, 207 
Phocica, 141 
Pickering, Mary Gonzaga, 187 

,, Mary Walburga, 187 

Pieta, 126 

" Pilgrimage of Grace," 13, $- 
Tilling, Alice, 248 
,, Anne, 222 
,, Catherine, 217, 220 
„ Elizabeth, 217, 248 
„ Jane, 232 
,, John, 220 
,, Mary, 220, 228, 235, 246 

Richard, 217, 220 
„ Thomas, 232, 234, 240 
Pilling, 143, 193 
Piscina, 1 19 
Pius V., 28, 31 
Pius VI., 239 
Pius VIII., 153 

Ploughs, blessed at Epiphany, 197 
Poland, 188 
Pool (Poole), —,210 
„ Elizabeth, 231, 232, 235 
„ James, 228, 232, 235, 242 
,, Mrs., 242 
,. M.i 234 
„ Mary, 232 
Thomas, 235 
Porter, Henry, 16 
Mary, 225 
Portsmouth, 124 



INDEX 



285 



Rev. T.. 11 
HU Ymii in Ultledale, St, 211 

t'uulion, — , 219 
Ann, 

Christopher, 
Elisabeth, lift 
Bile . 
.. 

M.ir> 

Richard, -I-. 110, MI, 223, 

W1lI1.un. 

■: near Lancaster, 18, 61, 

. 1 54 

. Judge, 62, 

.vers," 77 
/■>,-.•/, -o 
I vrcry, I I | 

. -05 

,, Anne, 

Catherine, 
,, Elizabeth, 

Ellen, 

1 i 1 - h, 138, 143, 

M ITJ», 

Mary Kile . 

Richard, 1 . 1, -~7 

Bishop Richard, 138, 141, U-, 

2 >'- 
„ Rolicrt, 109, 128, 136, I!!. 1 I-, 

■44, '95 
Sir Thomas. 73, 205 
Thomas, 60, 06, 104, 109, 15S, 

192. 195, 246, 250, 254 
Mrs. Thomas, 250 
Winefride, - 4 

•:, II, 18, 36, 40, 44, 

IOO, I05, 121, 124, 139, 155, 

159, 161, [66, 195, 198, 2lt, 

214. 
battle of, 
1'ricsls 1 House, \ | <~5° 

Priests "a the mission, 
l'rocter, Katherine, 55 
Richard, == 

:.\nt, a scrupulous, io/> 
Pnutia, . 

Pug'n, P. P., 129 

Pugin and Pugin, 192- 1 

Pulpit, 1 20 

. 20.1-5, 
; suspected meeting at, 
Quigley, Bridget, 



fam., ro 
A\i"i .:>. 1 le "I Mi". : 

. 

Redmaii le, and 1 1 ii;us<in, 101 

Redmayne, Joseph, 8 •■. 
,, 1 :■ rd, 
. iw, Anne, 1 |6 
Richard, 
Registei . . : 7 

iiion of estates, 6 1, 70, : I ( 
2-3 
Kcid, Miss, 118 

. 139, 1 :', 
Reliel aia 

Reredos, 1 14 

don, the, ~<), 66 
ilution, the, 6 ; 
Kcydon. St* Rojdon 
Reynolds, Rev. Charles, 19 i 

,. 
Ribchester, George, 
,, Jam. 

Peter, 
Rikch,- 

Richard III. (Duke of Gloucester). 
Richardson, Edward, 223, 22;, 233,235, 

-K. 
Elizabeth, 233 
Mary. 22 (, 225, » 2 7i 23°, 

233, 
„ Matthew, 230 

,, Teter, 227, 230 

Thomas, 22;, 
Richmond, Archdeacon of, 4i 5, 2<>2 
Richmond, — , 25 1 

,, Rev. John Austin 

Richni"n<l 1 louse, 101 
Riddell, Dorothy, 21 1 
„ Edward, 21 1 
Ralph, 211 
Ridge in Bulk, 2ui, 21 :. 
Rigby, Alice, 221 
lames. 242 
.. Rev. John, 82, 84-6, 88, 100, 
toi, 103, 129, 190, 191, 213, 
215-17, 219, 221, 23;, 237, 
240, 255 ; account of, 89-93 
,, Mary. 89 

Richard, 89 
„ Rev. Thomn . ,217 

William 
„ alias of Arrow -in 



286 



INDKX 



Rigmaiden (Uigmeydon), John, 22 
,, Margaret, 20, 213 

,, Nicholas, 20 

Richard, 263 
Rimmer, Anne, 226 
„ Isabel, 221 

,, Jane,;22l, 223, 226, 228 (2), 
231 , 242 
John, 223 (2), 226, 228, 231 (2) 
„ Mrs., 214 
,, Thomas, 242 
Ripley, John, 250 

„ Mary, 230, 235 (2), 242, 246 (2) 
„ Thomas, 235 
Rixton, 49 
Robert Hall in Tathara, 71, 73, 81, 82, 

204 
Robinson, Christy, 250 

,, Elizabeth, 64, 246 

,, John, 64, 242 

,, Mary, 246 

,, Richard, 246 

Roche, Rev. Joseph, 160 
Roe, Barbara, 238 
„ Dorothy, 238 
„ John, 239 
,, Thomas, 239 
Roger of Poitou, 3 
Rogerson, Captain, 242 

„ Anne, 219, 246, 252 (2), 256 
„ Dorothy, 252, 256 

„ Elizabeth, 220, 221, 226, 229 

George, 220, 223, 239, 252, 
256 
„ John, 217, 218, 220, 221, 222, 

223, 252, 254 
,, John Corlas, 221 
,, Louisa, 252 

,, Mary, 220, 221, 223, 246 

,, Peter, 229, 230 

„ Susan, 237 

Thomas, 221 (2), 223, 226, 
229, 230 
„ William, 226, 242 

Rome, 48, SI, 64, 75, 130, 139, 141, 
142, 146, 152, 153, 159, 161, 
198, 206 
,, Catacombs of, 114 
Roneson, Martha, 219 
Rose, Frances, 246 
Roskay, John, 236 
Roskell, Bishop, 107 
Rev. J., 107 
Rossa/!, 16 



Rowlandson, Catherine, 223, 229, 242 

,, John, 242 

Roydon, Rev. Thomas, 100 
Rule, Alexander, 224 

„ Mary, 224 (2) 
Rushes in the Chancel, 198 
R us holme, 139 
Russell, Janet, 59 
,, Richard, 59 

Sacred Heart chapel, 129 

St. Anne's on Sea, 1 60, 161 

St. Catherine, sisters of, 188 

St. Charles Borromeo, 128; chapel, 128, 

252 
St. Cuthbert's chapel, 13 
St. Ethelburga's Convent, Mount Vernon, 

185, 187, 195 
St. George, Chevalier de, 21 1 
St. Helens, 82, 141 
St. John of Jerusalem, Knights of, 12 
St. Kentigern, 2, 18 
St. Leonardgate, 10, 7.^-80, 83 
St. Leonard's Hospital, 1 1 
St. Loyes chapel, 10, 20 
St Mary, devotion to, 3, 6, 8-IO, 19, S8, 

117, 132, 138, 146, 196 
St. Nicholas, 10, 20, 151 
St. Omers, 48, 54, 64 
St. Patrick, 1, 17, 151 

,, his chapel, 2, S, 9 

,, his lands, 2, 8 

,, his wells, 2, 17 

St. Peter's statue, 146 
SS. Processus and Martinianus. 1 30 
St. Thomas of Canterbury, 8, 126, 131, 

135, 176, I9P 
St. Walburga, 186 ; her convent, 185-8 
Salford, 73, 107, 127, 138, 139, 157 
Salisbury, Margaret, 219 
Salisbury, 14 

Salter, Lower, in Roeburndale, 2 1 2 
Salvage, George, 242 
Sandwell, Mary, 228 

„ Richard, 226 (2), 223 

Sarah, 226, 228 
Sawley, 14, 26 
Sayere, Anne. 10 

Scale Hall in Skerton. 57, 74, 206 
Scarborough, 107, 155 
Scarisbrick, James, 240 

,, Richard, 240 

" Schismatics," 53 
Schmitz, P. L, 89, 107, 124, 250 



i \ i n: x 






i S3 

, 82-5, 
■ 
• ■ . 1, 101 

MS 

1 
1 

Pari, 1 ; 1 
'. 

\nn.- Helen 1 
,. Helen, -'to (a) 
,. Henry, 
,. Janus. 146 (2) 
.. Rev. .1. II.. 106 
,, Joseph, 246 
.. Margaret, -• 1 i 
,, Thom.i . 

Seminary Trieste 

;it fam., ,"0 
.. 

Dorothy, 21 ;, 246, 250 
Eleanor, 59 
Ellen, 60 
Rev. George, 1 56 
lleorge, 246, 250 |2) 
John, 213 
Rev, John, 100 
Julia, -'4'>, 250 
., Mai 

Robert, 59, 70 (2) 
] 1 . 

Sarah, 246, (2) 250 
Thorn 
e Books, 6, 

, -•; 1 
Shaccleton, Mrs., 242 
Shannon, A -42 

Edward, 121, 23;, 240 
Elizabeth, 
Ellen, 229, 233 
Gavin, 229, 233 
Jane, 229 
Sharpe, Edmund, 104 

ies (Sharplass), Ellen, 221, I 
J 
Helen. J 2 1 

lames. 219 (2), 221, 2.6, 233, 
24a 
,, John, 242 

Mii) . :i j. 2 \6 



Sharpie ■ 1 harpla 1), !'• ter, i 

,, Ki.1i.ik), 233 
Sarah 

1 bom '. 238, 242 

Shaw, I 

1 
1 ■ 

■' }6 

M.irv. 
Thomas, 2$6 

Shelley. Richard, 33 
Shepherd. Dorothy, 229, 2 ,1 
Elizabeth 

J" 

Mai 
Mana. I 

Robert, 220 
["nomas, 

Sherington. I 

SillTV. , 52 

Shiers, Elizabeth, 219, . 

1 
Shirebume fara., 5" 

1 lichard, 22 
Thomas, 77 
Shirwod, Dr. John, 202 
Shrewsbury, 157. 
Shrigley, Helen, 246 
J.. 106, 25 1 
Shrigley and Hunt, 13''. 145 
Shuttleworth, Dorothy, 21 < 

Ellen. 219. 222 
Richard. 219. J22 (2) 
Mrs., 250 
Simonswood, 18 
Simpson, Alice, 2;i 
,. Edward. 129 
„ Elizabeth, 219, 220, 223, .' .:, 

247 
,, Jane, 226 
„ John. 220, 228 
Joseph, 247 
Mary. 233 
Richard. 224, 235 
Sarah, 22". 223, .-.'4 (2), 226, 
228, 231. 233 
„ Thomas, 2.- . . 228, 

'. 233 
Singleton fam., 57 
Bisho] 
,, Alice. 

Dorothy, i 19, | 
Edward, 238, 246 
Henry, 263 



288 



INDEX 



Singleton, John, 74 

„ Margaret, 220, 222, 224 

„ Mary, 74 

„ Richard, 214, 227, 229, 238, 

239, 242 
„ Thomas, 74, 219 
Singleton, 64 
Sisterhoods, 192, 194 
Sitgreaves, George, 242 
Skelton, Mary, 79 

Rev. Nicholas, 75, 79-81, 256 
,, Richard, 79 
Skerton, 12, 60, 74. 109, 128, 160, 164, 

iqo. 191, 193-5,218, 243-8 
Skillicorn, Agnes, 20 

,, William, 20 

Slater, Alice, 233 

Anne, 232, 242 
,, Catherine, 226 
,, Elizabeth, 225 
,, Esau, 250 
,, George, 228 
,, Henry, 225, 242 (;) 
,, Jacob, 250 

„ John, 223-5, 228, 232, 242, 250 
,, Margaret, 224 (2), 225, 228, 232 
,, Mary, 227, 231, 233, 242 
,, Richard, 225 
„ Thomas, 24*, 250 
Slaughter, Dr., 214 
Sly >ie, 2 

Smethies. See Smithies 
Smith, Alice, 247 

„ Anne, 228, 23S, 247, 255 
,, Dorothy, 247 

Edward, 104, 247, 250, 253 
,, Rev. Edward, 138, 143 
„ Elizabeth, 247 (2), 250 
,, Ellen. 171, 239 
„ Rev. Frederick, 13S, 140 
,, Hannah, 218 

Hugh, 228 
„ Bishop James, 65 

John, 226, 228, 238 
,, Rev. John, 49, 193 

Joseph, 134, 135, 247, ?54 
,, Misses, 250 
,, Margaret, 226 

Mary. 136, 228, 231, 247 
,, Mary Anne, 247 
Nicholas, 239, 247 
Patrick, 24S 
Ralph, 217 
Richard, senior, 1 36, 257 



Smith, Richard, junior, 151, 195 
,, Rev. Robert, 159 
,, Iiishop Thomas, 65 
,, Rev. Thomas, 138, 140 
,, William, 109, 192, 195, 250, 263 
,, Winefride, 247, 254 
Smithies, — , 242 
,, Anne, 247 
,, James, 247 
,, Jane, 247 
,, Thomas, 247 
Smythe, Mary Imelda, 187 
Snape, Andrew, 65 

Anne, 219, 239 
„ Elizabeth, 64, 237 
„ James, 219, 228, 239, 242 
„ John, 219, 222, 227, 242 
„ Margaret, 227 
,, Mary, 219, 222 (2), 227 
„ Richard, 242 

„ Thomas, 219, 225, 230, 231, 242 
Southport, 99 
Southworth fam., 56 

,, Catherine, 242 

,, George, 57 

„ Ven. John, 40, 42 

John, c,7, 201 
Mary, "57 
Matthew, 201 
Soye, Jane, 229 

,, Richard, 229 
Speddy, Elizabeth, 247 
Spire, 106, 146 
Squire, Rev. Edward, 54 
Stalmitte, 5,6, 13, 15, 18, 198 
Stalybridge, 154 
Stand, James, 219 
Standen, Agnes, 247 
Eleanor, 247 
James, 219, 234 (2), 237, 242, 

247 
„ John, 250 
,, Margaret, 238 

Mary, 239, 242 
„ Richard, 242 
„ Sarah, 234, 242 
„ Susanna, 235, 237, 242 

Thomas, 215, 234, 237, 240, 
242, 247 
,, Thomas Parkin, 247 
Standish, John, 9 
Standiih, 39 
Stanwith, Margaret, 234 
Staplcton, Ch., 238 






INDEX 






Stmtions o( the ' I 

Statistics ol baptisms, .utcn.lanr 

i 
Stephens, Rev. Edward, l< I, r 

Stephenson, Elizabeth, 247 

Man , - 1 

Stevenson, [ohn, 2.10 

., 
StUlingfleet, Dr., 
Stirling, , 1 1 ;, 
Sttxiton, 139 
Sttdda, 1 ' 
Stoki -, S. v, .'50 
Stony hut ■ :. 

•. , Sii Thorn 

,, Mary lvv.u 

Street, .:■>.. •.,■ i"i 1 Sopeland, 
Sturxaker, Alice, » 
I- ibert, 50 
riptions, Lists ■■f, 1 ■ ;. 

Sudcll, Anne, 229 

,, Tames, 

,, Margai t, 129 
Snlyard, I , 259 
Sumner, Robert, 24.' 

.:*;./, 140 
Swainbank, Elizabeth, 250 
Swarbrick, Agnes, --7 

,, Alice, 250 

„ Ann. 138 

Cecily, 229, 242 

Ellen, 231 

Grace, 229, 242 
., Henry, 239 

babel, 242 
,, Rev. James, 64, 76 

,, Kev. J., 107 

Jane, 247 

John, 231, 233. -39, 242, 250 
Mary, 227, 229, 233 
,, Richard, 247, 250 

William, 223, --4, 227-9, 233, 
2.59, 242 
.-< mt, 2 1 1 
Swires, Elisabeth, 247 
,, Hannah, 2 17 

Abbey, 5-7, 66, 207 
., Abbess of, 8, 12, 201 

Tai lot. Bishop, 90 
,, Helen, 250 

Talkam, 7 \ 
Tajlor, Mr, 205, 214 



Taylor, Mi . 
Ann, 

1 ■ 
>■ I 

Elizabeth, 2, 18, .' . 
Mgr. Fames, 09, 1 59, 
Tanu . 216, :;,-■>. 
., 

I.l. 250 
John, 239 
Margaret, 231, 
Mary, 247 
,, Matilda, 55 

Rii bard, ;i, 205 
Thomas, 2 1 5 
,, Key. Thomas, 69, 74, 77, 24-'' 
,, Winefride, -• 
Telliet, |. B., 
"Tempi,-." the, 
Tenders for Building, 251 
Test Act, '■! 

21S 
Thewlis, Ven. J,,hn, 39, 4" 
Tbistlethwaite, Mary, 22 1 note 
Thistleton, fames, 247 
Thomas, P. (? Butler), 225 
Thompson, Mr., 2 1 5 
,, Anne, 229 

„ Christopher, 230, 

George, 230, ^,^. 243, 247 
,, James, 230 

Jane, 229(2), 231, 232 
Mary, 247 

„ Robert, 247 

William, 229, 263 
Thornton, Dorothy, 213 
,, Gilbert, 212 

„ Joan, 212 

,, Margaret, 213 

„ Mary, 24; (2) 

,, Oliver, 213 

,, Richard, 212 

Thrclfall, Robert, 231, 237, 24; 

Sarah, 237 
tturland, 1 1, 22, 212 
Thumkam, 17, 56, 63, 
101, 104, 132, 143, 159, 191, 201, 
203-' 1 , 209-1 1 
Thwing, Ven. Edward, 35, 3-, 53, 255 
Tindal, Dorothy, 227 

„ Mary, 227 
Tloa, 94 

: on, Anne, 223-5, --'", 230 (2), 
I 



290 



INDEX 



Tomlinson, Eljen, 223, 243 

John, 214. 22Pi 223, 
226, 229, 23Ii 243 
250 
Rev. John, 138, 141 
Mary, 219, 220 (2), 223, 
226, 229, 230, 231 

243 (3) 
,, Richard, 219, 230 

,, Thomas, 219, 229 

„ William, 2-<>, -'.(7 ( ') 

Tomlinson & Heaton, 215 
Tootell, Rev. Hugh, 206 
Torrisholme, 55, 57, 61 
Torture, employment of, ?2 
Tosi, — , 118 
Towers, Elizabeth, 243 
John, 236, 243 
Townley, — , 210 
Mrs., 214 

P-. 215 
Townshend, John, 2lS (2) 
„ N.,218 

,, Robert, 21S 

Townson, Alice, 243 

,, Catherine, 225 

Dorothy, 23S 
,, Elizabeth, 220, 222, 226 
„ Ellen, 220, 243 
,, Jane, 243 
„ Leonard, 212 
,, Margaret, 228, 243 
,, Mary, 225 

Robert, 220, 222, 224, 226 
229-34, 237, 243 
„ William, 225 
Mrs., 243 
Toxleik Park, 1 8 
TraiTord, Abbot, 14 

H., 213 
Trainor, Neile, 247 
Transepts, 128 
Treason, punishment for, 52 
Trinity Guild, 10 
Triptych, 1 15-8 
Troughton, Mrs., 250 
Tunstall, Brian, II, 20 
,, Francis, 22 

Sir Richard. 20 
Turner, Bishop, 107, 127 
.. — , 209 
John, 247 
Lawrence, Il8 
William, 243 



22?, 



225, 
(2), 



Turpin, Rev. Robert, 250 

Tyburn, 14 

Tyrer, Rev. James, S2, 217, 254 

Ulihaw Bridge, 140 

Ulverston, 159, 24S 

Upholland, 39, 142, 161 

Vshaw, 89, 94. "24, 139-43. ' ^3. '55. 

159, l'>l, 162, 195 
Usher's Mecuiow, 10, II 

VAILLANT (Vallianl), Mdlle.. 243 

Peter, 239 
Valentine, Isabel, 250 
„ James, 225 
,, Mary, 219 

I'alladolid, 47, 1 60, 206 
Varey, James, 247 
,, Mary, 247 
,, Robert, 247 
Vaughan, Cardinal, 1 3 2, 142 
,, Rev. Bernard, 101 
Verity, Elizabeth, 225, 226, 228. 230, 233, 
236 
„ Henry, 104, 145, 233, 247, 250, 
256 
John, 225 
„ Margaret, 247 ' 
„ Mary, 218, 220, 221, 228, 236 
„ Thomas, 213, 243, 250 
Mrs., 243 
Vestries, 129 

Vicar of Lancaster's Expenses, 197 
Vicars Apostolic, 65 
Visitation Lists, 262 
Votive Lights, 9, 19, 133. 197 

Wadsworth, James, 247. 250 

„ Mary, 247 

Wainhouse, Edward, 247 

„ Elizabeth, 24}, 247 

Ellen, 222 
„ George, 220, 247 

,, Helen, 247 

John, 220, 222, 225 
,, Mary, 220-2, 225, 232, 

243 
Thomas, 225 
Wakefield, 87 
Waldenses, 50 
Wales, 18 
Walker,—, 251 

„ Christopher, 233 






1 N 1 > I X 






Walker, Dorothy, i 
„ Elisabeth, 

Ellrn, 2U. 

i 

Gregory, 229, 236. 247 
Henry, 232, »J3, 243 
..1 . »37 

John, 128 

Canon |.ilin, [I 17, 1 5 ; 
Margaret, 75, -'- x . J l«-3 
Mary, ,243 

Thomas, 

William, 70, 77, 318, 22,, 
231-3, 2::. »43 
„ Prorosl William, 100, 1 19, 1 

13;, 1 |8, 192, ; ac- 

count of, 1 55-8 
Wall, Richard, 89 
Walling, Martha, 239 
Wallon, J. in. 

Walmaley (Walmealey), — , 101, 251 
Mia, 243 
Agm 
,. Alice, 238 

Barbara, 247, 250 
Elizabeth. 238 
Helen. 247 
J., -i" 
Jeremiah, 96 
John, 215, 243. »47 
,, Kcv. John, 160 
Joseph, 243 
Marian, 2 31 >. 243 
Mary, 73, 205 
„ Mary (Smith), 250 
Mary (Taylor). 
Sarah, 247 
,, Thomas, 2:0 
William, 248 
Walsh, Rev. Richard, 13s, 160, 255 
Walton, Bishop William, '•;, 82, 206 
"Cos.," 68 
Anne, 247 
Warburton, — , 21 
Ward, Elizabeth, 237 

.. Mary. 
Wat, i.ey Hall, 47 
Warcing. Kcv. Thomas r I 
Warner & Sons, 147 
• . 4' 1 
::iousc, Agnes. 247 (j) 
„ Anne, 247 

„ Catherine, 247 



Waterbou e, Eliza 

[ane, 1 1 

May. 

Matthew, -'47 
Th. , (47, 4 V 

William, -43 
■ 

Walt, Elizabeth, 
„ Thomi . 

o, Barbara, -47 

John, -47 
Weaver, Job) 

• e near Garstang, 21 1, 213 
Weld, Thomas, 213, 255 
Weld /'.ml- near Chorlcy, 204 
Weld Blundcll, Thomas 
Wttl Hem*, toi, 14, 125, u", 243-5, 

14 ., JfO, 2y} 

Wells, Ann.. (2), 230, 231, 

243 (-')• -47 
Elizabeth, 219, 247 
Ellen, 234 

Helen, 247 
„ lleni). . 234, 243, 

»S , -55 
.. John, 219, 230, 247 

.. Mary, .'47 

Richard, 228, 247 

Hubert, 210, 24 ; 
Westby, Henry, 2 1 

John, 22, 214 
„ Margaret, 55 

Richard, 55 

Robert, 214, 24 t 
II', .- Derby, i2< , 143, 162 
West Indies, 190 
Westminster, 2\2 
Wexford, V 1 
WhalUy, 1 :. 
Wheble, — ,215 
Whitaker, Ven. Thomas, 47-49. 255 

Whitby, 154 
White, Elizabeth, 60 
,, Ellen, 59 
,, Jane, 247 
,, John, 60 
Whitehead, Catherine, 217 
John, 247 
., Mary. 

William, 247 
White /.iind, 245, 246, 249 
Whiteside, Alice, 224, 240 

Anne, 127, 252, 256 
Barbara, 247 




INDEX 



Whiteside, Catherine, 12", 22C>, 22^,232, 
234, 243, 252 
„ Edward, 234, 243, 250 

,, Elizabeth, 247 (2) 

,, Ellen, 250 

Helen, 247 
Henry, 231, 232, 235, 243, 

25O 
James, 102, 104, 127, 234, 
247, 250, 252, 253 
,, John, 96, 101, 104, 127,22s, 

247, 250, 252, 255 
,, Mrs. John, 145, 252, 256 

Margaret, 226, 253, 254, 257 
Mary, 239, 247 
Richard, 127, 232, 247, 252, 
256 
„ Robert, 142, 247 

„ Sarah, 247 

Thomas. 224, 239, 247, 250 
,, Bishop Thomas, 65, 124,138, 

142, 163, 166, 1S0, 192-4, 

255 
„ William, 127 (2), 224, 226, 

228, 232, 234 (2), 243, 
252(2), 254, 256, 257 
Whiteside Chantry, 126-7, 13&, 152, 252, 

259 
Whiteside and Leeming, 1 42 
Whitford, Richard, 19 
Whittingham, Thomas, 39 
Whittle, John, 221 
„ Phcebe, 250 
„ William, 221 
„ Winefride. 221 
Wickwar, Canon, 166 
Widnes, 161 

Wigan, 40, 141, 143, 161 
Wilcock, George, 247 
Isabel, 247 
,, Rev. Peter, 102 
Wilden, Barbara, 247 
Richard, 247 
Wilding, Ellen, 232, 237, 243 
„ Helen, 237 
Richard, 250 
Wildman, Ellen, 233, 235 
Wilkinson, Alice, 59 

Anne, 223, 226, 230, 236, 247 
„ Barbara. 247 

„ Christopher, 59 

„ Elizabeth. 243 

,, Ellen, 219 

James, 243 



Wilkinson, Jane, 21S, 221, 238 
John, 227, 243, 247 
„ Susanna, 230, 232, 236, 243 

Thomas, 220, 232 
Willan& Co., 251 
William I., 3 
William the Hermit, 13 
Williams, Bishop Thomas, 65, 100 
Williamson, Thomas, 31 
Wi/mslow, 139 

Wilson, Anne, 226, 247 (2), 248, 250 
„ Elizabeth, 247 
„ Ellen, 222, 243 
„ George, 243 
„ Helen, 247 (2), 250 
,, Henry, 224 
„ Hester, 247 
,, James, 247 
„ John, 224, 226, 243 
,, Jonathan, 96, 247 
., Joseph, 227, 247 
„ Lucy, 247 

„ Mary, 224, 226, 243, 247, 248 
„ Robert, 104, 105, 151, 247, 251 
,, Thomas, 247 
Winckley, Rev. William, 78, 79 
Winder, — , 243 
,, Alice, 205 
., J-, 229 

John, 218 
,, Jonathan, 21S 
,, Mary. 21S, 233, 243 
„ Rev. Peter, 73, 205 
,, Thomas, 60 
,, William, 73. 205 
„ Mrs., 24? 
Winder, High, in Roeburndale, 2 1 2 
/ 1 'indleshaw, 82 

Windows, stained glass, 133-45 
Winmarleigh, 20 
Winslanley, Mary, 89 

Thomas, 222 
Win-vie k, 50 
Wisbech, 35, 36. 39 
Witham, Bishop George, 65 
Wolfall, Mrs., 206 
Wot/all Well, 17 
Woodcock, Dorothy, 54 

Yen. Johni 47-49, 255 
Thomas. 54 
Woodhouse, Anne. 248 
Helen. 248 
Woolfall. William, 55 
Wool st on, 140 






INDEX 



*93 



■ tier. 1 r 

>• 47 
Wbnwick i.nn., ioi, 102 
Mi.. 
Mr 

AMexaitd 1 

2.(1 

Mrs. Aleondi 1 

Alice, 193. -' I ;. -56 

I Air a. 

babel. 24 ; 

Kev. I., 102 

Rev. Taini . 229 

Revi John, a 19, 2 \i 

Mary, 22''. 24 | (-■) 

Richard, 85, 214. 216, 21;. 

234, 243. 255 
Robert, 1 1 1, 243 

Mis. Robert, 214. 216, 217, 

243, 25'. 
Thomas, 226 (2). 234, 239 



rick, Thomas, \ Sons, 213, 215 
.;• ■•!!. I 11., 35 

1 isabeth, <o 
riy. 1 1 ; 
Wrcnnall, \Yn. Rfl 

MgT, Wiili.im. K I 

Wright. Catherine, 231 
„ Tain 1 

■ -' 1 4 

Rei 
Wvke, Rer. — , 238 

246 

Yates, Jamc 
Jane. 
.. jolin, 26) 

1 Conytrs, 82, 143, 191. Sec also 
Lejghton 
Yerrerton, Sir llcnry. 4 1 
York. 3. 26. 198 
Yorkshire, 105 



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